To better understand import dependence and industrial safety on Chinese vegetable oils, two oilseeds （soybean and rapeseed） and 5 vegetable oils （soybean oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and palm oil） were used as examples, to measure safety evaluation indexes, and to analyze the reliability and industrial safety status. Results showed that both soybean and rapeseed import concentrations are decreasing, dependence on single country became lower, thus the import reliability became higher. But the industrial safety index of both was higher than 80, still at a crisis state in 2020. In terms of main vegetable oils, the concentration of three oils (soybean oil, peanut oil and rapeseed oil） was decreasing, with low dependence on a single country with high import reliability, while sunflower oil and palm oil were relatively concentrated, with high dependence on single country in low import reliability. In 2020, the industrial safety index of soybean oil and peanut oil were 60 and 68 respectively, which were in an unsafe state. The industrial safety index of rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and palm oil were all greater than 80, which were all in crisis states. The safety problems of plant oilseed and oil industry are severe in China. We suggested that moderately expanding the cultivated area of oilseeds, cultivating high quality germplasm resources, improving mechanization level and domestic oil supply chain system, using the geopolitical advantage to establish good partnership, deepening the international trade cooperation, and encouraging competent agricultural enterprises to expand international raw material base and supply chain.