To better understand import dependence and industrial safety on Chinese vegetable oils, two oilseeds （soybean and rapeseed） and 5 vegetable oils （soybean oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and palm oil） were used as examples, to measure safety evaluation indexes, and to analyze the reliability and industrial safety status. Results showed that both soybean and rapeseed import concentrations are decreasing, dependence on single country became lower, thus the import reliability became higher. But the industrial safety index of both was higher than 80, still at a crisis state in 2020. In terms of main vegetable oils, the concentration of three oils (soybean oil, peanut oil and rapeseed oil） was decreasing, with low dependence on a single country with high import reliability, while sunflower oil and palm oil were relatively concentrated, with high dependence on single country in low import reliability. In 2020, the industrial safety index of soybean oil and peanut oil were 60 and 68 respectively, which were in an unsafe state. The industrial safety index of rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and palm oil were all greater than 80, which were all in crisis states. The safety problems of plant oilseed and oil industry are severe in China. We suggested that moderately expanding the cultivated area of oilseeds, cultivating high quality germplasm resources, improving mechanization level and domestic oil supply chain system, using the geopolitical advantage to establish good partnership, deepening the international trade cooperation, and encouraging competent agricultural enterprises to expand international raw material base and supply chain.
To understand the influence of excessive input of fertilizers on rape production in China, this paper evaluated the degree of excessive fertilization by comparing the marginal product value of fertilizer in rape production with the ratio of fertilizer price, and hoped to provide strong support for promoting green and efficient development of rape industry. Results showed that the fertilizer output elasticity of rape production was 0.1255. From 1991 to 2019, the average degree of excessive fertilization in rape production was 25.5%. During the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" period, although the fertilizer input for rape production exceeded the optimal application level in the economic sense, it was still at a historically low level. If the optimal fertilizer input has been realized from the economic perspective, the application of chemical fertilizer could be reduced by 10.9 million tons from 1991 to 2019 on rape production. Based on the above results, following inspirations could be drawn from the policy level: (1) project the amount of chemical fertilizers reducing for rape production, and optimize the top-level design for fertilizer application; (2) improve the special subsidy for organic fertilizers and formula fertilizers, and expand popularization of organic fertilizer and formula fertilizer; (3) strengthen technical guidance and training services, and improve the cognition level of rape farmers.
Based on the social network analysis method, the global sunflower oil trade data from 2000 to 2020 were used to construct the overall network of world sunflower oil trade, and to analyze the evolution characteristics of global sunflower oil trade and the policy implications for China's sunflower oil trade. The results show that: from 2000 to 2020, the overall network density and reciprocity of global sunflower oil trade increased by 2.1% and 4.4%, respectively. The direct transaction path between trading partners shortened year by year, and the overall network connections became more and more close. Russia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Turkey remain the core countries in the global sunflower oil trade, while Ukraine and China continue to improve their trade status. China's sunflower oil import scale has been growing rapidly in the past decade, and its trade deficit has been expanding constantly. According to above, we suggesed to improve the ability in the sunflower seed oil coordination control, to play a pivotal role in sunflower oil trade markets around the world. On the one hand, we need to deepen cooperation with Russia, Ukraine and other core countries, actively expand the circle of friends, on the other hand, we might increase imports from Turkey, Argentina and other exporters, and create more efficient sunflower oil trade network.
Rapeseed （Brassica napus L.） is the largest oil crop in China, and the mechanized production is the inevitable trend of rapeseed industry. But the long flowering period and inconsistencies of silique mature caused by indeterminate inflorescence in rapeseed are key links affecting mechanized harvest. Therefore, gene mapping, candidate gene prediction and cloning of the determinate inflorescence trait are of great significance for the genetic improvement of rapeseed, the cultivation of new varieties suitable for mechanized harvest and the breaking of the bottleneck of rapeseed mechanized production. A natural and novel rapeseed mutant with determinate inflorescence was identified in this study. The F2 isolated population was constructed by crossing with Zhongshuang 11（ZS11）.Two pools with 20 determinate and indeterminate inflorescence F2 lines were used for gene mapping of determinate inflorescence, 20× and 10× depth of whole genome re-sequencing were conducted for the two pools and parental lines, respectively. A total of 277 679 SNP and 302 625 InDel polymorphic sites were identified for whole genome mapping of determinate inflorescence traits. Using the △ SNP-index method for association analysis, a total of 892 polymorphic marker loci were screened, containing 683 genes, which were mapped on six significantly associated interval of chromosome A09, A10 and C09, of which, the locus on chromosome C09 exhibited the highest peak. By A. thaliana genome homologous sequence alignment, combined with gene functional annotation and sequence difference analysis, genes of BnaA09g34410D, BnaA09g37880D, BnaA09g38520D, BnaC09g40470D, BnaC09g40480D and BnaC09g49710D were predicted as potential candidate genes of determinate inflorescence within the association interval on chromosomes A09 and C09. The genes of BnaA09g34410D, BnaA09g37880D and BnaC09g49710D were involved in the control of flower development and flowering time, and the three genes located within associated interval of chromosome C09 with the highest peak having sequence differences of allelic genes, were predicted as the main genes controlling this determinate inflorescence trait. The results establish the theoretical foundation for the cloning and function identification of the determinate inflorescence genes in rape.
To achieve stable high yield and suitable mechanized cultivar for rapeseed
To study the function of VDAC1 gene in Brassica napus under low temperature stress, CDS region of BnVDAC1 gene was cloned using cDNAs as templates from both Tianyou 2288 (weak cold resistance) and 16NTS309 (strong cold resistance). Bioinformatics analysis found that their BnVDAC1 genes encoded 276 amino acids. The isoelectric points were 7.28 and 8.46 respectively. The proteins were stable (< 40). The secondary structures were mainly random coil, and the tertiary structures were composed of 2 β-barrels surrounded by β-sheets. Through pBI121-BnVDAC1-GFP fusion expression vector, tobacco leaf subcellular localization showed that
Soybean pod shattering is one of the important factors influencing soybean yield loss. In this study, gene distribution of pdh1 in 105 varieties from multiple variety tests in Yangtze River regions was studied. Results showed that 56 of all tested varieties contained pdh1 gene, and pdh1 was concentrated in summer type soybean. The number of varieties containing pdh1 accounted for 91.4% of the total summer soybeans. Its distribution has obvious regional characteristics. About 82.3% soybean varieties with pdh1 were bred from Huang-Huai-Hai regions and Northeast China （including Liaoning, Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, Shandong）, while only 11.6% varieties containing pdh1 were from South China （including Fujian, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan and Zhejiang）. Thus the pdh1 gene had been effectively used in breeding for Northeast China and Huang-Huai-Hai regions, and also could be a marker for pod-shattering resistance selection. But it were poorly used in South China due to the high temperature and humidity in fields. It was suggested that molecular marker assisted selection might be helpful to improve the breeding efficiency regionally on pod shattering resistance.
Brassica juncea exhibites relatively tolerance to heavy metal cations. Because of NRAMP （natural resistance associated macrophage protein） is mainly involved in absorption and transport of metal cations, we used NRAMP homologous genes of Arabidopsis thaliana as reference, to better understand the NRAMPs in B. juncea. Thus 18 BjNRAMP memmbers in B. juncea were identified on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that BjNRAMPs were clustered into 2 clades. Their expansions
Soybean can symbiosis with rhizobia to produce nodule, through which symbiosis nitrogen fixation can provide essential nitrogen source for soybean growth and development. Rhizobia type III effectors are important signal molecules regulating symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which is very important for the establishment of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In this study, NopAA mutants of rhizobia HH103 type III effecting factor were constructed and identified by bioinformatics analysis, three-parent hybridization and Southern blot were used to construct the mutant. Expression analysis showed that NopAA mutation significantly reduced the expression of soybean immune-related gene PR1. Through NopAA expression detection during nodule formation, it was found that NopAA could still be expressed by rhizobia after nodule maturity. Finally, NopAA mutation can significantly inhibit the production of nodule through nodule formation ability identification. This study laid a foundation for revealing the mechanism of the type III effector NopAA and provided a theoretical basis for the utilization of co-organic nitrogen fixation in soybean agricultural production.
Cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are divided into two subspecies (hypogaea and fastigiata), according to the branching patterns of vegetable shoot and inflorescence. In these two subspecies, the flowering time, branching pattern and the numbers of branches are all different, which possibly due to the disparate spatio-temporal expressions of PEBP family genes. In this study, AhTFL1 was isolated from young axillary buds of Yuhua 25, and was alignned to chromosome 18. The 543-bp open reading frame of AhTFL1 was predicted to encode a protein with 180 amino acids. The encoded protein contained the conservative D-P-D-x-P and G-x-H-R motifs, belonging to PEBP family members. Moreover, five conservative amino acid residues in 91, 115, 145, 147, and 159 of AhTFL1 were identical to His88, Glu112, Ser142, Asp144, and Asp156 in AtTFL1. The result of phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that AhTFL1 belongs to TFL1-like subfamily. Subsequently， AhTFL1 gene function was studied using functional complementation assay through Arabidopsis thaliana tfl1 mutant, based on the homology of AhTFL1 gene and Arabidopsis TFL1 gene. The transformation of 35S::AhTFL1 into the Arabidopsis thalianatfl1 mutant can mainly recover the mutant phenotypes into wild type, such as resulting in the mutant with heightened main stem, lengthened lateral branches, increased main stem lateral branches and pod number, and decreased rosette lateral branches. Furtermore, over-expressing AhTFL1 in both wild type Arabidopsis and tfl1 mutant delayed flowering, implying AhTFL1 functions in the promotion of vegetative growth and the delay of transition from vegetative to reproductive growth.
To evaluate the productivity, adaptability and stability of lignans content of black sesame cultivars under different ecological conditions, a multi-site multi-year experiment was conducted on 42 black sesame cultivars in 3 pilot sites with different soil fertility in Jiangxi Province. The content of sesamin and sesamolin in different black sesame cultivars was systematically analyzed by combined analysis variance and GGE （genotype + genotypes and environment interactions） biplot and other methods. The results showed that the average content of sesamin was the highest at Poyang site （1.92 mg/g） and the lowest at Jinxian site （1.73 mg/g）. The average content of sesamolin at Agricultural University （Nongda） site was the highest （2.88 mg/g）, while the average content of sesamolin in Jinxian was the lowest （1.86 mg/g）.The results of combined variance analysis showed that the contents of sesamin and sesamolin in different black sesame cultivars were significantly different, and were significantly affected by the environment （E） and the interaction between genotype and environment （G×E）. The results of GGE biplot analysis showed that G1 and G15 were stable cultivars with high sesamin content, and G10 had the highest sesamin content in multiple environments, showing strong adaptability and high promotion value. G2, G3 and G40 are stable cultivars with high sesamolin content. G2 sesamolin content had the best adaptability at Poyang and Agricultural University, and the best adaptability at Jinxian was G11. Compared with low sesamin and sesamolin, the oil content of high sesamin and sesamolin types increased significantly, and showed a very significant positive correlation with oil content, so that the synchronous improvement of sesamin, sesamolin and oil content could be achieved.
The ω-3 FAD gene is a key rate-limiting enzyme gene in α-linolenic acid synthesis pathway. By regulating the overexpression of this gene, α-linolenic acid content in plants can be increased. The homology-based cloning, expression pattern and functional analysis of PvFAD7 gene from Plukenetia volubilis will help to elucidate the biosynthesis mechanism of α -linolenic acid in Plukenetia volubilis seeds. Based on the transcriptome database, the PvFAD7 gene was cloned from fresh leaves and analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The expression pattern of PvFAD7 in different organs （mature leaves, new leaves, stems, roots, pericarp, young seeds （Pv-1） and mature seeds （Pv-2）） was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerasechain reaction, and the subcellular localization of the PvFAD7 protein in tobacco leaf epidermal cells was observed. By constructing an overexpression vector, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation was performed to obtain transgenic positive tobacco plants with overexpressing PvFAD7 gene. The fatty acid components of harvested seeds were determined by gas chromatography. The DNA sequence of PvFAD7 gene was 2 222 bp, encoding 461 amino acids, including 8 exons and 7 introns. The results of amino acid sequences alignment showed that PvFAD7 protein had the highest homology with Ricinus communis and Hevea brasiliensis. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that PvFAD7 protein had four histidine conserved regions, which was a typical membrane-bound fatty acid dehydrogenase. The N-terminal of PvFAD7 was characterized by chloroplast transport peptide, which was consistent with the results of subcellular localization. Results of RT-qPCR showed that PvFAD7 gene had the highest relative expression level in mature and new leaves, the lowest expression level in seeds, and there was no significant difference between the two development stages of seeds. By constructing an overexpression vector pCAMBIA1301-PVFAD7 and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, positive transgenic tobacco plants with overexpressing PvFAD7 gene were obtained. Fatty acid determination of harvested tobacco seeds showed that the linoleic acid content of transgenic positive tobacco seeds was reduced by 6.40%. The α -linolenic acid, palmitic acid and oil content increased by 0.87%, 3.19% and 18.09%, respectively. In conclusion, PvFAD7 is a chloprplast ω-3 fatty acid dehydrogenase gene, which plays an active role in catalyzing the biosynthesis of α-linolenic acid from linoleic acid, but it might not be the major gene for α-linolenic acid biosynthesis in Plukenetia volubilis seeds.
To improve oilseed yield on rape (Brassica napus L.) by nutrient supply, mineral contents from different cultivars at different growth stages were studied using pot experiment during rape growth seasons from 2019 to 2020. The cultivars included 3 types, high-yield cultivar (Huayouza 62, H62), high-oil content cultivar (Zhongyouza 19, Z19) and control cultivar with conventional seed yield and oil content (Huayouza 12, H12). The dynamic changes in ionomics content and plant biomass were measured, and the differences of seed yield and oil contents were also analyzed. Results showed that after seedling stage, N content of H62 was higher than that of H12, and its N accumulation rate was increased by 7.1-24.5% (compared with H12). At bolting and podding stages, the content of K and Mg in Z19 were higher than those in H12. As a result, K accumulation rates of Z19 in these 2 stages were 31.0% and 10.7% higher than those of H12, respectively. And Mg accumulation rates in Z19 were also higher by 68.5% and 15.3%, respectively. The difference in micronutrient accumulation rates among 3 cultivars varied clearly in different growth stages. At seedling stage, the micronutrient concentration and accumulation rate of H62 were lower than H12. And Mn, Cu, Zn, and B accumulation rate of H62 at bolting stage were higher than those of H12 by 14.5-125.7%, while Fe accumulation rate of H62 was lower than that of H12. The difference of micronutrient accumulation between H62 and H12 were decreased after flowering with different extents. The accumulation of Zn in Z19 was higher than that in H12 during growth. Moreover, the accumulation of 5 kinds of micronutrient in Z19 were significantly higher than those in H12 at bolting stage. Then, Fe, Mn, and B accumulation in Z19 were continued to be clearly higher than those in H12 at podding stage. Seed yield of H62 was 10.8% higher than H12. Oil content of Z19 was 30.8% higher than H12. By partial least squares path modeling analysis, it indicated that seed yield was mainly affected by bolting stage, dominated by the positive effect from N content. The oil content was mainly affected by podding stage, dominated by the positive effects of pod biomass, Mg content and accumulation rates, as well as the negative effects of leaf biomass, N content and accumulation rates. In oilseed rape production, more N fertilizer could be applied before bolting for oilseed rape cultivars characterized by high seed yield to increase N content at bolting stage. And additional Mg fertilizer could be top-dressed after flowering for oilseed rape cultivars characterized by high oil content to promote oil content potential.
In order to study the relationship between the beginning of withered leaf stage and cold resistance of winter Brassica rapa under low temperature, two varieties of winter Brassica rapa cultivars Longyou 7 （strong cold-resistance） and Longyou 99 （weak cold-resistance） were investigated. Plant phenotype, cell activity, active oxygen metabolism and expression of related genes regulated by reactive oxygen species were comprehensively analyzed under low temperature stress （5 to 19℃ at 5-leaf stage, -8 to 0℃ at 7-leaf stage, -14 to -4℃ at 7-leaf stage）. Results showed that after low temperature stress before winter, Longyou 7 entered the withered leaf stage earlier, while Longyou 99 entered the stage later. The number of cell death in leaves increased gradually during low temperature stress, and the number from Longyou 7 was significantly more than that from Longyou 99. Before stress, contents of H2O2 and
An accurate and efficient identification system of salinity and alkali resistance is very important for the evaluation of salinity and alkali resistance of rapeseed germplasm resources.In order to establish an evaluation system for salinity and alkali tolerance of rapeseed and screen the tolerant germplasm, 87 rapeseed （Brassica napus L.） varieties/lines （inbred lines） from major rapeseed producing areas in China were used as test materials, and a hydroponic system was used to simulate stress. The results showed that the number of fully expanded green leaves of rapeseed plants under saline-alkali stress could be used as a reliable indicator for effectively distinguishing different types of rapeseeds, while the fresh weight of aboveground parts could be used as auxiliary indicators. By grading the number of fully expanded green leaves, the 87 rapeseed resources measured were divided into 4 salt-and-alkali-tolerant grades from 0 to III. Among them, 7 salt-alkali-tolerant rapeseed resources with resistance grade III were obtained. The results provided methods and resources for salinity-tolerant breeding of rapeseed.
For elit soybean with high photosynthetic efficiency, this study researched the photosynthetic characteristics and yield potential of soybean with different seed coat color. The photosynthetic parameters of 11 soybean germplasm in field with different seed coat colors were comprehensively evaluated by correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Results showed that there were significant differences in the 8 photosynthetic parameters of the germplasm （P< 0.05）. The coefficient of variation of the 12 photosynthetic parameters ranged from 1.4% to 10.5%, with relatively higher variation degree in stomatal conductance （gs ）, transpiration efficiency （TE） and excitation energy capture efficiency
The limiting factors of summer soybean yield in Anhui Province were elucidated to provide a theoretical reference for increasing soybean yield in this area. The summer soybean yield and the effects of climate and disease on yield formation were studied by analyzing the disease occurrence and the data of yield and meteorology of the variety comparative tests of summer soybean in Anhui Province from 2016 to 2021. The results showed that the average annual yields of the tests were between 2180.6-2826.4 kg/hm2, which were higher than the average yields of soybean production in Anhui Province in recent years （1500 kg/hm2）. The average temperatures for late July （flowering period） in high-yield years were lower than that in low-yield years, and there was no high-temperature weather with the daily maximum temperature exceeding 35℃, nor daily average temperature exceeding 30℃. The average rainfall in mid-July and late July in high-yield years were more than that in low-yield years, and the probabilities of autumn drought were early September > late August > mid-August. Due to the influences of climate, diseases and pests, 11.1% of the tests did not obtain valid data, and the yield of the lowest yield experimental sites in different years decreased by 13.6%-36.3% compared with the average annual test yield. Changeable transitional climate and high disease frequency are the main reasons affecting soybean yield in Anhui Province. The high temperature in late July and the autumn drought in early September are important limiting factors for soybean yield. The high temperature during the flowering period of soybean may be one of the inducing factors for the occurrence of "Zhengqing" of soybean in this area. In order to increase soybean yield in Anhui Province, comprehensive consideration should be given to improving the stress tolerance of varieties, optimizing planting techniques and improving water conservancy facilities.
As nutritions for human health, anthocyanins and other flavonoids are important molecules that mediate plant adaptation to environmental stress. The objective of this study was to investigate oxidation resistance and salt tolerance of 3 peanut cultivars with pink (YZ9102), red (JHR1), and black (JHB1) testa colors. A pot experiment was conducted under controlled conditions. 7-day old seedlings were subjected to Hoagland solution (CK) and 150 mmol/L NaCl (SS) for 10 days. The changes in growth, flavonoid content, and antioxidant enzyme activities were analyzed. Results showed that salt stress caused a decrease in plant height, leaves area and biomass in the 3 cultivars. JHR1 and JHB1 exhibited higher salt tolerance than YZ9102. The antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) of JHR1 and JHB1 were markedly increased by salt stress compared to YZ9102. The flavonoid contents exhibited the same trends in the 3 cultivars under salt stress. The relative malonaldehyde (MDA) content was lower in JHR1 and JHB1 than in YZ9102. Correlation analysis showed that the relative flavonoid content and MDA content were significantly (P< 0.05) related to salt tolerance. The flavonoid content was highly correlated (P< 0.01) with the SOD activity, MDA content, plant height and leaf area. In conclusion, the roots of JHR1 and JHB1 accumulated more flavonoids than YZ9102 under salt stress and showed higher antioxidant capacity and less inhibition of growth under salt stress. The results might provide information for screening salt resistant peanut cultivars.
In order to explore the effects of different summer planting patterns on peanut production, reproductive growth, yield and quality, high oleic acid peanut Yuhua 37 were investigated under 6 different summer planting patterns. Flowering dynamics, seed setting dynamics, yield, quality composition and other indicators of different treatments on Yuhua 37 were also involved. Results showed that although peanuts of direct summer planting patterns have a short growth period, due to high temperature, the growth process was accelerated, with early flowering, large flower volume, and quick pods filling. The plant peak daily flowering amount were 7.56 flowers/d (under direct summer ridging mulching) and 6.96 flowers/d (direct summer ridging folloewed by liquid film after emergence 12 d) respectively, which were higher than those of wheat intercropping planting. Their total flowers per plant were 148.45 and 126.47 respectively, which were also higher than or equivalent to those of wheat intercropping planting. Their amounts of basal seeds and apical seeds per plant reached their peaks at ~35 d and ~42 d and then began filling, which were 7 d earlier than those under wheat intercropping planting pattern. The highest yield was obtained under the pattern of direct summer planting with ridging and film mulching, yield increased 5.36% and 3.07% than those under wheat intercropping planting in 2019 and 2020 respectively. Under the pattern of directly summer ridging treated with liquid film after emergence 12 d, yield increased by 3.25% in 2019 than that of wheat intercropping planting, and equaled in 2020. Therefore, coordinated development of vegetative growth and reproductive growth, accelerated pod enrichment, and high yield and quality could be achieved under the pattern of direct summer planting with ridging and film mulching, or under such patern by liquid film spray after emergence.
To explore the effects of lime application on peanut soil enzyme activity of red soil barren desert soil, and optimize the growth conditions of peanut, three peanut varieties representing different grain types （large-grain variety Xianghua 2008, medium-grain variety Xianghua 55 and small-grain variety Lanshan-Xiaozi） were used as experimental materials in soil column cultivation experiment, and two treatments were set up: calcium coated （lime） and calcium free （control）. Five soil enzyme activities were measured and analyzed in 0-20 cm surface and rhizosphere soil of peanut during the main growth period. The results showed that, with the development of peanut growth period, soil enzyme activity increased first and then decreased gradually, and the peak value appeared in the vigorous growth period, that is, flowering-pegging stage or pod-bearing stage; The application of lime had significant effects on the enzyme activities of topsoil and rhizosphere soil during the whole growth period of different peanut varieties, and the variation range of enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil was greater than that in topsoil soil; The catalase activity of topsoil and rhizosphere soil of different peanut varieties increased after calcium application, indicating that calcium application could enhance the antioxidant capacity of peanut; For large and medium grain peanut varieties, calcium application increased the activities of soil protease and soil urease, but decreased the activities of soil sucrase and soil acid phosphatase; Meanwhile, the activities of soil sucrase and soil acid phosphatase increased significantly after calcium fertilizer was applied to small grain peanut, although the average increase of protease and urease activities was lower than that of the control group, the activities of protease and urease in the later growth stage were higher than these of the control and large and medium peanut varieties; Calcium application could promote the transformation from vegetative growth to reproductive growth of peanut plant, reduce the height of main stem and lateral branch length, and increase the number of well-filled pods, well-filled pods weight and productivity per plant of each grain type. With the same amount of calcium application, the productivity of large and medium seeded peanuts increased less, indicating that large and medium seeded peanuts need more calcium than small seeded peanuts. Therefore, the application of lime calcium fertilizer to peanut in red soil dryland of South China has a great regulation effect on different soil enzyme activities and yield of peanut, which might lay a foundation for high-yield cultivation, variety breeding and planting layout of peanut.
To screen peanut varieties for summer-sowing in eastern Hebei Province, the adaptability of 15 early maturing peanut varieties was studied on yield and quality. The results showed that the growth period of 15 varieties were 105-109 days, and that of Huayu 9515 and Silihong were 105 days. The 100-pod and 100-kernel weight were the highest of Huayu 9515, and the kernel and full pod rate were both higher in Dabaisha 171 and Jihua 11, and the pods yield were higher of the three varieties. The fresh pods yield were higher with Dabaisha 171, Jihua 11, Huayu 9515 and Silihong. The selected peanut varieties with high fat, protein, oleic acid, amino acid and sugar content were Qinghua 6, Huayu 23, Dabaisha 171, Yuhua 40 and Baisha 308; Luhua 14, and Huayu 9515; Jihua 11; Hei 1732, Huayu 9515, Weihua 8 and Silihong; Silihong, Fuhua 27 and Hei 1732 respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between kernel yield and full pod rate with pods yield, also between 100-pod weight and 100-kernel weight. While the pods per kilogram had a significant negative correlation with full pod rate and 100-pod weight, and so was there between amino content and the fat, protein. The 26 traits of yield and quality were divided into 5 components by principal component analysis, and the cumulative contribution rate was 89.81%, which reflected the information of protein content, amino acid component, fatty acid component, full pod rate and kernel rate successively. The 15 varieties were divided into 4 groups by K-means clustering analysis based on the value of 5 principal components. In conclusion, the summer-sowing peanut in eastern Hebei Province has high-yield potential. The contents of fat, soluble sugar and essential amino acids increased, while the contents of protein,lysine, oleic acid and oil/linoleic acid value decrease slightly in kernels, which can be improved by optimizing cultivation measures. And the sowing time of summer-sowing peanut should not be later than June 25.
A reasonable nitrogen （N） application method could improve nodulation and N2 fixation, and reduce agricultural pollution and improve production efficiency under the premise of high yield and quality of soybeans. The effects of different N application rate and time on biomass, N2 fixation, ureide, yield, fat and isoflavone content of soybean, and the relationships among them were studied in present study, then to provide a theoretical and scientific basis for high-yield and high-quality soybean in this area. A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of N application rates with 0 （CK）, 5 mg N/kg soil （LN） and 100 mg N/kg soil （HN） at V2 （two trifoliolates） or R1 （beginning bloom） stages on growth, nitrogenase activity and ureide content at R2 （full bloom） and R5 （beginning seed） stages. The yield, fat and isoflavone of soybean seeds were determined at R8 （full maturity） as well. The N application rate and time had significant effects on nodulation and nitrogenase activity of soybean. With increasing N application rate, the nodule dry weight and number were decreased. Compared with the CK treatment, the nodule number and dry weight decreased by 69.6% and 88.4% under HN with R1 treatment at the R2 stage, respectively. In contrast, the highest nitrogenase activity and ureide content were observed under LN treatment. Compared to the CK treatment, the nitrogenase activity under LN with V2 treatment increased by 28.5% and 18.2% at the R2 and R5 stage. Soybean grain yield and fat content were the highest in LN treatment, while isoflavone content was the highest in CK treatment; The grain fat content of LN treatment increased by 1.7%-2.0% compared with CK treatment, and the isoflavone content of HN treatment decreased by 5.2%-11.2% compared with CK treatment. The structural equation model indicated that N application negatively regulated fat content and indirectly affected soybean yield; Negatively regulate the number of nodules and indirectly affect the content of isoflavones in soybean. In general, the N application at V2 stage was more beneficial to soybean yield and nitrogen fixation, while the N application at R1 stage was more beneficial to soybean grain fat content. The reasonable amount of N application should be controlled at 5 mg N/kg soil.
In order to explore the pathogenicity variation of Sclerotium rolfsii affecting peanut, 39 strains collected from different geographical locations were tested on peanut plants （cut stems and branches, and detached leaves）. The results showed that all the S. rolfsii strains were pathogenic on peanut plants, but they displayed a significant difference in disease index. Their disease indices in fields were significantly correlated with those of cut stems, branches and detached leaves tested in greenhouse. The strains within the same MCGs （mycelial compatibility groups） exhibited pathogenicity variation both in field and in greenhouse. The revealed variation of pathogenicity of S. rolfsii could provide theoretical and technical basis for management of peanut stem rot disease and cultivar distribution.
To improve sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) food nutrition, effects of 72 h-germinating treatment were measured. The main nutritional components （including total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acid, protein, fat), anti-nutritional factors (phytic acid), functional components (γ-aminobutyric acid, flavonoids, total phenol) and antioxidant capacity were investigated from sesame cultivar Zhongzhi 34. After germination, total sugar, reducing sugar and free amino acid were increased significantly, while fat and protein were significantly decreased. Besides, germination dramatic reduced the contents of phytic acid (an anti-nutrient factor). After germination, the contents of functional components of sesame increased significantly. Among them, γ-aminobutyric acid increased from 79.16 mg/100g to 402.99 mg/100g, flavonoids and total phenols increased by 736.54% and 723.53%, respectively. Moreover, reduction abilities of the sesame extract to nitrogen free radicals, oxygen free radicals and iron ion were also improved. Correlation analysis showed that during the germination, flavonoids, total phenols and antioxidant capacity were positively correlated with the contents of total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acid and γ -aminobutyric acid, but negatively correlated with fat and phytic acid contents. In conclusion, 72 h-germination could effectively increase nutritional and functional components, reduce anti-nutritional factors, and enhance antioxidant capacity of sesame, which provide reference for further utilization of germinating sesame products.
Sphingolipids are important components of cell membranes and bioactive molecules. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the composition of sphingolipids in walnut, hickory and pecan. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography was used to separate sphingolipids, and mass spectrometry was performed by Q-Exactive Plus mass spectrometer. Lipidsearch database software combined with internal lipid standard mixture were used to identify lipid molecules. The results showed that a total of 40 sphingolipid molecules were identified, including 25 ceramides （Cer）, 8 glucosylceramides （CerG1）, 4 sphingosines （So）, and 3 sphingomyelins （SM）. 17 sphingolipid molecules could distinguish the three kinds of nuts as significantly different lipid molecules. The result of cluster analysis is consistent with that of system classification. There contained 14 saturated fatty acids （SFA）, 5 monounsaturated fatty acids （MUFA）, and 7 polyunsaturated fatty acids （PUFA）. It could provide data basis for the research, product development and utilization of sphingolipids of three nuts.