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  • 2023 Volume 45 Issue 6
    Published: 28 December 2023
      

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  • Ka ZHANG, Hao-jie LI, Jin-fang ZHANG, Cheng CUI, Liang CHAI, Ben-chuan ZHENG, Jun JIANG, Cheng DAI, Jin-xing TU, Liang-cai JIANG
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    Brassica napus (oilseed rape) is the primary source of vegetable edible oil in China, playing an important role in ensuring and stabitity the safety of national edible oil supply. The growth and development of oilseed rape are frequently attacked by various pathogens, among which Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is generally considered one of the most economically damaging, widely studied and highly concerned diseases. This article refers to relevant research results, elaborates on the pathological cycle and pathogenic mechanism of S. sclerotiorum, summarizes the progress of resistant germplasms, defense-ralated genes and mechanisms in oilseed rape. Additionary, this review introduces the newly reporeted pathogenicity factors such as SsCP1; it contains breakthroughs in the creation of resistant germplasm inherited from Brassica species; multiple studies that found the co-localization of genetic loci controlling flowering time and resistance to S. sclerotiorum in oilseed rape; and the research reveals the molecular mechanism mediated by the WRKY28-WRKY33 module finely regulates defense strength of oilseed rape after being infected with S. sclerotiorum. This review also looks forward to future research on oilseed rape resistance against S. Sclerotiorum, with a focus on exploring resistant germplasm. It aims to provide a reference for the comprehensive control of S. sclerotiorum in China.

  • Xiao-qin HUANG, Lei ZHANG, Xiao-xiang YANG, Zhong-mei ZHANG, Yao-ying YU, Yue DENG, Yong LIU
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    To elucidate the progression of the resistance breeding and utilization of Brassica napus against Sclerotinia stem rot and clubroot, disease resistance of new varieties/breeding materials and main varieties in Southwest China (Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Chongqing) was evaluated by artificial inoculation and natural disease nursery induction for 7 consecutive years. The results showed that 5 new varieties (OM109, Huayuaza 706R, Nanyou 1958R, Chuannong you 2251 and Chuannong you 2252) with high resistance to clubroot were obtained, 3 new varieties and 16 breeding materials with high resistance to clubroot were obtained in 2023, and the breeding progress against clubroot was the most significant. However, there was no significant breakthrough in the breeding of new varieties resistant to Sclerotinia stem rot. The resistance types were mainly low antimicrobial sclerotinia, reaching 43.69%. The resistance of medium and high Sclerotinia stem rot resistant varieties was unstable, and no high varieties were identified during two consecutive years. The main varieties of Sclerotinia stem rot and clubroot tracking and monitoring found that the disease-resistant varieties were used less, and there were no varieties that were simultaneously resistant to Sclerotinia stem rot and clubroot. The results of this study directly analyzed the effectiveness of B. napus resistance breeding, and were expected to provide theoretical reference for B. napus resistance breeding and its utilization.

  • Bao-qin YAN, Yan-gui CHEN, Xian-cheng SHI, Na LI, Yi-juan DING, Wei QIAN
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    Sclerotinia is a significant disease that harms the production of cruciferous crops. S. sclerotiorum can induce host to produce excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in host cell death, and Trx plays an important role in host antioxidant process. Screening and identifying the relationship between Trx and Sclerotinia resistance will provide genetic resources for plant resistance breeding. In this study, a key gene AtTrx5 was selected from A. thaliana through bioinformatics and transcriptome data analysis. AtTrx5 has the closest relationship with Brassica napusBnaA08g04320D with 85% amino acid homology. Trx5 showed up-regulated expression in the homologous gene in rape. The lesion area of the AtTrx5 overexpression lines was reduced by 30%-39%compared with the WT, while the lesion area of T-DNA mutant was increased by about 39.2% at 24 hpi with S. sclerotiorum. The expression level of AtTrx5 in the overexpression lines was higher than wide type, while AtTrx5 was lower in the T-DNA mutant during the infection. DAB staining, H2O2 content, ·O2- content indicated that the accumulation of ROS in T-DNA mutants was significantly higher than that of wide type; while the accumulation of ROS was significantly less in overexpression lines.

  • Qi PENG, Xiao-ying ZHOU, Jian-qin GAO, Wei ZHANG, Cheng-ming SUN, Mao-long HU, Hui-ming PU, Yue GUO, San-xiong FU, Xiao-dong WANG, Jie-fu ZHANG
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    During the interaction between Brassica napus and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the expression of JA (jasmonic acid) synthesis-related genes increases, while JA signal transduction is inhibited. It is speculated that the effector proteins secreted by S. sclerotiorum may directly or indirectly interact with JAR1 protein, reducing its activity and thus inhibiting the defense system of B. napus dependent on JA pathway. The full-length sequence of the differentially expressed gene BnJar1 was obtained by transcriptome sequencing in the early stage of this research. In order to further reveal the mechanism of BnJar1 gene involved in the interaction between B. napus and S. sclerotiorum, this study analyzed and predicted the bioinformatics of BnJAR1 protein, constructed a yeast expression gene cDNA library of B. napus-S. sclerotiorum interaction, and used BnJar1 as bait protein to screen the library by yeast two-hybrid. Through the study, 5 interacting proteins from B. napus were obtained: BnAOC2, BnCOP9, BnDcoH, BnNIT2, and BnTSJT1; and 2 interacting proteins from S. sclerotiorum: SsMFS and SsRho3. The relevant results contributed to our research on the interaction between B. napus and S. sclerotiorum, exploration of pathogenic or resistance-related genes, and on further elucidation of their mechanisms.

  • Yu-tian HAN, Xiao-ying HE, Jing REN, Jian-kun ZHANG, Yan-qing LUO, Wei CHEN, Yun-song DONG, Qing-gang LI, Zhi-mei TIAN, Xiao-mao CHENG, Feng ZU
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    Sclerotinia stem rot is a broad-spectrum threat to rapeseed production, and Brassica juncea contains abundant genetic resources for resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Therefore, it is of great significance to carry out screening, localization, and exploration of resistance loci for sclerotinia stem rot in Brassica juncea germplasm resources for the breeding of Sclerotinia-resistant rapeseed. In this study, the S.sclerotiorum resistance of Brassica juncea germplasm resources collected from various regions in Yunnan Province was evaluated under three different growth environments, and a whole-genome association analysis of S.sclerotiorum resistance loci was conducted based on the resequencing data of 91 Brassica juncea germplasm materials. According to the results of leaf identification under in vitro conditions in the three growth environments, one highly resistant germplasm material J7667 and one relatively resistant germplasm material J047 were selected. The resequencing data of the 91 materials were aligned to the reference genome of Brassica juncea for variation detection analysis, resulting in the detection of 11 337 871 SNPs and 40 170 Indels distributed on the 18 chromosomes of Brassica juncea. After data filtering, 403 211 high-quality SNPs were obtained. The phenotypic data of in vitro leaves, in vitro stems, and stem resistance to S.sclerotiorum of the 91 materials under the three growth environments were subjected to whole-genome association analysis using two analysis software, Emmax and Tassel. In the in vitro leaves, both analysis methods identified a total of 62 significantly associated SNP loci with resistance in the three different growth environments, including 23 and 39 significantly associated SNP loci in the Luoping winter sowing and Xiaoshao winter sowing environments, respectively, while no resistance loci were detected in the Xiaoshao summer sowing environment. In the stem of Luoping winter sowing, both methods detected 3 significantly associated SNP loci with resistance, while no significant SNP was detected in the stem of Xiaoshao summer sowing. In the Tassel method, closely located resistance SNP loci were detected on chromosomes A2, A8, and B2 in Luoping winter sowing and Xiaoshao winter sowing, while in the Emmax method, closely located resistance SNP loci were detected on chromosomes B5 and B8 in Luoping winter sowing and Xiaoshao winter sowing. In addition, this study mapped the previously identified S. sclerotiorum resistance QTL loci and the resistance loci identified in this study to the reference genome of Brassica juncea. It was found that the resistance QTL intervals identified in this study (XLRA2-2, XLRA1-4) overlapped with the reported resistance QTL loci Sll2 and qsr10-1, respectively.

  • Wen-lin YU, Xiao-qin HE, Wei CHEN, Jia-jie LUO, Ya-jun LIU, Ying-nan LIU, Ya-ru SHI, Lu YANG, Yuan-yuan XIANG, Ting-zhi YANG, Gen-ze LI, Peng CHEN, Chun-yu ZHANG
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    Clubroot disease has spread explosively in recent years, posing a serious threat to cruciferous crop production. Take rapeseed for example, according to the statistics, until year 2022 the incidence of the clubroot has exceeded 1.33 million hectares in China. Breeding for resistant cultivars is considered as the most efficient and economical way to prevent clubroot disease spreading. However, the current CR cultivars mostly used CR loci of PbBa8.1 or CRb. Due to the complexity and diversity of Plasmodiophora brassicae from different locations, resources for resistant germplasm need to be explored. In this study, 14 clubroot-resistant Chinese cabbages were characterized using different clubroot pathogens and molecular markers for known CR loci. We found that among them, five materials, DG117, ZS105, SG01, SR06 and JQ07 did not contain CRb locus, and their disease resistance were stronger than Huashuang5R/Huayouza5R. At last, KL02 containing the CRb locus showed stronger resistance to PbXM (strain from Xinmin) than 409R, therefore it may contain other novel loci leading to better resistance. These six Chinese cabbage resources can be considerd as new resistance resources and could be utilized in future breeding work for CR Brassica napus.

  • Bing-bing DAI, Xi SONG, Qing-qing YU, Yu-heng YANG, Meng-lin ZHOU, Chang-bin ZHAO, Wu-ming DENG
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    Currently, clubroot disease has become one of the main diseases of rapeseed in the Yangtze River basin, which seriously affects the development of rapeseed industry. To use molecular marker assisted selection technology to rapidly transfer parents with resistance to root nodules and high compatibility, 18NS (carrying with PbBa8.1 and CRb locus) was used as the donor parent for transferring resistant genes into the pol CMS restorer line 37R. Combined with molecular marker-assisted selection, comprehensive selection of field phenotypic traits, quality analysis, combining ability determination, and resistance identification, a new parent 37RR with double resistance of brassica rapeseed to clubroot disease was developed. Through molecular marker-assisted selection, 8 lines carrying PbBa8.1 + CRb locus were screened in BC3F3 generation. The results of field resistance identification of clubroot disease demonstrated that 8 lines showed immune resistance in Nanchong and Guangyuan. Combining ability of 8 lines was 20S200-2 > 20S199-8 > 20S200-11 > 20S205-3 > 20S200-8 > 20S199-1 > 20S199-7 > 20S205-1 from high to low. The line 20S200-2 was finally identified and designated "37RR" in 2021. Its hybrid 1937R participated in the winter rape variety test in Southwest China, exhibited increased production at 8 points out of 9 test sites, with an average yield of 3204.00 kg•hm-2 per unit area. While gaining resistance to clubroot disease, its yield was also higher than that of the original hybrid Nanyou 1937.

  • Yu-ting ZOU, Dan LIU, Qiu-yan WANG, Rou XIA, Wen-qian WANG, Min YANG, Ya-wei TONG, Wen-liang WEI
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    The GLK (the Golden2-like) transcription factor, a member of the GARP transcription factor superfamily, can directly activate a large number of downstream target genes encoding photosynthesis-related proteins, including the target genes associated to chlorophyll biosynthesis, light capture and electron transport, and play a key role in plant physiological processes and abiotic stress responses. In order to identify GLK gene family in Brassica napus and explore their related functions in response to salt and drought stress, 159 BnaGLK genes were identified on the whole genome level, and their gene structure characteristics, phylogenetic evolution, promoter cis-acting elements and gene expression patterns were analyzed. The results showed that 159 BnaGLK genes were unevenly distributed on 19 chromosomes. They were divided into 9 subgroups, and the number and structure of exons and introns of the BnaGLK gene were very similar in each subgroup. Promoter analysis revealed a number of cis-acting elements, including a variety of hormonal and abiotic stress responsive, particularly drought responsive cis-acting elements. Eight BnaGLKs with high expression in leaves based on the open-accessed expression data, were selected for further expression pattern analysis under salt and drought stress by qRT-PCR. The results indicated that BnaGLK genes play an important role in abiotic stress response in B. napus. This study laid a foundation for further analysis of the biological function of GLK gene family in B. napus.

  • Shan-shan WANG, Xue-mei ZHONG, Sha WEN, Gui-juan WANG, Chang-li ZENG, Jing-xiong SHEN, Ting-dong FU, He-ping WAN
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    Seed germination period is the most sensitive period to salt alkali stress. An accurate, simple, and efficient evaluation system for salt alkali tolerance during seed germination is of great value for screening salt alkali tolerant rapeseed germplasm. This study used 166 Brassica napus varieties, backbone parents, and hybrid combinations as experimental materials. A set of rapeseed hydroponic germination equipment was constructed by hole tray, medical gauze, square containers, etc. Based on this system, a mixture of 1.0% NaCl and 0.10% Na2CO3 was selected to simulate salt alkali mixed stress. The salt alkali tolerance at germination stage of all tested materials was identified and evaluated. Results showed that high salt alkali stress can inhibit the germination of rapeseed seeds, and there is extensive genetic variation in salt alkali tolerance during germination among different materials. According to their germination status, 166 tested rapeseed resources can be classified into 4 levels of salt alkali tolerance. Among them, 11 salt alkali tolerant rapeseed resources were selected with 3rd resistance level, mainly including varieties such as Huayouza 62, Huayouza 158, 67shangd20yu 11, 67shangd20yu 16, backbone parents, and hybrid combinations. This provides identification techniques and elite resources for genetic research and breeding improvement of salt alkali tolerance in rapeseed.

  • Feng-yi HU, Xian-fei HOU, Yue-hua YU, Dong-hai JIA, Zhong-song LIU, Qiang LI, Hao-cui MIAO, Jin-xiong SHEN, Yuan-guo GU
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    To understand the salt tolerance of different Brassica juncea germplasm resources, this study used NaCl solutions with concentrations of 0, 150 mmol/L, 200 mmol/L, and 250 mmol/L to treat 479 B. juncea germplasm resources from different countries under salt stress, and measured germination rate, root length, bud length, and fresh weight; Comprehensive evaluation of the salt tolerance of the test materials was conducted using principal component analysis, membership function, multiple linear regression analysis, and cluster analysis. The results showed that under the treatment of 200 mmol/L NaCl solution, 479 materials could be effectively classified into 4 categories: (1) 12 salt tolerant varieties; (2) 75 moderate salt tolerant varieties; (3) 313 salt tolerant varieties; and (4) 79 salt sensitive varieties. A multiple linear regression equation was established for the identification of salt tolerance in B. juncea, y=0.537x1+0.310x2+0.089x3+0.064x4. The selected salt tolerant materials lay the foundation for cultivating new salt tolerant B. juncea.

  • Yu CAO, Rui SHI, Ting-hai YANG, Ya-ping WANG, Ya-nan XIANG, Feng CHEN, Wei ZHANG, Bin ZHU, Jie-fu ZHANG, Xiao-dong WANG
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    Brassica napus is a dominant field crop for repairing and utilizing saline-alkali land. In order to dissect the genetic basis of salt tolerance during germination and obtain germplasm resources in Brassica napus, different concentrations of NaCl solution (200, 250 and 300 mmol/L) were used to seeds of a previously constructed recombinant inbred line population (RIL), and the germination rates on the 3rd day and 7th day were counted for QTL mapping and candidate gene analysis. The results showed that the germination rate of RIL population showed continuous distribution under different salt concentrations. A total of 17 QTLs were detected under 6 treatments in this study, with the phenotypic variation range from 3.75% to 17.57% explained by a single QTL. Among them, 4 QTLs (cqST.C3-1, cqST.C3-2, cqST.C3-3 and cqST.C3-4) on chromosome C3, which explained more than 10% phenotypic variation in single or multiple treatments, were considered as the main QTLs. Combined with the re-sequencing results of the two parents and the functional annotation of Arabidopsis homologous genes, 5 candidate genes related to salt tolerance were identified under the 4 major QTLs confidence intervals, which could be stably expressed under different treatment conditions. In addition, according to the above results, it was considered that the germination rate under 250 mmol/L NaCl solution on the 7th day could be used as an index for the identification of salt tolerance at germination stage, and 5 excellent salt-tolerant germplasm with a germination rate of 82.22%-100% were obtained using this method.

  • Zhi-hui XIAN, Wei-hua LONG, Hui-ming PU, Mao-long HU, Jian-qin GAO
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    The commercialization of herbicide resistant oilseed rape is a revolutionary breakthrough in rape weeding technology. However, the high affinity between rapeseed and its relative weeds offers an effective way for the herbicide resistant genes (HRGs) to immigrate into weedy relatives’ genomes, which made the potential ecological risks associated with the commercialization of HRGs in rapeseed into continuous concerning. In this paper, the types of current commercial herbicide resistant rapeseed and their resistance mechanisms were listed, and the possible mechanisms of HRG flow from rapeseed were summarized from two aspects: first, the genetic and non-genetic factors affecting the transfer of HRGs between rapeseed and its relatives were analyzed; the second is to analyze the possibility of the persistence of resistance genes in relatives’ genome by the fitness comparison. Further, the risk differences between HRGs locating on different sub-genomes in rapeseed were compared, and the comprehensive control technology of resistant weeds was summarized. Combined with the cultivation situation of rapeseed in China, the suggestions for the safe commercial application of herbicide resistant rapeseed in the future and the urgent problems in the field of ecological risk of herbicide resistant rapeseed were put forward.

  • Yue GUO, Xin-yu LU, Ting WANG, Wei-long LI, Yu-rong QI, Xin-lei LYU, Qi PENG, Jian-qin GAO, Jie-fu ZHANG, Mao-long HU
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    The service life of herbicide-resistant varieties can be prolonged by identification of intercrossing-resistance of existing herbicide-resistant rapeseed and the screening of application of other safe herbicide in dosage forms. In this study, a new germplasm PN19 and transgenic plants of Arabidopsis and tobacco resistant to SU herbicides were used as materials. Five classes of ALS inhibitory herbicides with five concentration gradients were sprayed at 3-5 leaf stage of rapeseed. The intercrossing-resistance of PN19 to five herbicides was determined by resistance identification. Results showed that plant intercrossing-resistance against SU and SCT class was the strongest, followed by IMI and TP class, whereas that against PB class was the lowest. Evaluation of herbicide intercrossing-resistance in transgenic plants and analysis of in vitro activity of tobacco ALS enzymes revealed this resistance function to various herbicides was resulted from the decreased sensitivity of target ALS enzymes to herbicides. In addition, the expression of PN19 herbicide-resistance gene after treatment with five herbicides was higher than that of wild type. The study provides an opportunity by mixing use of ALS herbicides to integratedly control weeds in the field.

  • Jia-yu SONG, Gen-shui JIANG, Yu-tiao CHEN, Jian-yi ZHAO, Xiao-fu HONG
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    For high efficient of rapeseed production by planting late-sowing cultivars in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, material screening and mechanism of cold tolerance were carried out using 6 approved hybrid varieties and 6 temperature treatments were set. Seed germination characteristics and physiological indicators were studied under low temperature. RNA-seq technology was used for exploring germination differences under low temperature. Results showed that germination rate decreased under low temperature. Varieties Yueyou 1301 and Yueyou 1510 showed obvious advantages with respect to late sowing at low temperatures (<10℃). SOD activity were consistent with low temperature germination phenotype. Thus we identified 920 differentially-expressed genes (DGEs) that were involved in low temperature germination between Yueyou 1301 and Fengyou 737. Of these, 21 DEGs were related to abscisic acid pathway and starch-sucrose metabolism pathway. In summary, Yueyou 1301 had strong low temperature germination ability. The difference in seed germination ability at low temperature might be caused by hormone signal transduction, activation of reactive oxygen species scavenging systems, and carbohydrate metabolism homeostasis, which might explain the strong cold tolerance of Yueyou 1301.

  • Ji-ming LI, He-ping LI, Xiao-lei TAO, Jun-yan WU, Wan-cang SUN, Xue-cai LI, Lan-ju ZHAI, Li MA, Ai-guo LI
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    To guide significance for water management of winter rape in Hebei Province, effect of pre-winter irrigation on yield formation of winter rapeseed was studied. Materials included 12 winter Brassica rapa and 9 B. napus varieties (lines), they were irrigated before winter. The traits were investigated including overwintering rate, contents of N, P and K in leaves and siliques, and yield composition. Results showed that winter irrigation effectively prevented freezing injury of rapeseed, increased the overwintering rate, and then improved later growth, agronomic characteristics and yield formation. The overwintering rate reached more than 90%, significantly higher than non-winter irrigation control. Although winter irrigation treatment had no significant effect on growth duration, it significantly improved agronomic traits of branch length, plant height and plot yield by 33%, 90.3% and 16.9% respectively. The contents of N and P in leaves, and K in silique shell of 6 tested winter rapeseed were higher than the other organs.

  • Meng-qiong LI, Yan ZHOU, Dan LUO, Li-hui WANG, Yong CHENG, Xiao-yu DING, Liu ZENG, Cheng-long GAO, Xing-jie LAN, Xi-ling ZOU, Yan LYU
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    Short-growth-period rapeseed late sowing followed by low germination and seedling temperatures resulted in slow growth. Low temperature is one of the significant factors restricting the production of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) in the Yangtze River basin, thus it is important to select new varieties of rapeseed that are tolerant to late sowing and has the trait of short-growth-period. In this study, 81 varieties of rapeseed were used as materials, and the effects of different low temperatures on seed germination period and seedling growth of oilseed rape were analyzed, with a view to screening late-sowing-tolerant short-growth-period materials. The results showed that low temperatures would lead to reduced seed germination rate, prolonged germination time, slowed down seedling growth, closed or reduced leaf stomata, and a significant decreased in the net photosynthetic rate of rapeseed. There was no significant correlation between traits at germination and seedling stage. Seed germination rate and shoot fresh weight significantly correlated with freezing survival rate at -2 to -6℃, and the root system of rapeseed resources was sensitive to low temperatures at different levels. Though principle component analysis of the germination, net photosynthetic rate, freezing survival and total fresh weight occupied a relatively important position in the screening process of resources, which could be used as the main basis for evaluating late sowing tolerant rapeseed resources. 20 short-growth-period rapeseed resources were selected according to the comprehensive performance of each resource.

  • Yu-song ZHANG, Ming-lian FU, Yong LEI, Huai-yong LUO, Li-qin ZHANG, Jian-mei LU, Xing-xiang SHU, Xing-lin PU, Liu HE, Jin-chao LUO, Xiao-yan CHEN, Yu LIU, Shao-cai WANG, Xiao-yan YUAN, Hui-fang JIANG
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    Low temperature is a significant abiotic stress factor that restrict the growth of peanuts,and breeding of cold-tolerant varieties is the most direct and effective approach to solve low temperature and cold damage. In this study,372 peanut germplasm resources collected from home and abroad were used as research objects,and the yield correlation traits and qualities in Wuhan of the warm region and Kunming of the cold region were analyzed. The membership function method was used combined with chain cluster analysis to screen excellent cold tolerance resources,and the influence of cold and cool climate on yield correlation factors and quality was analyzed. Key cold resistance identification indicators were screened to identify and evaluate their cold resistance. The results showed that the plant,yield and quality of peanut were mainly affected by the temperature,light and accumulated temperature at the pod stage and the full fruit ripening stage: the higher temperature and accumulated temperature,longer light time result in the higher yield,oil content,protein and other content and also resulted in lower content of oleic acid,linoleic acid and sucrose. Tolerance of different materials to low temperature was different. The comprehensive cold resistance evaluation value (D) was clustered and analyzed,and 372 varieties were divided into 4 categories.Among them, Class I belonged to the strong cold resistant type with a total of two parts; Class II belongs to the cold-resistant type with a total of 86 varieties; Class III belongs to the non-cold-resistant type with a total of 280 varieties; Class IV is a sensitive type of varieties with a total of 4 varieties. Using multiple stepwise regression analysis method,the evaluation model of peanut field cold tolerance Y=-0.002+0.003X1+0.008X2+0.002X3+0.001X4 was established,and the relative hundred kernel weight,relative number of fruits per plant,relative plant height and relative yield per plant were screened out as the initial screening indicators of peanut field cold tolerance,which provided basic varieties and efficient identification methods for the cultivation of new varieties of peanut cold tolerance and related theoretical research.

  • Dong-yang YU, Wan-duo SONG, Yan-ping KANG, Qian-qian WANG, Yong LEI, Zhi-hui WANG, Yu-ning CHEN, Dong-xin HUAI, Xin WANG, Li-ying YAN, Bo-shou LIAO
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    In order to understand pathogenicity of Athelia rolfsii to different peanut varieties, six strains with high, moderate and weak virulence were inoculated on resistant and susceptible varieties in the field, occurrence of disease was investigated every week after inoculation. The results showed that the optimal time for investigation was 14 days after inoculation. There was no significant difference in disease index among cultivars inoculated by highly virulent strains ZY2 and SQ1, and weakly virulent strain GP3-1, respectively, but there was significant difference of those inoculated by moderately virulent strains (HA, H1-3 and BL1-1). The disease indices of varieties by strain GP3-1 was low; and was high by strains ZY2 and SQ1. All tested peanut varieties were susceptible to the highly virulent strains ZY2 and SQ1.The disease indices between resistant and susceptible varieties showed significant difference among moderately virulent strains. One peanut variety with broad-spectrum resistance to multiple moderately virulent strains was identified.

  • Wen-qiang LIU, Zhi-wei WANG, Chun-jiao JIANG, Feng-jian LIANG, Hao-jie SUN, Chun-juan QU, Huan WANG, Chuang-tang WANG
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    To explore the correlation between peanut seed biochemical quality and stress resistance under germination stress, seed samples of 90 peanut genotypes were subjected to different types of stress including salt (0.12 mol/L NaCl), alkali (0.1 mol/L NaHCO3, pH 8.3), drought (15% PEG 6000), and low temperature (2°C soaking for 72 h). Germination indicators and peanut seed biochemical quality were analyzed by canonical correlation analysis. It was discovered that, oleic acid was positively correlated with vigor index under salt stress, while oleic acid was negatively correlated with germination percentage under low temperature stress. Oleic acid was beneficial to peanut seed germination under salt stress, but not conducive to germination under low temperature stress. There was a positive correlation between palmitic acid and germination index under drought stress, and palmitic acid was beneficial to peanut seed germination under drought stress. Vitamin E was beneficial to seed germination under alkali stress. The above results were expected to be helpful for exploring the mechanism of stress resistance during peanut germination, and also for peanut stress-resistant breeding.

  • Qian-qian ZHANG, Li-miao CHEN, Dong CAO, Hong-li YANG, Xue DONG, Jing-sheng CHEN, Wei GUO, Hai-feng CHEN
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    Soybean suffers from a variety of chewing pests in the process of growth, such as Spodoptera litura, Helicoverpa armigera and so on. The current control methods have some problems, such as pollution of environment by chemical pesticides, disturbance of ecological balance and enhancement of drug resistance. Cultivating and planting insect resistant varieties is the key to solving insect pest problems. The present situation and progress of the research on the resistance of soybean to chewing pests were reviewed in this paper, including species and resistance of soybean pests,development of soybean resources resistant to chewing pests, and research progress of QTL mapping of soybean resistance to chewing pests. The comprehensive study reveals that paying attention to wild soybean resources, looking for excellent soybean insect-resistant materials, exploring excellent resistance genes, and using biotechnology and soybean transformation to obtain new resources, there are economical,environmentally friendly and effective ways to improve soybean insect resistance, increase yield and quality, and reduce the cost of agricultural production. The purpose of this paper is to provide theoretical basis and practical guidance for soybean insect-resistant breeding and contribute to the sustainable development of oil crop industry.

  • Mei-zhen ZHANG, Li-na WANG, Wei ZHAO, Di GAO, Yu-xian ZHANG, Kui-de YIN
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    Lipid metabolism plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stress. Four salt/alkali-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing bacteria strains (W5, Y7, Y14 and Y31, with Latin names of Bacillus siamensis, Pseudomonas sp., B. wiedmannii and Acinetobacter sp., respectively) screened in the previous study were used for soybean pot experiment to investigate the effects of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the growth of soybean plants under salt/alkali conditions, and to analyze the changes of lipid compounds in soybean leaves. The results showed that the chlorophyll content, plant height, root length, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight and root dry weight of soybean were increased after trwatment with the four strains, and the Y7 strain treatment group had the best effect. The Y7 strain treatment group was selected for soybean leaf lipid metabolism analysis. It showed that a total of 429 lipids were detected, and 30 significantly different metabolites (16 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated) were screened in the Y7 strain treatment group. The metabolic pathways with the largest enrichment of differential metabolic pathways were glyceride metabolism from lipid metabolism, in which the content of diglyceride (DG) was significantly increased, the content of triglyceride (TG) was significantly decreased, and the total content of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine (PS) was significantly increased, and the total content of phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) total compounds was significantly decreased. The comprehensive results showed that salt/alkali-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing bacteria applied to salt/alkali soil had obvious growth promotion effect on soybean and affected soybean leaf lipid metabolic pathways and products.

  • Zhao-hong LU, Zi-li NING, Bo-wen SHI, Yuan-fang FAN, Wen-yu YANG, Feng YANG
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    The selection of shade-tolerant and high-light-efficient soybean varieties is one of the important research elements of the maize-soybean ribbon complex cropping model. By analyzing the differences in leaf morphology and photosynthetic physiological responses between wild and cultivated soybean seedlings under normal and shaded conditions, we can reveal their shade-tolerance mechanisms and response differences, which can provide a theoretical basis for the breeding of new shade-tolerant and high-light-efficient soybean varieties. In this study, two types of cultivated soybean (Nandou 12 and Tianlong No.1) and two types of wild soybean (W1 and W2) were used as experimental materials to investigate their response to shade under two light environments: natural light and 50% shade. The results showed that the specific leaf weight, leaf thickness, fenestrated tissue thickness, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetic pigment content of wild and cultivated soybean were significantly lower under shade stress than under natural light. In shade, cultivated soybean showed higher variation in net photosynthetic rate, photosynthetic pigment content, spongy tissue thickness, and leaf area than wild soybean, while specific leaf weight and ratio of fenestrated tissue to spongy tissue were significantly lower than wild soybean. Wild soybean can improve its adaptation to low light conditions by maintaining Chlb content, increasing the proportion of chlorophyll in photosynthetic pigments and stimulating potential maximum photosynthetic activity as a response. The differences in the response of wild and cultivated soybean to shade conditions could provide theoretical support for future breeding of shade-tolerant soybean.