Colored peanut is a multi colored seed coat characteristics of edible peanut, integrating ornamental, fresh, nutritional, and health benefits. Yunnan Province is one of the representative production areas for edible peanuts in China. In recent years, on the basis of traditional cultivated red skinned small grain peanuts, excellent germplasm of edible peanuts have been developed. These new varieties exhibit colorful seed coats in purple and black, and possess desirable traits as high sugar content, low oil content (e.g. Yunhua 23). These excellent edible raw materials had advantages in quality and sales price, with a typical annual output value of about 75 000 CNY/hm2 and a maximum output value of over 150 000 CNY/hm2. These advantages significantly increased regional peanut output value, which became a driving force for rural revitalization in the production area.
Sucrose content of peanut seeds is an important quality indicator for edible peanuts. In this study, we analyzed the main gene plus multigene genetic model for sucrose content based on peanut recombinant inbred lines from continuous generation populations, and investigated the effects of environmental factors on sucrose content based on the investigation of phenotypic variation of different varieties in various geographical locations. The results revealed that 4 main genes plus additive-epistasis （4MG-AI） was the optimal model in all three generations of the RIL population. The heritabilities of the main genes ranged from 80.8% to 96.1%, indicating a high degree of heritability for peanut sucrose content. Among the four main genes, the 1st and the 2nd main gene explained the phenotypes 30%-52.2% and 25.1%-29.6%, respectively, while the third and fourth pairs of main effect genes explained the phenotypes at smaller rates. Based on the stability analysis of sucrose content of nine peanut materials, including Zhonghua 16, in five different environments, it was found that the coefficients of variation ranged from 17.39% to 39.08%, and that the stability of different materials varied. The environmental stability of sucrose content was varied across different varieties. This study showed that peanut sucrose content is a quantitative trait with high heritability, but it is also affected by environmental factors. The germplasms or varieties with high sucrose content and environmental stability were suggested to be further screened for genetic breeding and functional gene discovery in future breeding.
Tianfu peanut series represents a prominent category in China and recognized as the primary cultivar within the peanut-producing region of Sichuan Basin. To comprehend the phylogeny of Tianfu peanut varieties and the evolution of key agronomic and economic traits, we conducted an analysis on the pedigree relationship and evolutionary trends of 37 main Tianfu peanut varieties, focusing on 14 essential agronomic and economic characteristics. Our findings revealed that these 37 varieties originated from 55 nuclear ancestor parents and 15 cytoplasmic ancestor parents, predominatly including Luojiangjiwo, Fuhuasheng, and Xiongyue 1. Among the 52 related direct parents predominately comprising bred varieties and intermediate materials, 34 were derived from Sichuan Basin, accounting for approximately 65.38% of all parentage combinations. Notably, variety improvement predominantly occurred through crossbreeding techniques, with "bred variety × intermediate materials" combinations representing the highest proportion at 40.63%. While there were no significant quality attributes, pod yield significantly increased due to breeding efforts; additionally, a few oleic acid and high oil varieties were successfully developed. Moving forward, our focus lies in transforming general common oleic acid varieties into specialized high oleic acid variants suitable for edible oil production or processing while preserving the traditional characteristics associated with medium-small seed size typical to Tianfu peanuts – thus meeting diverse demands for superior-quality Tianfu peanut cultivars in this new era.
Peanut is a high-yield economic crop with rich nutrition for both food and oil. It contains abundant nutrients as protein, sucrose, fructose and glucose. However, the evaluation of its taste characteristics still needs data support. The taste index data of 33 fresh edible peanut materals (including 9 cultirars and 24 advanced lines from Jihua 02-1-4 and Zhonghua 26 cross) were collected by Tastes Sensing System (TS-5000Z). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to evaluate and identify 5 basic tastes (sourness, sweetness, bitterness, saltiness and umami) and astringency. Through the testing of peanut samples, it was found that bitterness, astringency, umami, saltiness and sweetness were effective taste indicators of peanut samples. Through PCA analysis of effective taste indexes, saltiness, umami and sweetness contributed more to the first principal component, and saltiness, umami and bitterness contributed more to the second principal component. Nine varieties, including Fuhua 1, were significantly different from TC strains. When TC1-24 was separated by PCA clustering, umami, bitterness and sweetness contributed more to the first principal component, saltiness contributed the most to the second principal component, followed by bitterness. The PCA clustering analysis of 9 peanut varieties showed that saltiness contributed the most to the first principal component, followed by astringency; and sweetness contributed the most to the second principal component, followed by astringency aftertaste and bitterness. About bitterness, TC20-24 had the highest value of bitterness between 6.5 to 7.0, and the bitterness of other varieties was below 6.5. About astringency, TC5 and TC6 had low astringency and aftertaste-A, cultivar HTH and HZZ had the highest aftertaste-A, and these of other varieties were between 3.0 to 4.5. About sweetness, SLH had the highest value, while HZZ had the lowest. There were 16 varieties with sweetness value above 21, and most samples of TC strain had higher sweetness value. About umami and saltiness, 9 varieties and TC17, TC18 and TC19 had low values, TC20 to TC24 had relatively low values, and other TC strains had higher values. The umami and saltiness of JH403, JH43, JTH1 and JTH2 were close, and their umami and saltiness were the lowest. Through electronic tongue technology, it could concluded that taste indexes of fresh edible peanut are mainly umami, sweetness, saltiness, bitterness and astringency (aftertaste). And it might be viable to quickly and truly evaluate the taste of fresh edible peanut without statistical analysis and modeling, for breeding new peanut varieties with high sugar and high protein.
In order to improve the breeding efficiency of edible peanut quality breeding and optimize the evaluation system, 21 traits （including appearance, nutritional, sensory quality） and 17 amino acid components of 10 edible peanut varieties were measured and analyzed. Results showed that the variation coefficient of appearance quality was in order of kernel length > 100-kernel weight > kernel width, the variation coefficient of nutritional quality was in order of sucrose content > oleic acid content > tocopherol > protein content > oil content. Amino acid analysis showed that amino acids composition in peanut kernel was complete, and the firstly restrict amino acid was Met + Cys, which had great improvement potential. Path analysis and decision analysis showed that the effect on protein content was in order of Asp> Gly> His> Pro> Tyr> Phe. There were significant correlations between sensory quality traits. Boiling sensory was significantly correlated with protein content. Roasting sensory was significantly correlated with sucrose and oleic acid content. According to principal component analysis, 6 principal components （cumulative contribution rate of 91.69%） were extracted. 9 quality traits were screened as key evaluation indexes, and 3 excellent comprehensive quality varieties were selected to provide reference for breeding of edible peanut quality.
In order to analyze the optimum sowing date, density and harvesting date of a Japanese fresh green peanut cultivar Omasari in Shandong province，the effects of sowing date, density, and harvesting time on the main agronomic traits, yield and sensory quality of the variety were studied. When the sowing date was from April 25th to May 25th，2022，the main stem height, lateral branch length, branch number, number of fruiting per plant, and peanut yield showed obvious advantages. The differences were not significant among treatments AW22-1, AW22-2 and AW22-3, with the highest yield being sown on May 10th, 2022. The lateral branch length, number of branches, and number of fruiting per plant of Omasari which planted different times in the West Coast New Area and Laixi City showed no significant differences. The highest yield being sown on May 8th, 2023. The lateral branch length, number of branches, and number of fruiting per plant of Omasari were increased with the decrease of sowing density. The yield of the treatment of 74 074 plants/hm2 was significantly higher than other treatments in 2022, and the yield of the treatment of 88 889 plants/hm2 was highest in 2023. The optimal harvesting time for Omasari is 110-120 days after sowing according to the sweetness, delicacy, hardness, and overall liking test results of Omasari at different harvesting periods.
Global warming has adverse effects on crop growth, development and yield production. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to evaluate the seed heat tolerance of different crops and to mine the related genes for improving the tolerance of crops to high temperature stress. In order to study the differences of seed heat tolerance in different crops, the seeds of 18 different crop varieties or parental lines were used as materials, and the germination potential and germination percentage were investigated after 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h and 12 h of heat treatment under about 100℃. The results showed that there were significant differences in seed heat tolerance in different crops. The general trend was that the germination potential and germination percentage decreased continuously with the extension of treatment time. The seeds of sesame and partial rapeseed varieties had the strongest heat tolerance, and the germination potential and germination percentages after 12 hours heat treatment were still over 50%. The heat tolerance of wheat, rice, barley and safflower is moderate, and the heat tolerance of peanut seeds is the weakest, the germination potential and germination percentages after 2 h treatment were less than 10%. In order to explore heat tolerance-related genes of rapeseed, 114 Brassica napus lines were used as materials and treated at 100℃ for 8 h. And 60 K Illumina SNP array were used to conduct genome-wide association analysis of germination potential and germination percentage in two environments. As a result, 11 SNPs associated with germination potential and 2 SNPs associated with germination percentage were detected. A total of 16 heat tolerance-related genes were screened within the candidate interval, and some homologous genes of the genes have been reported to play an important role in heat tolerance response of other plants.
To improve the soybean breeding of Sichuan Province, data were analyzed on the changing of yield, quality, disease resistance and related agronomic traits of 28 spring and 25 summer soybean cultivars released in 2011-2022. Results showed that the average yield of spring and summer cultivars were 2583.75 kg·hm-2 and 1784.70 kg·hm-2 respectively, the average days from VE-R8 were 113.2 d and 129.9 d respectively, and the average protein contents were 44.59% and 46.61% respectively. Their effective branches per plant, effective pods per plant, and grains per plant decreased linearly with the years. But their 100-seed weight increased linearly with the years, and showed extremely positive correlations with the year. The days from VE to R8 decreased linearly with the years, and showed negative correlations with the year. Correlation coefficient between 100-seed weight and yield was the highest among the agronomic traits, indicating that the increase of 100-seed weight might be an important factor for yield. 13 spring cultivars had higher protein contents, and 18 summer cultivars had higher protein contents （both ≥45%）. Variation ranges of quality traits of spring and summer cultivars were small, showing quadratic function and linear function with the years respectively. Protein content had extremely significant negative correlation with fat content. The total content had extremely significant positive correlations with protein content, while had no significant correlation with fat content. The yield had extremely significant negative correlations with the duration of VE-R8, and plant height had extremely significant positive correlations with the number of main stem nodes. For soybean mosaic virus resistance, among the 11 and 14 spring and summer cultivars released in 2017-2022, 2 （18.18%） and 3 （21.43%） were moderate resistant to soybean mosaic virus （strains SC3 and SC7）. Thus the breeding emphasis should be focused on increasing yield, virus resistance and seed quality for spring soybean; while increasing yield, good quality, moderate maturity and high protein with virus resistance for summer soybean.
Very-long-chain fatty acids （VLCFAs） have high application value in the fields of industry, medicine and food. Previous research has proved that total content of VLCFAs in the Arachis species is significantly higher than that in cultivated peanuts. In this study, contents of VLCFAs were determined in RIL population derived from the cross between Zhonghua 5 and ICGV86699 with wild species consanguinity. Board phenotypic variations of total very-long-chain fatty acid content ranging from 4.99% to 10.33% was observed among the RILs. Five lines with high total very-long-chain fatty acid content were identified, of them, the highest content of ZJ011 is 9.82%. Based on the previously constructed genetic map, 20 QTLs with 3.72%-15.66% phenotypic variation explained （PVE） were repeatedly detected, and were mainly located on chromosomes A04, B04 and B06. The results lay a molecular and material foundation for the improvement of oil quality.
To elucidate the function of Δ12 fatty acid dehydrogenase gene in sunflower, open reading frame (ORF) sequence of Δ12 fatty acid dehydrogenase gene HaFAD2-1 in sunflower was cloned by RT-PCR, according to the results of transcriptome sequencing in previous research. Results showed that the ORF was 1137 bp, encoding 378 amino acids. Bioinformatics prediction showed that HaFAD2-1 was an alkaline and hydrophilic protein with a secondary structure of α-helix. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HaFAD2-1 gene was most closely related to FAD2 in Dimorphotheca sinuata DC. qRT-PCR analysis showed that HaFAD2-1 gene was particularly highly expressed in seeds. Its expression level in low oleic acid seeds was significantly higher than that in high oleic acid seeds. Correlation analysis showed that
In order to explore the role of miRNA （microRNA） in seed oil synthesis of sunflower, miRNA sequencing in 3 development stages （7 d, 22 d, 37 d after flowering） of high oleic acid sunflower seeds were mined. Results showed that 22 differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in oil metabolism pathway based on comparisons of L7d vs L22d, L7d vs L37d and L22d vs L37d. Clustering heat map showed that most miRNAs in the 22d vs 37d comparison group were down-regulated, indicating that the expression of most miRNAs related to oil metabolism decreased at 37 d after flowering compared with 22 d after flowering. The 22 differentially expressed miRNAs annotated with target gene into fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis pathway were analyzed for the correlation between expression level and fatty acid components at different stages of seed development. Results also showed that caproic acid and miR172a3, tridecylic acid and miR171b2 were both extremely significantly negatively correlated, and oil content was significantly positively correlated with miR167d5p, indicating that these miRNAs might be involved in oil synthesis. Through co-expression analysis, it was found that 6 miRNAs related to oil metabolism （miR166u, miR171b_2, miR397a_3, miR157d, miR167a-5p, miR169v_1） were negatively correlated with their target genes, indicating that the differential expression of these genes might be the result of miRNA regulation.
For high yield breeding, genetic correlation and path coefficient between 9 main agronomic characteristics and yield of Xinjiang
To improve yield, effects of nano-potassium molybdate was investigated on photosynthetic characteristics and nitrogen metabolism of rapeseed. Different concentrations (0-1100 mg·L-1) of nano-potassium molybdate were sprayed on rapeseed seedling under hydroponic conditions. Changes of gas exchange parameters, key enzyme activities of carbon and N assimilation and N contents of leaves were measured. Results showed that spray of nano-potassium molybdate increased photosynthetic pigment and net photosynthetic rate of leaves, while decreased gas exchange parameters (including transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration). The activities of Rubisco and PEPC enzyme increased gradually with the nano-molybdate concentration, in which Rubisco enzyme activity was significantly enhanced at 550 mg·L-1 and 1100 mg·L-1 compared to control, and PEPC enzyme activities increased significantly at 1100 mg·L-1. The activities of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase and glutamate synthase were significantly increased at 550 mg·L-1 compared with control. No significant change was observed at higher concentrations. Nitrate-N contents were significantly reduced after the spray of nano-potassium molybdate, while ammonia-N contents and N concentrations were not significantly changed compared with control. In addition, protein content increased significantly at 550 mg·L-1. In summary, 550 mg·L-1 nano-potassium molybdate spray enhanced carbon assimilation efficiency of rapeseed, while N assimilation efficiency was also significantly increased. The promotion of photosynthesis in rapeseed by nano-potassium molybdate was mainly related to non-stomatal factors: increased photosynthetic pigment contents and enhanced activities of key enzymes for photosynthesis. It could promote the conversion of inorganic to organic N in rape leaves by enhancing the activities of key enzymes of N metabolism.
To explore peanut nitrogen metabolism under drought stress, 4 cultivars with different tolerances were used. Among them, drought-tolerant cv NH9 and HY22 and drought-sensitive cv NH16 and NH21 were planted in pots, and their nitrogen accumulation, nitrogen-containing compounds and key enzymes activities in nitrogen metabolism were determined at anthesis stage. Results showed that nitrogen accumulation in all organs of the 4 cultivars decreased under drought. But the reduction degrees of NH9 and HY22 were lower than those of NH16 and NH21. Contents of nitrate nitrogen, proline and soluble protein in NH9 and HY22 increased by 4.60%-53.77%, while nitrogen compounds in NH16 and NH21 decreased significantly with the prolongation of drought. The activities of nitrate reductase, glutamine reductase, glutamate synthetase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly increased in NH9 and HY22, but significantly decreased by 2.99%-46.85% in NH16 and NH21. After rehydration, the nitrogen content, nitrogen-containing compound content and key enzyme activities showed stronger recovery ability in NH9 and HY22, but were still significantly different from normal water supply in NH16 and NH21. In conclusion, drought-tolerant peanut could effectively alleviate drought damage by enhancing the activities of key enzymes in nitrogen metabolism, promoting nitrogen assimilation, and increasing the accumulation of nitrogen compounds such as proline and soluble protein.
Soil waterlogging and calcium deficiency are two major abiotic stresses in peanut production in South China. Ridge culture and calcium application have become important to peanut farming. To understand the interaction between peanut and calcium, and also to investigate the suitable ridging model, a three-factor field split plot test was design, including calcium fertilizer, farming model and varieties. Calcium fertilizer was mainly used in plot, with 0 kg/hm2 （Ca0） and 750 kg/hm2 （Ca1） respectively. The cultivation mode was split area, which included ridge （H） culture and flat （F） culture. Varieties were divided into two zones, Xianghua 2008 （calcium susceptive） and Xianghua 55 （low-calcium tolerant）. Effects of different treatments on photosynthetic performance and pod yield at growth stage were investigated by measuring photosynthetic parameters, fluorescence parameters, yield and its factors. Results showed that, after calcium application, photosynthetic characteristics under ridge culture was higher than those under flat culture. The levels of net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, initial fluorescence, maximum fluorescence, maximum photochemical efficiency, potential photochemical activity and variable fluorescence had higher correlation with sensibility of the variety to calcium. The photosynthetic and fluorescence parameters of susceptive varieties treated with calcium were significantly higher than those without calcium, while those of the tolerant variety had no significance. The highest pod yield was observed under Ca1H for both susceptive and tolerant varieties, which was 57.45% and 11.40% higher than that of Ca0F. The main reason was that the application of calcium and ridging could greatly improve the photosynthetic characteristics and fluorescence performance of peanut especially for susceptive variety, thus strengthened the individual, and optimized the population structure. The synergistic improvement was obtained on structural factors of peanut yield, eg. pod number per plant, 100-kernel weight, and 100-pod weight. Therefore, under rainy environment with deficient calcium in South China, combination of calcium application and ridging was suitable for high yield and efficiency peanut cultivation, especially for low-calcium susceptive variety.
To better understand the mechanism of continuous cropping on peanut growth, simulative soil with vanillic acid was used in pot experiment. The vanillic acid concentration was set to 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 μmol·g-1 dry soil, and peanut variety Yueyou 7 was used as material. Traits were investigated after the exogenous application of vanillic acid, including malondialdehyde (MDA) content, peanut root antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT, POD, SOD), basic agronomic traits of peanut, nutrient content of rhizosphere soil and soil enzyme activity at different growth stages. It was found that vanillic acid inhibited the main root length, main stem length, branch number and yield of peanut. All concentrations of vanillic acid had a chemistorizing effect on MDA content, CAT and SOD enzyme activities, and had allelopathic inhibitory effects on the length of the main root, main stem, number of branches and yield of peanuts, which affected peanut absorption of soil nutrients, resulting in higher enzyme activities than control.
For high yield peanut in Northeast Agro-pastoral Ecotone, topdressing ratios of NPK fertilizer （pure N 68.18 kg/hm2, P 22.08 kg/hm2, and K 174.33 kg/hm2） were used in 6 treatments for investigation of NPK effects. The field experiment was conducted under mulch drip irrigation. Nutrient and enzymatic activities of sandy soil and peanut yield were detected to clarify the optimal basal/topdressing ratio. Results showed that the content of soil organic matter and available N, the activity of urease and sucrase were both increased with the topdressing ratio, while the thicker the soil layer, the lower its content and activity were. The peanut yield was increased firstly and then decreased with the topdressing ratio, which was higher than the traditional fertilization method. The two-year peanut increasing yield range was 3.77%-41.27%. Yields reached the highest at T60, as 6427.7 kg/hm2 and 6046.8 kg/hm2 respectively. When all of the NK fertilizers were used as topdressing, the yield was not increased obviously, which was average 4.53% higher in two years. In summary, it had the best effect with 40% of the total fertilization amount used as the base fertilizer, and 60% used as topdressing under water and fertilizer integration measures in the area.
The aim of this study was to study the effects of drought and nitrogen fertilizer application at different growth stages on peanut yield, nitrogen accumulation and nodulation. The peanut variety Huayu 25 were planted with pot experiment. Three water conditions were set as well-watered （WW, 75-80% field capacity）, drought stress at seedling stage （SD, 45-50% field capacity） and drought stress at flowering-pegging stage （FD, 45-50% field capacity）. The nitrogen had three levels: 0 kg·hm-2 （N0）, 90 kg·hm-2 （N1） and 180 kg·hm-2 （N2）. The results showed that the yield of N1 was the highest under different water conditions. The peanut yield and nitrogen accumulation of the whole plant were reduced under drought stress at seedling stage and flowering-pegging stage. Compared to well-watered condition, the peanut yield reduced by 7.73-18.82% under drought stress at seedling stage, and the reduction range were 20.03-26.74% under drought stress at flowering-pegging stage. Compared to well-watered condition, the nitrogen accumulation of the seed and the whole plant were increased under the drought stress at the seedling stage of N2 level. The nitrogen accumulation of the whole plant of peanut was decreased by 4.29-25.23% under the drought stress at the flowering needle stage under different nitrogen fertilizer levels. Under different water conditions, the number of nodules per plant, the fresh mass and dry mass of nodules were reduced by application of nitrogen fertilizer. The results showed that the peanut yield were increased by proper application of nitrogen fertilizer under drought stress, while the number and mass of nodules per plant were decreased.
This study was conducted in order to investigate the distribution characteristics of mineral elements in different sesame tissues. The content of Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn in different tissues was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results showed a significant variation of mineral elements content in the different sesame tissues. The highest average Ca content was in leaves (2151.61 mg/100g), followed by 20 d seeds (984.18 mg/100g). Mg was predominant in leaves and 20 d seeds with an average content of 390.23 mg/100g and 300.01 mg/100g, respectively. The content of Fe in leaves was the highest, with an average of 19.98mg/100g. The Cu and Zn contents were the lowest in different tissues, both less than 5.00 mg/100g, and the highest Cu content in leaves. In mature seeds, Ca and Mg contents were the highest, with an average of 1133.64 mg/100g and 382.85 mg/100g, respectively. Regarding seed coat color, brown sesame seeds exhibited the highest Ca, Mg, and Cu contents with average values of 1342.68 mg/100g, 445.95 mg/100g and 2.38 mg/100g, respectively. Black and light brown sesame seeds exhibited the highest content of Fe (11.77 mg/100g) and Zn (7.70 mg/100g), respectively. We observed a significant positive correlation (P < 0.01) between the contents of Ca and Mg in both the different tissues and colored seeds. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between Cu, Ca, and Mg contents in the different tissues and between Zn and Fe contents in mature seeds. Our findings may provide theoretical and technical guidance for sesame comprehensive utilization.
To explore phosphorus (P) rate effect on protein and metal content of flaxseed, and to provide a basis for establishment high efficient P fertilizer management, field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 with 2 factors randomized block by 5 P levels (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 kg P2O5·hm-2) for 3 cultivars (Longyaza 1, Longya 14 and Zhangya 2). Seed protein, potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium contents of flaxseed were investigated. Results showed that flaxseed yield, seed potassium, calcium and magnesium contents improved in different degrees with P application rate. Compared with no P, average seed yield, seed potassium, calcium and magnesium contents increased 17.6%, 11.6%, 17.6% and 12.5% respectively. Phosphorus did not affect seed sodium and protein contents. Considering yield, seed potassium, calcium and magnesium contents between years, P rate of 80 kg P2O5·hm-2 was the most appropriate, which synergistically increased yield, flaxseed calcium and magnesium contents, and also reduced environmental risks by excess P fertilizer.
Climatic conditions are one of the most important factors affecting Camellia oleifera yield. A Camellia productive climate index system was established. Based on yield data of ordinary Camellia in Hunan Province, also with the daily meteorological observation data from the nearby meteorological stations （2006-2016）, 33 climatic indicators involving 7 phenological periods were filtered from 1128 seared climatic indicators by correlation analysis, principal component analysis, yield trend analysis, numerical simulation, kernel density estimation and frequency integration of importance levels of climatic indicators. Results showed that the most important factors were climatic conditions at flowering, followed by those at the first fruit expansion, at the peak of oil conversion and accumulation, at the fruit ripening, at the spring budding, at the peak fruit expansion, and at the flower bud ripening. The spatial hierarchical structure and spatial correlation analysis among 33 key climate indicators were carried out. The indicators included duration with daily minimum temperature ≤ 0℃ at flowering, duration with precipitation at the first fruit expansion period, daily difference of average temperature at the key period of peak fruit expansion, and duration with high temperature at the peak of oil conversion and accumulation. They were selected to be representative and independent, and coupled with yield to establish the climatic zoning index of Camellia abundance. Based on the 500 m × 500 m meteorological grid data of Hunan Province from 1991-2020, the grid point zoning index was counted to obtain the climatic zoning of Camellia. Results showed that the climatic conditions of 90% Hunan were in favour of Camellia production. The most suitable climatic zones were mainly located in the hilly areas below 800 m in elevation, which was consistent with the spatial distribution of average yield in counties with Camellia area above 666.7 hm2 in Hunan Province from 2017 to 2020. It was found that the main climatic conditions affecting yield in Hunan were not annual scale climatic conditions, but those at key phenological periods, from spring （budding） period of the last year. Each phenological period had its own specific conditions.
Currently, sharp contradiction exists between edible oil supply and demand in China. Developing edible oil production largely depends on the development of rapeseed production. For less land competition between cereal crops and rapeseed, the Yangtze River Basin is the main rapeseed producing area in China. But, problems (such as a large amount of labor, high labor cost and low efficiency) seriously restrict the development of rapeseed industry. The whole-process mechanization (including sowing, management, and harvesting) is the key to boosting rapeseed production. Thus we reviewed the research on rapeseed biological characteristics, planting habits, and rotation systems, to focus on high yield loss rate during harvesting. We expected to improve mechanized harvesting of rapeseed in China. The research processes on breeding ideotype rapeseed suitable for mechanized harvesting as resistance to lodging, pod cracking, and sclerotinia disease were also discussed. The aim was to provide an insight on breeding and cultivation management of rapeseed suitable for high efficient mechanized harvesting.
Biotic stresses （as pests, diseases, ect.） and abiotic stresses （as temperature stress and water stress ect.） are key factors affecting plant development and yield. Lipids participate in various pathways of plant response to stress, forming a unique feedback response mechanism, including unsaturated fatty acids in disease and insect resistance in biological stress. In addition, fatty acid derivatives in abiotic stress could also increase intracellular osmotic regulation, reduce the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation and improve plant stress resistance. This paper summarizes the research progress on regulation mechanism of plant lipids under biological and abiotic stresses, briefly introduces stress types, and focuses on the changes and regulation of plant lipids under various stresses. It is expected to better understand on physiological activities of plants under different stresses, and to provide a basic theoretical reference for further research on lipids regulation on plant stress resistance.
Phthalate acid esters are widely used in industry. They have very strong reproductive developmental toxicity and belonging to a typical type of environmental hormones. When they enter food chain through any ways, threatening human health seriously. In this review, the contamination pathways, hazards and limits of phthalate acid esters in food are briefly described, and the existing detection technologies are summarized. We expected to provide reference for prevention and detection of phthalate acid esters in food.
Soybean [Glycine max（L.）Merr.] is one of the most economically valuable food crops and oil crops in the world, but various soil-borne diseases cause serious loss of yield and quality. At present, chemical agents brings problems on soil and water pollution, food safety risks, and also leads to fungicides resistance. It is urgent to find economical and effective green control methods. The use of biocontrol bacteria to control soybean diseases has outstanding advantages in terms of safety, effectiveness, and sustainability. Researchers focused on biological pesticides and biocontrol fungi in recent years. In this paper, 4 soil-borne diseases (soybean root rot, sclerotinia, charcoal rot and cyst nematode) which were extremely difficult to control in soybean production are summarized, and the biocontrol potential and biocontrol of corresponding biocontrol bacteria are reviewed. The mechanism and application status and research directions in the application are prospected, which could provide a reference for the comprehensive prevention and control of soybean soil-borne diseases, in order to promote the sustainable development of the soybean industry.