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  • Hai-tang FENG, Han-zhong WANG
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    China's vegetable oil industry has historically relied heavily on imports, which poses a substantial risk not only to national oil supply security but also across various domains including politics and economics. Given the intricate dynamics of global power competition, it is strategically imperative to optimize domestic land resource utilization efficiently while fostering ongoing advancements in agricultural science and technology. These measures are essential for bolstering vegetable oil production capacity domestically as well as diversifying import sources. By doing so effectively addresses potential security risks linked to edible vegetable oil supply chain disruptions while simultaneously safeguarding political stability, ensuring economic resilience, and promoting public welfare.

  • Gu-cheng LI, Qiu-chun NIU, Bo-feng LENG, Yi-fei DING, Ting TONG, Li-xia FAN
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    Currently, the self-sufficiency rate of domestic vegetable oil is still low. As an important oil crop in China, rapeseed contributes to nearly 50% of the oil production of domestic oil crops, and it plays a vital role in ensuring national edible oil supply security. Since the "No. 1 central document" for 2012 first proposed the comprehensive deployment of agricultural science and technology strategy, the rapeseed industry has made great progress with scientific and technological support. The "No. 1 central document" for 2023 clearly proposes to further promote the soybean and oilseed production capacity improvement project, take coordinated steps to support the rapeseed industry, promote rice-oil rotation, and vigorously develop winter idle fields. This paper systematically figured the development status of rapeseed industry from 2012 to 2022, summarized the scientific and technological progress within this sector, and analysed the current challenges and prospects. Finally, policy suggestions were put forward to support the sustainable development of rapeseed industry in China.

  • Fu-xing LIU, Cai-li WANG, Jing TANG, Zhong-chao FENG
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    Clarifying the development of rape’s total factor productivity in China since the Reform and Opening-up is a logical starting point to improve the comprehensive production capacity of rape. Based on the input-output related data of 11 rape main producing provinces during 1979-2020, this paper analyzes the dynamic evolution and convergence based on the total factor productivity measured by using Global Malmquist index, using kernel density estimation, δ convergence and β convergence, respectively. The results show that, according to the time-series characteristics, China's total factor productivity of rape has achieved certain growth in the midst of dramatic fluctuations since the Reform and Opening-up, demonstrating a technology-induced growth pattern, whereas technical efficiency does not contribute significantly to it. From the dynamic evolution, the geographical variations in the rise of rape's total factor productivity keep getting smaller. From the perspective of convergence, the overall δ value of total factor productivity of rape is fluctuating and decreasing, and has essentially stabilized around 0.01 since 2012, displaying an clear convergence tendency, confirming the existence of δ convergence. The absolute β convergence and conditional β convergence of rape’s total factor productivity exist. The convergence model’s convergence is still significant after accounting for the spatial effect, and there is a favorable spatial spillover effect. It suggests countermeasures to support the development of a national rapeseed industrial technology system, execute a regionalized development plan, and encourage coordinated regional development in order to further increase the total factor productivity of rapeseed.

  • Juan ZHENG, Huang HUANG, Yi-tao LIAO, Lei WANG, Jia-cheng YUAN, Jian-xin LIN, Qing-xi LIAO
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    Rapeseed is an essential oil crop in China. Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi provinces in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River are the main planting areas, which account for more than 42% of the total planted area of rapeseed in China. The area has more than 3467 ha of winter fallow field, with massive potential for utilization. The total mechanization rate of rapeseed tillage, seeding and harvesting in the 3 provinces is higher than national average. Still, the uneven development, insufficient utilization of idle fields in winter, low levels of mechanization and intelligence, are technical bottlenecks for improving whole mechanization. This paper analyzes the basic situation and existing problems of the rapeseed industry in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, combing tillage, seeding, harvesting key aspects of mechanization and intelligent technology, and gives the technical routes of the whole process of rapeseed production that could be promoted. Meanwhile, a comparative analysis of the technical characteristics and difficulties in promoting the application of the "tillage, seeding and harvesting" aspects of rapeseed production was carried out. Development trend of rapeseed production technology mode is semi-mechanized, mechanized to intelligent in the winter fallow fields. The technical development paths of each link are discribed as "anti-blocking, anti-sticky, anti-tangle, and high-speed, efficient, low consumption" mechanized tillage. Integrated tillage and seeding technology to complete multiple working procedures simultaneously. High efficiency, low consumption and low loss of rapeseed mechanized harvesting technology should be combined with harvesting and two-stage harvesting synergistic development. The mechanization technology of feeding, vegetable and fertilizer and the critical technology of intelligent rapeseed production should also be developed and applied simultaneously. To achieve high yield, several suggestions for promoting full mechanization technology model for rapeseed in the mid-winter fields of the Yangtze River are proposed.

  • Li-mei FAN, Qian-ling HOU
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    Guizhou Province is one of the main producing areas of Camellia oleifera in China. In recent years, the area of newly planted C. oleifera forest has been expanding, which led to a larger yield potential in Guizhou Province. This paper combeded the main problems of camellia processing industry development in Guizhou Province, including a lack of scale production, basic research and deep processing technology, as sell as a lack of powerful brands and quality management system. It foucused on discussion of processing industry, and pointed out keys to healthy develop Guizhou camellia processing industry. In addition, it also put forward suggestions and countermeasures for development of camellia processing industry in Guizhou from 6 aspects: promoting the transformation and upgrading of camellia processing, extending the industrial chain of camellia processing, encouraging the diversified development of industry, cultivating large and medium-sized camellia processing enterprises, implementing brand development strategy, building scientific research platform, accelerating technological innovation and upgrading, and improving product quality standard system, in order to promote healthy and rapid development of camellia processing industry in Guizhou Province.

  • Shou QIU, Deng-feng HONG, Guang-sheng YANG
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    Rapeseed is one of the crops that require the highest amount of boron, and additional application of boron fertilizer is necessary for production to prevent significant reduction in yield. To enhance the utilization efficiency of boron in rapeseed, we employed 2016-XFSB as a donor parent, which carries the superior allele Bna.A03NIP5;1, and used 621R as the recurrent parent. Through MAS-aided backcrossing, we successfully introduced the superior allele Bna.A03NIP5;1 into 621R and developed a near-isogenic line named 621R NIP5;1A3 . Subsequently, new hybrids were generated by crossing both 621R and 621R NIP5;1A3 with a nuclear male sterility line RG430A. Hydroponic experiments and various soil cultivation experiments were conducted to evaluate agronomic traits performance of both 621R and 621R NIP5;1A3 lines as well as their hybrids. The results demonstrated a significant improvement in boron utilization efficiency for both 621R NIP5;1A3 line and its hybrid counterparts. Moreover, these improved materials exhibited notable advantages in biomass accumulation, plant height development, silique length extension, number of grains per silique incrementation, and seed weight enhancement. The findings from this study provide valuable insights for breeding boron-efficient varieties in Brassica napus.

  • Na-na XIE, Wei HUANG, Guo-ying GAO, Da-wei ZHANG, Ding-gang ZHOU, Jin-feng WU, Jian-hua XIANG, Li-li LIU, Ming-li YAN
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    PAP2Production of anthocyanin segment 2) encodes MYB transcription factor, and regulates anthocyanin synthesis by forming MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex with bHLH and WD40. In this study we cloned PAP2 gene in Brassica, and preliminarily verified the function of PAP2, providing a reference for further understanding the regulatory mechanism of anthocyanin synthesis in Brassica. Two and one copies of PAP2 gene were cloned from Brassica carinata and Brassica nigra, respectively, and named as BcaB.PAP2, BcaC.PAP2, BniB.PAP2. These three genes are composed of 3 exons and 2 introns, encoding 247 amino acids. Based on the PAP2 gene sequences cloned in this study and other reported PAP2 gene sequences of Brassica, three pairs of primers were designed to detect the PAP2 gene of A, B and C genomes respectively, and the genomic origin of PAP2 of six species in the U’s Triangle of Brassica could be distinguished by allele specific PCR. The BjuB.PAP2 gene from the B genome of Brassica juncea was selected to construct an overexpression vector and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana. The transgenic Arabidopsis leaves turned purple, indicating that PAP2 gene is regulating anthocyanin synthesis. After shading treatment for 10 days, the purple color of Brassica carinata lightened, and the anthocyanin content decreased by 41.22%. Quantitative PCR and transcriptomic studies showed that the expression of BcaB.PAP2 and BcaC.PAP2 in the leaves of shading plants decreased. The expression of structural genes for anthocyanin synthesis, such as chalcone synthase geneCHS), chalcone isomerase geneCHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase geneF3H), dihydroflavonol reductase geneDFR), anthocyanin synthase geneANS), flavonoid 3-glucosyltransferase geneUFGT) and other genes were also decreased. This study completed the cloning of PAP2 gene of Brassica carinata and Brassica nigra, and carried out their evolutionary analysis. Allele specific PCR primers were designed according to the sequences of PAP2 gene cloned in this experiment and other reported genes to provide molecular markers for the genomic transmission identification of PAP2 gene in Brassica interspecific hybrids. Through the transformation of BjuB.PAP2 gene into Arabidopsis plants, it was found that PAP2 gene was involved in the accumulation of anthocyanins. It was found that the expression of BcaPAP2 gene and anthocyanin synthesis structure gene were induced by light after shading. This study cloned the PAP2 gene in Brassica and preliminarily verified its function, providing a reference for further understanding the regulatory mechanism of anthocyanin synthesis in Brassica plants.

  • Yan-li HU, Hui-zhong WANG, Yan JIAO, Dong-mei LI, Zi-cheng ZHANG, Yan JIANG, Xiao-hong TONG, Lei WANG, Shao-dong WANG, Sui WANG
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    As a novel environmental pollutant, the impacts of nanoplastics on crops have attracted more and more attention. To explore the response of soybean to polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs) at physiological and gene expression levels, this experiment used hydroponics to determine the phenotype and physiological indexes of soybean seedlings after exposure to 50 mg/L 100 nm PS-NPs for 10 days, and carried out transcriptome sequencing analysis of soybean seedling root system. The results showed that the growth of the soybean seedlings was inhibited, the root morphology changed significantly, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased to a certain extent, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly, and the content of soluble sugar decreased after PS-NPs exposure. Transcriptome analysis showed that a total of 2112 differentially expressed genes were generated by PS-NPs exposure treatment, GO and KEGG analysis showed that they were mainly enriched in pathways related to redox reaction, reaction to ethylene and abscisic acid, amino acid metabolism and synthesis of other secondary metabolites. It was noted that 250 transcription factors were differentially expressed, mainly including the ERF, WRKY, NAC, bHLH and MYB transcription factor families. This experiment lays a foundation for further exploring the impact of nanoplastics on crops such as soybeans and its molecular mechanism.

  • Wei-na GAO, Zhan-ming HOU
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    Flax is the main oil crop in China, and has been affected by flax wilt for a long time. The catalytic subunit of β-1, 3-glucan synthase (FKS/GLS) is necessary for cell wall synthesis, the biological function of whichwas analyzed in the study through cloningthe gene, constructing FolGLS2 gene deletion mutant, observing phenotype and assaying the virulence of the gene disruption mutants. A full-length of 5947bp DNA sequence was obtained, which contained an open reading frame 5847bp, encoding a total of 1948 amino acids. Observation of the phenotype of the FolGLS2 genedeletion mutant showed that the colony of the mutant was small and compact, its growth rate decreased obviously, the mycelium was short, thick and no longer produced conidia. The cell wall of the mutant mycelium changed somehow, which was strongly resistant to the protoplasting buffer commonly used for wild type and was unable to release protoplasts. Infection assay to the flax seedling demonstrated that pathogenicity of deletion mutant was significantly decreased. Conclusively, FolGLS2 gene, which encodes catalytic subunit of β-1, 3-glucan synthase, plays a regulatory role in conidiogenesis, mycelial vegetative growth, cell wall properties and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.lini.

  • Qian WANG, Kun-jiang YU, Xian-ya WANG, Yu-qi HE, Xu YANG, En-tang TIAN
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    Lignocellulose, composing of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, is an important component of plant cells. It can enhance the mechanical strength of plant cells and tissues, and is of great significance for ensuring the transport of plant nutrients and stem support. Rapeseed is one of the most significan oil crop in China and the world. It can be used for oil, feeding, vegetables, honey and sightseeing. Lignocellulose can also effectively guarantee the mechanical strength of plant cells and tissues, and improve the resistance to lodging, diseases and insects. The research progress of lignocellulosic synthesis and the regulation mechanism in Arabidopsis thaliana and rapeseed is reviewed. The research of lignocellulosic in Arabidopsis thaliana is expected to promote the further research of rapeseed, and the potential application of the lignocellulosic research in rapeseed is discussed.

  • Sen-yong CHEN, Yang TANG, Bing-bing ZHANG, Hai-jiang LIU, Fei XIONG, Kai-xuan XU, Wu WEI, Qing YOU, Ming-xing LU, Lei SHI
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    Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different application rates of potassium chloride (KCl) on biomass, seed yield, and nutrient accumulation and distribution in oilseed rape at both the seedling and maturity stages. The study was carried out in Jiangxia District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River from 2021 to 2022. This research aims to provide a theoretical foundation for the optimal application of potassium (K) fertilizer in oilseed rape cultivation. Six treatments were applied, including K0 (K2O 0 kg/hm2), K30 (K2O 30 kg/hm2), K60 (K2O 60 kg/hm2), K90 (K2O 90 kg/hm2), K120 (K2O 120 kg/hm2) and K150 (K2O 150 kg/hm2). The results indicated that the biomass of all oilseed rape organs at both seedling and maturity stages, as well as seed yield, significantly increased within a certain range of increasing levels of K fertilizer. The maximum increase in seed yield was observed to be up to 1199.6 kg/hm² with an increase ratio of up to 57.20%. When the application rate of K exceeded 120 kg/hm2, there was no significant increase in shoot biomass and seed yield. With increasing K fertilizer application, there was a significant increase in K content across all organs. However, N content did not show significant changes at both the seedling and maturity stages. Notably, P content in seeds at the maturity stage exhibited a significant increase. The partial factor productivity of K fertilizer significantly decreased with increasing K fertilizer application. However, the agronomic efficiency, physiological efficiency, apparent recovery efficiency and harvest index of K fertilizer all reached their maximum at an application rate of 90 kg/hm2. Subsequently, these efficiencies gradually decreased with further increases in K fertilizer. Economic analysis revealed that the output-input ratio and net income were optimized at a K application rate of 120 kg/hm2. Further increases in K fertilizer would lead to reduced economic efficiency. In addition, the optimal application rate of K fertilizer for maximizing economic efficiency in this region is determined to be 114.6 kg/ hm2 based on a combination of linear and platform fitting results. Consequently, rational utilization of K fertilizer can significantly enhance shoot biomass and promote the accumulation of essential nutrients (N, P, and K), thereby resulting in increased plant height, primary branch count, pod number, and ultimately achieving higher yields while ensuring maximum economic efficiency.

  • Yi LI, Wei-wei QIN, Ti-rong REN, Jia-sen CHENG, Hao LIU, Jun-bin HUANG, Lu ZHENG
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    Soil sealing treatment is an effective chemical weed control method in rapeseed field. To evaluate the effects of different soil-applied herbicides on soil microorganisms in rapeseed field, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to analyze the changes in soil microbial structure and diversity after treatment with four commonly used soil-applied herbicides alachlor, acetochlor, metochlor and s-metolachlor. The results showed that soil-applied herbicide treatments could significantly reduce soil bacterial diversity in rapeseed fields, and alachlor had the greatest effect on soil bacterial diversity. However, after a period of herbicide treatment, the diversity and richness of the soil bacterial community gradually recovered. Soil-applied herbicide treatment had great influence on Actinomycetes, Acidobacteria and others in rapeseed soil, and alachlor treatment showed the greatest change in soil bacteria at phylum level compared with other herbicides. After 60 days of treatment with soil-applied herbicides, the abundances of functional bacteria related to pollutant degradation, denitrification, photosynthesis, pathogen growth inhibition and rhizosphere growth promotion were increased, whereas functional bacteria associated with the absorption of nutrients and excretion of metabolites were reduced. Overall, the results indicated that the soil-applied herbicides had a certain effect on soil microbial diversity and community structure in rapeseed field, but the effect of herbicides on soil microbial diversity gradually decreased along with the time of treatment.

  • Ji-kui HE, Yong CHENG, Ze-wei HE, Xiao-yu DING, Peng YE, Ben-bo XU, Jin-song XU, Xue-kun ZHANG
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    Planting density is one of the most important factors to improve repeseed yield, generally 30×104-45×104 plants /hm2 is recommended in national variety trials and farmer planting in China. However, poor weather and soil conditions will affect the emergence of rape seedlings. For a long time, rape farmers have formed the sowing habit of greatly increasing the sowing amount,for example, the sowing amount of farmers in Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi reaches 7.5kg /hm2. High seeding rate can produce more than 180×104 plants/ hm2. In period of emergence, if current rapeseed varieties can adapt to high seeding rate is unclear. In this study, 54 rapeseed varieties planted with 7.5 kg/hm2 seeding rate which simulated farmer’s seeding habit. The results showed that a large range genetic variation existed in no-effctive plant density, plant pods, effective plant density and yield. Under high seeding rate, plant height, number of seeds per silique, plant weight and effective plant density were significantly correlated with yield. Compared to the low-yield type varieties, high-yield type varieties increased 67.6% in yield. Multivariate correlation analysis showed that effective plant density, seed number per silique and plant dry weight had a significant relationship with yield, effective plant density had the largest path coefficient on yield (0.6849), followed by plant dry weight, plant height, seed number per silique and seed weight. Different varieties could form different effective plant density, 70×104-120×104 plants/hm2 effective plant density ranges would produce higher seed yield. In order to adapt to the high seeding rate, we should select suitable varieties with higher seeding rate field trial. For genetic improving and variety breeding, we should focus on the same traits such as strong forming ability of effective plant density, seed and pod number, which related to early vigor, plant dry weight, seed number per silique, seed weight.

  • Kun-miao ZHU, Tai CHENG, Chen-kun MA, Bao-zhong YUAN, Li-yong HU
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    To improve rapeseed yield, Brassica napus hybrid cultivar Huayouza 9 was selected as material, and was planted in pots and fields. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood vinegar application on seedling growth and seed yield under different foliar spraying times, different application intervals and different growth periods under 3 sowing dates. Results of pot experiments showed that total dry weight of rapeseed was significantly increased by 29.63%-74.07% when wood vinegar was sprayed for 2 to 4 times continuously and at intervals. At the same time, continuous and interval spraying of wood vinegar for 4 times could significantly increase leaf area by 81.58%-85.65%. Results of field experiments showed that the final seed yield treated by spraying once, twice and three times at seedling stage, bud bolting stage and flowering stage respectively increased by 3.30%, 9.52% and 11.38%, and protein content decreased by 2.62%, 4.02% and 4.68%, respectively. Compared with control, field yields of 3 different sowing dates sprayed with wood vinegar were increased by 20.13%, 23.25%, 13.97%, and the number of effective pods per plant increased by 47.29%, 61.87%, 72.90%, respectively. Comprehensive analysis showed that the promotion effect was better when wood vinegar was sprayed 2 to 4 times during growth period, with an interval of more than 5 days each time. Under different sowing dates, the effect of wood vinegar on rapeseed growth and yield was more significant in the suitable sowing date (on Oct. 9th).

  • Miao HUANG, Rong LIU, Min ZHANG, Li-qiong SUN, Hong CHEN, Xue-chun WANG, Guo-tao YANG, Yun-gao HU
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    To explore the effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen on yield and quality of high erucic acid rapeseed, we studied the effects of 6 different treatments (pure organic fertilizer, pure inorganic fertilizer, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% organic fertilizer substitution) on yield, quality, soil nutrients, and economic benefits of high erucic acid industrial rapeseed (cv Mianyou 309). The results showed that compared with pure chemical fertilizer, a certain proportion of organic and inorganic nitrogen could significantly increase rapeseed yield. The yield of 30% organic nitrogen treatment was the highest, reaching 3501.63 kg/hm2, which was 24.84% higher than that of pure organic fertilizer and 23.47% higher than that of pure inorganic fertilizer. Combination of organic and inorganic nitrogen promoted the growth and development of the main stem and branches of rapeseed. Under this treatment, the erucic acid content was not affected but the oil content was also increased, so as to significantly increase the erucic acid and edible oil yield per unit area. It also increased the soil nitrogen storage, so that the soil might maintain a higher fertility level for higher economic and environmental benefits.

  • Wen FANG, Tao REN, Fang-zhou LIU, Bo JANG, Ming-xing LU, Zhe ZHANG, Jian-wei LU
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    Fertilizer application is an important material basis to ensure crop growth, and special formula fertilizer for rapeseed is widely used in production as a key technology for light and simplified planting of rapeseed. The appropriate dosage of special formula fertilizer for rapeseed that clearly takes into account the dual objectives of abundant yield and high quality will provide key technical support for green and high-quality production of rapeseed. Five fertilizer dosages of 0, 450, 600, 750 and 900 kg/hm2 were set through field trials at three locations in Jiangling County, Shayang County and Honghu City, Hubei Province, in 2020-2021 to study the effects of different dedicated formula fertilizer dosages on rape yield, yield composition factors, nutrient content and quality. Application of the dedicated formula fertilizer significantly increased the number of corners per plant, the number of grains per corner and the thousand grain weight, which in turn enhanced the yield of rapeseed. Compared with the no-fertilizer treatment, the number of corms per plant, number of grains per corner and thousand grain weight increased by 277.4%, 17.9% and 9.2%, respectively, and the yield of rapeseed increased by 183%-300% when the special formula fertilizer was applied at a rate of 900 kg/hm2. The application of canola-specific formula fertilizer significantly affected the oil and protein content of rapeseed. Compared with the no-fertilizer treatment, the protein content of rapeseed was highest at the special formula fertilizer dosage of 900 kg/hm2, with a growth rate of 16.0%-34.6%; the oil content was lowest at the fertilizer dosage of 900 kg/hm2, with a decrease of 4.4%-11.6% compared to the no-fertilizer treatment. Correlation analysis showed that the increase of special fertilizer significantly increased rapeseed yield, water content, protein, erucic acid and fatty acid composition, and reduced glucosinolate content in rapeseed. Taking into account the yield, rapeseed quality and feed, a special fertilizer dosage of 750-900 kg/hm2 could achieve higher rapeseed yield and protein yield with less increase in the production of glucosinolate, erucic acid and saturated fatty acid in rapeseed and Increased oil production. Continue to pursue quality improvement on the basis of yield increase of rape. Medium and trace elements can be added appropriately in combination with different soil fertility conditions to further improve the oil content of rapeseed and the composition of fatty acids, so as to achieve the synergy between yield and quality.

  • Lu-lin DONG, Hui-lin FU, Kang TANG, Na LIU, Long-xing YANG, Ning-bo ZENG, Zi-nan LUO, Hao ZHANG, Lin LI, Deng-wang LIU
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    In the production of small-seed peanut cultivars in South China, landraces with high plants and bred cultivars with dwarf plants were both planted. Thus a differential fertilization strategy had to be figured out according to their nitrogen requirements. In this study, the main landrace with high plants Anhua Xiaozi and improved dwarf cultivar Xianghei Xiaoguo were used as materials. Four compound fertilization rates were set including 0, 450, 600, and 750 kg/hm2, representing soil background (CK), low (F30), medium (F40), and high (F50) fertilizer levels. Nitrogen content, accumulation, and distribution were recorded at 4 growth stages. Results showed that, in high landrace Anhua Xiaozi, N content were in the order of pod> leaf> root> stem, while those of dwarf cultivar Xianghei Xiaoguo were in leaf> pod> root> stem. N content in leaves and roots of Anhua Xiaozi was less than dwarf cultivar Xianghei Xiaoguo. The opposite trend was found in stems and pods. The influence degree of increasing fertilizer on N content was in the order of stem> leaf> root> pod, which was beneficial to N assimilation and absorption in vegetative organs. N accumulation in different organs of the 2 materials was leaf> pod> stem> root. Except the seedling stage, N accumulations of the whole plant, leaf and stem in other stages were larger in Anhua Xiaozi stem. N accumulations were both higher in Anhua Xiaozi pods and roots, but only in roots during seedling and podding stages. Fertilization was beneficial to N accumulation in early stages. N distribution rate of both varieties was the highest in leaves, and then in pods and stems. N distribution rate in higher variety were larger in aboveground parts, while the underground parts was the opposite. It indicated that N absorbed by dwarf variety was more conducive to transport to pods. N production efficiency was higher in dwarf Xianghei Xiaoguo. N production efficiency and N partial factor productivity of F40 and F30 treatments were both high, indicated that excessive fertilization decreased N use efficiency. In conclusion, lower response of N accumulation to fertilizer increase was found in dwarf cultivar Xianghei Xiaoguo, with less total accumulation but more distribution in pods. Therefore, in barren and acidic red soil regions in South China, peanut plant architecture should be considered during fertilizer determination.

  • Wan-wan FAN, Shao-jian LI, Su-ling SANG, Hai-yan ZHANG, Meng GAO, Zhen-yu WANG
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    To identify the pathogens responsible for peanut pod rot in Henan Province, 92 samples of peanut pod rot were collected from various geographic regions and subjected to tissue isolation techniques. Pathogens were identified based on their morphological and molecular biological, and verified using Koch's rules. The results revealed that Fusarium, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Sclerotium rolfsii and Neocosmospora vasinfecta were the pathogenic fungi causing peanut pod rot in Henan Province, with Fusarium as the dominant genus. The main Fusarium species identified in this study were F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. proliferatum and F. chlamydosporum, with F. oxysporum and F. solani being the predominant species. This study further confirms that peanut pod rot is caused by multiple pathogens, providing a foundation for controlling this disease in Henan Province.

  • Jie GAO, Pei-cong TIAN, Yue-jia DANG, Xin-rui LI, Chen WANG, Chuang LIU, Yu-qian HUANG
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    To improve peanut yield, growth-promoting effect of endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on peanut plants was investigated in pots. Peanut cv. Yueyou 7 was used as experimental material. Symbiosis system between P. indica and peanut was established. Agronomic traits, yield, photosynthetic characteristics, malondialdehyde content, root activity and antioxidant enzyme activity of peanut were studied. Results showed that the symbiosis system of P. indica and peanut was established successfully by inoculating P. indica with hyphae. The infection rate was 63%. At seedling stage, net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll SPAD value of peanut leaves were significantly increased by 24.17% and 19.66%, and transpiration rate was 22% lower than that of uninoculated peanut plants. At seedling and mature stages, compared with uninoculated P. indica, root length, underground fresh weight, underground dry weight, root activity and leaf catalase peroxidase activity were significantly increased after inoculation. Content of malondialdehyde was significantly reduced by 24.27% and 22.12% at seedling and mature stages. Peanut yield was increased by inoculation with P. indica.

  • Li-rong LI, Meng-fan JIA, Xing-xiang WANG, Zhi-gao ZHOU, Yan-li LI, Chang-feng DING
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    Peanut has a fairly strong ability of accumulating cadmium (Cd) from the soil, and the problem of Cd content in peanut exceeding the food safety standard is serious in some regions of China. Seed coating is a common technology to control diseases and insect pests and enhance stress resistance in peanut production, but the research of using seed coating technology to control Cd pollution risk in peanut producing areas has not been reported. This study first screened out three suitable concentrations of manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) coating agents by seed germination test, and then further screened out the concentration of coating agent with the best Cd reduction effect by pot experiment. The effect of Mn fertilizer and Zn fertilizer seed coating on Cd transfer within peanut plant in Cd-contaminated soil was further explored through pot experiment. The results of seed germination test showed that the seed coating treatment with low to moderate concentrations of Mn and Zn fertilizer did not affect the seed germination rate and could promote the root length, while the excessive concentration could obviously inhibit the seed germination. The results of pot experiment showed that among the seed coating agents of Mn and Zn, 3% Mn fertilizer coating agent (Mn3) and 2% Zn fertilizer coating agent (Zn2) had the most significant effect on reducing Cd in peanut seeds, with the Cd reduction rates reaching 19.0% and 24.1% respectively, and Zn2 had the better Cd reduction effect. Compared with the control, the Cd bioaccumulation factor of roots in the two treatments decreased significantly, the Cd translocation factor (TF) from roots to shoots increased significantly, the TF from shoots to seeds decreased, while the TF from roots to seeds had no obvious change. Compared with the control, the absorption of Cd in peanut plants under Mn3 and Zn2 treatments decreased by 9.18% and 13.6%. There was a significant negative correlation between the contents of Cd in peanut seeds and roots and the contents of Mn and Zn in roots. Seed coating with Mn and Zn can reduce the Cd content in peanut seeds by inhibiting the absorption of Cd by roots and the transport of Cd within peanut plant. This study put forward the technology of reducing Cd content in peanut by seed coating, which provided a new method for risk control of Cd pollution in peanut producing areas.

  • Suo-cheng LI, Yan-tao LIU, Hong-ye DONG, Zhen-bo SUN, Zi-wei LI, Chun-yuan ZHANG, Kai-yong WANG, Qiang LI, Ming-feng YANG
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    To improve peanut yield under drip irrigation in Xinjiang, effect of potassium fertilizer application was investigated. Huayu 9610 (T1, a common cultivar in Xinjiang) and Heihua 5 (T2, a high yield cultivar) were used as materials at the Agricultural Meteorological Experiment Station in Wulanwusu, Xinjiang. Four potassium (K2O) fertilizer gradients were set as K0 (0 kg/hm2), K1 (150 kg/hm2), K2 (225 kg/hm2) and K3 (300 kg/hm2), and thus the potassium rates were at 15%, 40%, 30% and 15% at the seedling, pegging, podding and full fruit ripening stages respectively. Results showed that the main stem height and lateral branch length of Huayu 9610 and Heihua 5 changed parabolically with the increase of potassium application. The dry matter accumulation were the highest at K2 level, which were 84.37 g per plant and 89.37 g per plant, respectively. Compared with no potassium fertilizer, the main stem height and lateral branch length of K2 treatment increased by 17.91% and 16.56%, 7.4% and 12.31%, respectively. The number of nodules was the highest at podding stage, which was 42.0 per plant and 45.3 per plant respectively. The leaf area index increased with the increase of potassium fertilizer application, and reached the maximum at 90 days after emergence. The photosynthetic potential also changed in a parabolic shape with the increase of potassium fertilizer application rate, and reached the maximum value of 4.38 m2·d and 4.51 m2·d respectively after 75-90 days of K2 treatment. The fertilizer contribution rate and agronomic utilization rate of K2 treatment were the largest, which were 26.06% and 1.83 kg/kg (for Huayu 9610), 25.18% and 1.67 kg/kg (for Heihua 5), respectively, and the yields were 9628.38 kg/hm2 and 10 368.35 kg/hm2, respectively. The results showed that potassium application amount of 225 kg/hm2 at K2 level could be used as reference for drip irrigation peanut in Xinjiang, China.

  • Jing ZHANG, Lu LUO, Feng-zhen LIU, Hong-xia JIA, Juan LIU, Zhen TAN, Kun ZHANG, Yong-shan WAN
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    In order to establish a rapid method to identify the absorption and activation ability of iron in different peanuts, the iron deficiency cultivars Nongda 818, Luhua 11, Shanhua 11, and the iron sensitive cultivars Luhua 12, ICG6848, and Baisha 1016 were employd in iron deficiency nutrient solution instead of soil. The yellowing time of new leaves in iron deficiency environment was recorded. After the new leaves of all peanut seedlings turned yellow, the iron supply was resumed. The seedlings were treated with 20 µmol/L FeSO4 for 2 d and 4 d, 25 µmol/L FeSO4 for 2 d and 3 d, and 30 µmol/L FeSO4 for 1 d, 2 d and 4 d, the increase of chlorophyll value (ΔSPAD), dry weight and iron uptake were measured to identify the iron uptake capacity. The iron activation ability of peanut was evaluated at 25 µmol/L Fe2(SO43 for 2 d and 4 d, 30 µmol/L Fe2(SO43 for 2 and 3 d, and 35 µmol/L Fe2(SO43 for 1 day, 2 d and 4 d. Results showed that the seedlings of all peanuts showed yellowing on the 10th day of iron deficiency treatment. Then, 25 µmol/L FeSO4 was used to iron supply for 2 days, which led to increase of SPAD value, while iron uptake per plant were significantly different between iron deficiency tolerant and iron sensitive cultivars. When treated with 30 µmol/L Fe2(SO43 for 2 days, the increase of SPAD value and iron activation per plant were also significantly different between the deficient tolerant and sensitive cultivars. Therefore, considerting peanut iron absorption/activation ability,the increase of seedling SPAD, iron uptake per plant and/or activation per plant could be used as indicators after iron supply (25 µmol/L FeSO4 or 30 µmol/L Fe2(SO43 for 2 days) when seedlings have been etiolated.

  • He-ran WANG, Ying-chun LI, Xue HAN, Peng-shi CHEN, Jing LI, Dong-ming LIU, Shuo ZHANG
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    The northward expansion of peanut cultivation in China is limited by the availability of heat resources, and frost poses a significant challenge to peanut planting in Northeast China. Peanut is the 3rd largest crop in Liaoning province, which is an important exporter of peanuts in China. This paper studied the hazard of frost to peanut cultivation from a disaster-causing perspective, which is of great significance for ensuring the area stability and production safety of oil crops in emerging production areas. Based on the daily minimum temperature data of 56 meteorological stations in Liaoning from 1961 to 2020, the number of spring and autumn frost days were identified, as well as the first and last frost dates during the peanut growing season. The risks of spring frost and autumn frost in peanut cultivation were evaluated and the adaptability of current sowing and harvesting periods in reducing the frost risk in Liaoning was assessed.The results showed that the risk of autumn frost increased from southwest to northeast in Liaoning, while the risk of spring frost increased from south to north. The probability of daily frost occurrence exhibited an "S" shape during autumn and an inverse "S" shape during spring. It took approximately two months for the probability to increase from 0% to 100% and vice versa. The safe growth period for peanuts in Northeast China can be defined as the time between the corresponding date of the sowing lower limit temperature and the date of first frost. Autumn frost has a greater impact on peanut cultivation in Liaoning compared to spring frost. To avoid autumn freezing damage in the highest risk areas such as Fuxin city, the north-central part of Shenyang city and Tieling city, which are the main peanut-producing regions in Liaoning, it is necessary to postpone the harvesting date. While spring freezing damage in most major peanut-producing regions in Liaoning can be avoided by postponing the sowing date, the impact on the harvesting date must also be considered. Frost and wet soil during the autumn harvesting period may pose new challenges.

  • Man-yu YUAN, Yi-jun WU, Wen-ting ZHOU, Yan-xia CONG, Yu-tang QI, Wei-nong ZHANG
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    The changes of acid value, peroxide value, phosphorus content, phytosterols, tocopherols and diglycerides of rapeseed oil, as well as the composition and content of phospholipids in degummed oil feet (oil sediment) were investigated under different degumming conditions using rapeseed crude oil as raw material. There were significant differences in degumming capabilities among water degumming and enzymatic degumming, enzymatic degumming showed more competence than water degumming, meanwhile, phospholipase A1 enzymatic degumming was more thorough compared with that of phospholipase C. The peroxide value and acid value of rapeseed oil showed a decreasing trend after degumming, additionally, the acid value of phospholipase A1 decreased the least. The content of tocopherols and phytosterols in degummed oil decreased slightly, with a maximum decrease of about 5%. Diacylglycerols content in phospholipase C enzymatic degumming increased significantly, meanwhile, the ratio of 1,3-diacylglycerols to 1,2-diacylglycerols in degummed oil decreased, with the ratio ranging from (2.2-3.0):1. There were significant differences in the composition and content of phospholipids in degummed oil feet after different degumming processes, which phospholipase A1 enzymatic degumming oil feet owned the highest content of lysophospholipids, and phospholipase C enzymatic degumming oil feet had the highest content of phosphatidylinositol.

  • Yong-bo LAN, Chang-hong LIN, Pei-chun JIANG, Cong WU, Hui HUANG, Shu-ran XU, Shi-min CAI, Yong LIN, Yan-jie ZHENG
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    In order to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the rapid determination of acetamiprid pesticide residues in rapeseed stalk, a method for the preparation of quality control samples was established and evaluated. The lyophilized quality control samples were prepared by matrix spiking and vacuum freeze-drying. And the determination of acetamiprid in the quality control samples was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The uniformity of the samples was assessed by random sampling and the stability of the samples was evaluated by observing the changes of acetamiprid over a period of one month. The quality control samples prepared by this method are homogeneous and stable, easy to store and transport, and suitable for rapid testing in the field of rapid test kit validation and blind sample assessment. This study established a simple process for the preparation of lyophilised powder quality control samples of rapeseed stalk, which provides a data reference for the study of common key technologies for the preparation of quality control samples of pesticide residues in vegetables.