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中国油料作物学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (2): 199-.doi: 10.7505/j.issn.1007-9084.2018.02.005

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Comparison and analysis of stem anatomical structure between wild soybean YD63 (Glycine soja) and cultivated soybean ZD19 (G. max)

  

  1. 1. Oil Crops Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062, China; 2. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China; 3. College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
  • Online:2018-04-28 Published:2018-07-05

Abstract:

The anatomical differences of stem between a wild soybean and a soybean cultivar were observed using histochemical methods. The relationships among anatomical structure, function, and environmental adaptability were analyzed to understand soybean evolution and stress resistance. The main results are: 1. Wild soybean had more stalk epidermal hairs and glandular trichomes, thicker cuticle and epidermis, and greater epidermal proportion than the cultivated one. Higher lignification and suberification degrees of wild soybean epidermis and exodermis were observed. 2. Wild soybeans had greater proportion of cortex, phloem, xylem parenchyma and pith. With the greater proportion of parenchyma in stalks, wild soybean showed better stress resistance. Due to the larger and thinner cell-wall of parenchyma cells, the strength of wild soybean stalks decreased and the plasticity increased. 3. Compared with wild soybean, the cultivated soybean stems showed greater mechanical strength owing to its greater proportion of lignified tissues and thicker cell wall of epidermis, phloem fiber, xylem fiber and vessels. It is better at maintaining upright growth and morphology construction. 4. The cultivated soybean had greater number of cell layer and thickness of vascular cambium than those of the wild one. Faster growing rate of xylem in cultivated soybeans and equal rate in wild ones resulted in more xylem in former stalks and almost equal proportion of xylem and phloem in later one. 5. The phloem sclerenchyma of wild soybean almost continuously distributed, interrupted only in the pith ray, while that in cultivated ones showed flaky distribution. And its proportion was much larger than that of cultivated soybeans. 6. With stronger wall strength (t/b)2, greater proportion of small vessels and lower connectivity in xylem, wild soybean stems had higher safety and lower efficiency of water transportation. In summary, this research provided an anatomical basis for its application in further evolution and genetic improvement of resistance.

Key words: wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.), cultivated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), anatomy, evolution, resistance