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    28 October 2020, Volume 42 Issue 5 Previous Issue   
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    Effects of sugarcane/peanut intercropping on soil microenvironment in different plough layer
    TANG Xiu-mei, MENG Xiu-zhen, JIANG Jing, HUANG Zhi-peng, WU Hai-ning, LIU Jing, HE Liang-qiong, XIONG Fa-qian, ZHONG Rui-chun, HAN Zhu-qiang, HE Long-fei, TANG Rong-hua
    2020, 42 (5):  713.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019318
    Abstract ( 75 )   PDF (1663KB) ( 60 )  
    Sugarcane/peanut intercropping is a high efficient planting pattern in southern China. This paper in⁃vestigated the effects of sugarcane/peanut intercropping on the variation and relevance of soil nutrients,enzymes and microbes. The results showed that intercropping, compared with monoculture, significantly boosted the quantity of available N,organic matter,microbial biomass N,fungi,actinomycetes and protease activity in 0-20 cm inter⁃ cropping peanut soil as well as the number of soil bacteria, actinomycetes, total microbial, microbial biomass N and protease activity in 0-20 cm intercropping sugarcane soil. Total phosphorus, total potassium and protease activity
    significantly increased in 20-40 cm intercropping sugarcane soil and actinomyces and protease activity significantly
    increased in 20-40 cm intercropping peanut soil. Soil fungi, sucrase and microbial biomass C content increased sig⁃
    nificantly in 40-60 cm intercropping peanut soil. Sucrose activity significantly declined in intercropping sugarcane
    soil. Available N, P and K, organic matter content, the activity of urease and acid phosphatase and microbe quantity
    tended to decrease along with the increase of intercropping soil depth. There was a significant or extremely signifi⁃
    cant positive correlation between available nutrients and urease, acid phosphatase, microbial biomass N and mi⁃
    crobe quantity, indicating that soil nutrients, enzymes and microbes interact to maintain a good intercropping soil
    microenvironment.

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    Effects of nitrogen application and intercropping with cassava on bacterial community structure in rhizo⁃sphere soil of peanut in maturation stage
    LIN Hong-xin, YUAN Zhan-qi, XIAO Yun-ping, WANG Rui-qing, LYU Feng-juan, ZHANG Zhi-hua
    2020, 42 (5):  723.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019254
    Abstract ( 47 )   PDF (3827KB) ( 32 )  
    To clarify the difference of bacterial community characteristics in maturation stage between the cas⁃
    sava-peanut intercropping pattern and peanut monocropping pattern in the condition of equal fertilizer rate, cassava
    variety“South China 205”and peanut variety“Yueyou 200”were used as experimental materials, two nitrogen lev⁃
    els (with and without nitrogen fertilization) and three patterns (cassava monocropping, peanut monocropping and cas⁃
    sava intercropping with three rows peanut) were applied. The effects of nitrogen application and intercropped with
    cassava on bacterial community structure in rhizosphere soil of peanut in maturation stage were investigated by the
    high-throughput sequencing technique. The results showed that Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) of the cassava-pea⁃
    nut intercropping pattern was more than one in the condition of equal fertilizer rate, which showed intercropping ad⁃
    vantage, and increased land utilization by 49%-60%. The four dominant groups of bacteria in peanut rhizosphere
    soil in maturation stage were in the decreasing order of chloroflexi, proteobacteria, actinobacteria and acrobacteria,
    and the total proportion was 84.42%-84.59%. There were 477 genera of bacteria in peanut rhizosphere soil. While,
    no significant effect were detected in the alpha diversity of bacteria in peanut rhizosphere soil in treatment of nitro⁃

    gen application and intercropped with cassava. Meanwhile, cassava intercropping significantly reduced the relative

    abundance of Proteobacteria by 18.12%. Among the top 30 relative abundance bacteria genera, significant differenc⁃
    es were found in TK10 and Roseiflexus among different treatment. Nitrogen application could significantly reduce
    the relative abundance of candidatus_solibacter, acidimicrobiales and amycolatopsis by 41.18%, 33.11% and
    71.98%, respectively. Redundancy analysis revealed that available phosphorus and pH significantly affected the
    bacterial community composition of peanut rhizosphere soil. These findings provide information for understanding
    the microecological environment of peanut rhizosphere in intercropping system.


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    Effects of narrow row spacing on crop competition and substance distribution under maize-soybean relay strip intercropping
    WANG bei-bei, LIAO dun-ping, FAN yuan-fang, WANG zhong-lin, ZHANG jia-wei, YONG tai-wen, WANG xiao-chun, LIU wei-guo, YANG wen-yu, YANG feng
    2020, 42 (5):  734.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019203
    Abstract ( 37 )   PDF (1886KB) ( 40 )  
    To determinate the specific row spacing on crop competition effect and the influence of material dis⁃tribution, this research studied different narrow row spacing and the root treatment by maize-soybean strip interplanting system. The results showed that maize plant competition strength decreased with the increase of narrow row spacing, and gradually became steady. Meanwhile, soybean plant competition strength increased by 33.14% ~36.31%. The full competition intensity ( EFC ) and above-ground competition intensity (ESC) of maize were inverse⁃
    ly proportional to the narrow row spacing. EFC and ESC of soybean were consistent as follows: 40cm<80cm<100cm.The transfer rate of dry matter from vegetative organs and the contribution rate to grains of maize showed that the narrow row spacing widened from 20 cm to 100 cm, the transfer rate increased by 11.0%~20.5%, and the contribu⁃tion rate was 13.5%~27.0%.The transfer rate of dry matter from vegetative organs of soybean decreased by 17.5% ~28.5%, and the contribution rate decreased by 52.0% ~ 71.0%. Each narrow row spacing at 40cm reached a balance of systematic competition, which could coordinate the complementary competition and material distribution of maize
    and soybean relay strip intercropping.
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    Population genetic diversity and structure of Chinese peanut landraces analyzed by InDel markers
    LIU Yu, LI Chun-juan, SHI Da-chuan, YAN Cai-xia, ZHAO Xiao-bo, KONG Qing, SUN Quan-xi, YUAN Cui-ling, WANG Juan, SHAN Shi-hua
    2020, 42 (5):  743.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019301
    Abstract ( 38 )   PDF (2012KB) ( 41 )  
    In order to reveal the genetic variation and structure of Chinese peanut landraces based on InDel
    markers, the total of 13 polymorphic InDel markers were used to evaluate the 90 peanut germplasm belonging to
    four botanical types. 42 alleles were amplified,and the average number of alleles per locus was 3. Nei’s index of
    each primer varied from 0.011 to 0.705 with an average of 0.443. Shannon’s information index of each primer var⁃
    ied from 0.034 to 1.497 with an average of 0.758. The Nei’s index varied from 0.3198 for var. hirsuta to 0.4435 for
    var. vulgaris, indicated that var. hirsuta had the lowest genetic diversity. The genetic similarity coefficient among
    accessions varied from 0.077 to 1.000 with an average of 0.636. The genetic similarity coefficient between var. hypo⁃
    gaea and var. hirsuta was 0.636, higher than other pairs. There was the smaller genetic differentiation among differ⁃
    ent subspecies and botanical types. Var. hypogaea and var. vulgaris had the similar genetic structure, while var. hir⁃
    suta and var. fastigiata had different genetic structures. Clustering analysis showed all accessions could be divided
    into two groups (G1, G2) based on UPGMA method. Group G1 included all accessions of var. hirsuta, 61.90% var.
    hypogaea and 20.00% var. vulgaris. These results showed that InDel markers could be used to reveal the genetic
    variation of cultivated peanut effectively, and would provide the important reference for parent selecti
    of peanut hybrid breeding and exploitation of favourable genes.

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    Genetic diversity of peanut local germplasm resources in Shanxi Province based on SSR markers
    BAI Dong-Mei, XUE Yun-Yun, ZHANG Xin, WANG Peng-Dong, HUANG Li, TIAN Yue-Xia, JIANG Hui-Fang
    2020, 42 (5):  753.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020067
    Abstract ( 44 )   PDF (1022KB) ( 38 )  
    The genetic diversity of 72 peanut germplasm resources from different geographical sources in Shanxi Province was evaluated by 90 pairs of polymorphic SSR primers. The results showed that a total of 317 al⁃ leles were amplified with an average of 3.5222. The variation range of gene diversity index was 0.1823-0.7711, with an average of 0.4537. The polymorphic information content of each primer varied from 0.3283 to 0.7378, with an av⁃ erage of 0.4047. Shannon's information index varied from 0.1657 to 1.6734, with an average of 0.8092. Cluster anal⁃ ysis results showed that 72 materials could be divided into three major groups. Group Ⅰ was mainly Fastigiata type, Group Ⅱ was mainly Hypogaea type, and Group Ⅲ was mainly Vulgaris type. The cluster results were substan⁃ tial consistent with the botanical classification of peanut. Further analysis of the genetic variation among different types of germplasm showed that Vulgaris type had the most abundant genetic diversity, followed by Fastigiata, and Hypogaea was the least. The results revealed the genetic diversity of peanut local germplasm resources in Shanxi Province at the molecular level, and provided a theoretical basis for the exploration of excellent peanut germplasm and the efficient utilization of resources.
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    Evolution of agronomic traits and pedigree for authorized peanut cultivars by Guangxi
    LIN Xiu-fang, YE Wan-yu, WU Chun-ling, LIU Hai-dong, XU Xiao-yuan, CHEN Can
    2020, 42 (5):  760.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019202
    Abstract ( 21 )   PDF (1372KB) ( 19 )  
    In order to improve the efficiency of peanut new variety selection, evolution of agronomic traits and
    pedigree of 51 peanut varieties approved in Guangxi from 1986 to 2016 were analyzed. The results indicated that 75
    direct parents involved in these 51 peanut cultivars mainly were improved variety from Guangdong Province and in⁃
    termediate materials from Guangxi. The“breeding variety × intermediate material”and“breeding variety×breeding
    variety”were common cross breeding modes. Yueyou 551, Shanyou 523, Yueyou 223 and so on were backbone par⁃
    ents of 51 peanut varieties approved by Guangxi. In recent years, pod production of peanut varieties increased signif⁃
    icantly, however, quality traits had no significant improvement. Plant height, branch length, 100-pods weight and
    100-seed weight had played significant roles on yield. Therefore, more better germplasm should be introduced and
    utilized to improve the resistance and quality of Guangxi peanut. On the basis of conventional crossbreeding, mod⁃
    ern biotechnology methods such as molecular marker assisted breeding should be carried out to realize faster and
    better development of peanut breeding.

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    Genome-wide identification and expression pattern analysis of peanut argonaute gene family
    LU Xiao-dong, LI Chun-jua, ZHANG Hao, SUN Quan-xi, YAN Cai-xia, ZHAO Xiao-bo, WANG Juan, YUAN Cui-ling, SHAN Shi-hua
    2020, 42 (5):  767.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020045
    Abstract ( 44 )   PDF (3591KB) ( 60 )  
    AGO(Argonaute) protein is a core component of RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) and plays
    an important role in plant growth and development. The completion of peanut genome sequencing provides the con⁃
    dition for analyzing the AGO gene family on the whole genome. The conserved domain of AGO protein was used to
    obtain the members of the peanut AGO gene family which was based on the Peanut base database and NCBI. The
    phylogenetic trees, physicochemical properties, chromosomal distribution, genes structure,domain structure, and
    gene expression patterns in 22 tissues and under stresses were analyzed. The results showed that 51 members of the
    peanut AGO genes including 12 of the A.duranensis genomes, 12 of the A.ipaensis genomes and 27 of the peanut cul⁃
    tivars were identified,. Chromosomal location analysis showed that these members were unevenly distributed on the
    peanut chromosomes, and 10 pairs of AGO members from the A.duranensis and A.ipaensis genomes had a significant
    homology relationship. The expression pattern analysis shown that AdAGO2, AiAGO4, AdAGO3, AiAGO7, AdAGO8,
    and AiAGO8 had high-level expression in 22 tissues of peanut; and the AGO gene family shown higher expression in

    peanut shoot tip and stamens than other tissues. This study provided some theoretical evidence for further

    revealing the function of AGO protein, and exploring targeted gene resources related to stress-resistant breeding in peanut.

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    Cloning and expression analysis of CONSTANS-Like (COL) family genes in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
    HU Dong-xiu, LIU Hao, LU Qing, LI Hai-fen, FANG Jia-hai, LIANG Xuan-qiang
    2020, 42 (5):  778.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019290
    Abstract ( 30 )   PDF (5292KB) ( 36 )  
    Flowering is an important process from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, CONSTANS-Like
    (COL) genes belong to the critical transcription factor genes in plant photoperiod induced flowering pathway, but
    their functional detail in peanut is still unclear. In this study, we illustrated the sequence characteristics, phyloge⁃
    netic relationship, gene structure, conserved domain and expression pattern of COL family genes in peanut by bioin⁃
    formatics analysis, and cloned 17 AhCOL genes ( AhCOL1-AhCOL17). The amino acid length of 17 AhCOL genes
    ranged from 327 aa to 617 aa in peanut genome, the isoelectric points (pI) were less than 7, and the conserved do⁃
    mains of BBX and CCT existed in N-terminal and C-terminal of COL protein sequence, respectively. Furthermore,
    the expression pattern analysis of 17 AhCOL in different tissues showed that the relative expression of majority Ah⁃
    COL genes in leaves was significantly higher than in another tissue. Meanwhile, the expression levels of most Ah⁃
    COL genes presented increasing from seedling to flowering at different stage during peanut growth. This study laid
    an improtant foundation for studying the potential function of AhCOL genes in peanut.

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    Prokaryotic expression and in vitro functional analysis of peanut receptor like protein kinase AhAlSRK
    HUANG Shu-ting, LI Xia, SU Gui-jun, ZHAN Jie, WANG Ai-qin, HE Long-fei, XIAO Dong
    2020, 42 (5):  787.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019259
    Abstract ( 22 )   PDF (5246KB) ( 17 )  
    Analysis of transcriptome data which was obtained in our previous study revealed that AhAlSRK
    (LOC107458489) was an Al responsive gene. It was shown a different transcript profile of AhAlSRK under Al stress
    in Al-tolerant cultivar (99-1507) and Al-sensitive cultivar (ZH 2), suggesting a possible role of AhAlSRK in regulat⁃
    ing Al stress signaling transduction in peanut. In this study, we cloned the coding sequence of AhAlSRK. It was pre⁃
    dicted that AhAlSRK has similar protein structure with AT1G56140, a member of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like
    kinases (LRR-RLKs) VIII_2 subfamily. To verify the activity of AhAlSRK, the coding region of intracellular kinase
    domain was amplified and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-6p-1.The fusion protein was ex⁃
    pressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta 2 (DE3) plysS. GST-AhAlSRK-CD was induced successfully with 1mmol/L
    IPTG at 16℃ overnight.A kinase assay revealed that AhAlSRK autophosphorylated on both serine/threonine and ty⁃
    rosine residues. The findings provided some important information of AhAlSRK for future research on AhAlSRK-me⁃
    diated Al response pathway.
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    QTL mapping of fatty acids in different F2 populations in soybean
    SHENG Ying-hua, ZHANG Yan-rui§, DAI Ya-nan, ZAN Guang-min, ZHOU Kai, WANG Xian-zhi
    2020, 42 (5):  796.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019265
    Abstract ( 36 )   PDF (3656KB) ( 29 )  
    Soybean is one of the most important oil crops in China and around the world. Soybean oil contains
    mainly five fatty acids, and the relative composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids determines the quality
    and use of soybean oil. In this study, a low linolenic line, FA10, was used as a common male parent to cross with
    Zhongdou 32 and Zhongdou 43 to construct two F2 segregating populations. Gas Chromatography (GC) method was
    used to determine the concentrations of fatty acids and SSR markers were used to analyze the genotype for the individuals
    in the two populations. The objective of this study was to identify repeatable QTLs associated with fatty acids
    in different genetic backgrounds in soybean. Using Interval Mapping (IM) method, a total of 39 and 18 QTLs for
    fatty acids were detected in the two populations, respectively. Compared with the QTLs reported in previous studies,
    40 QTLs showed same or close markers or marker intervals. Comparing the results from the two populations in this
    study, four pairs of QTLs for linolenic showed high consistency in marker intervals and confirmed the results in previous
    studies. All these stable QTLs for fatty acids might provide useful information for the improvement of fatty acids
    in soybean.

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    Identification and evolutionary analysis of DGAT gene family in Legumes
    WEI Chen-dan, YU Ji-gao, TENG Jia, WANG Jin-peng
    2020, 42 (5):  807.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019271
    Abstract ( 43 )   PDF (5453KB) ( 43 )  
    Bioinformatics was used to identify DGAT (Diacylglycerol acyltransferase) gene in 12 legume ge⁃nomes. It was found that the gene copies in the tetraploid peanut and soybean genomes were relatively large, 17 and 10 respectively. It may be an important factor leading to higher oil synthesis capacity than other crops. Through phy⁃logenetic analysis of family genes, it was found that DGAT gene existed before the differentiation of eudicots, and re⁃peated whole genome double in legumes allowed the family to expand; and tandem repeats played an important role for family expansion. The role of the two paralogous genes in the grape, due to tandem repeats, increased the number of gene copies by 150%. The relationship between DGAT gene expression patterns in different tissues and its phylog⁃eny was also correlated. The gene family was relatively conservative and maintains a consistent evolution rate with the evolution of the leguminous genome. The study provided important genomic support for understanding the evolu⁃ tion of DGAT genes on the legume scale and improving the quality of synthetic oils such as soybeans and peanut.

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    Effects of P-loop, Bet v 1 domain deletion and mutation on ability of GmPR10 and Gly m 4l to inhibit Phytophthora sojae
    FANG Xin, FAN Su-jie, QIU Yi-ming, SONG Bo, LIU Shan-shan, WU Jun-jiang, ZHANG Shu-zhen, XU Peng-fei
    2020, 42 (5):  818.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019235
    Abstract ( 20 )   PDF (2891KB) ( 15 )  
    Phytophthora root rot caused by the ommycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae is a serious disease af⁃
    fecting soybean growth. In our previous study, it showed that GmPR10 with P-loop domain and Gly m 4l with both
    p-loop and Bet v1 domains could inhibit the growth of Phytophthora sojae, and transgenic soybean plants of overex⁃
    pressing GmPR10 and Gly m 4l could increase resistance to Phytophthora sojae. In order to further study the patho⁃
    gen inhibition mechanism of GmPR10 and Gly m 4l, the P - loop structure domain mutant of GmPR10 (Gly48/
    Thr48 and Gly51/Arg51), the P - loop structure domain mutant of Gly m 4l (Gly49/Ile49 and Lys55/Pro55), the P - loop
    structure domain deletion mutant of GmPR10 and Gly m 4l,the Bet v1 structure domain deletion mutant of Gly m
    4l by using the point mutation technique were obtained and the purified proteins of corresponding mutations to in⁃
    hibit Phytophthora sojae in vitro were carried out. The results demonstrated that GmPR10 and Gly m 4l with P-loop
    or Bet v1 domain mutation or deletion lost ability to inhibit the growth of Phytophthora sojae(Race 1), indicating
    that P-loop and Bet v1 domain were crucial for GmPR10 and Gly m 4l to perform anti-pathogen functions.

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    Cloning and expression analysis of candidate gene GmRSCN-6 for resistance to soybean cyst nematode
    BAO Dong-fang, DONG Hai-ran, WANG Jun, ZHANG Chan-juan, ZHAO Xue, HAN Ying-peng
    2020, 42 (5):  826.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019153
    Abstract ( 23 )   PDF (2262KB) ( 38 )  
    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the world's soybean diseases. It has the characteristics of
    strong pathogenicity, wide spread and long survival time of cyst. Therefore, it is very difficult to control soybean cyst
    nematode disease. Discovering and utilizing disease resistance genes is one of the effective ways to speed up the
    breeding process of soybean resistance. In this project, GmRSCN-6 gene was cloned from Dongnongl-10 and the
    properties of GmRSCN-6 protein were determined, at the same time, the expression of GmRSCN-6 in resistant and
    susceptible varieties was analyzed.The results showed that the expression of GmRSCN-6 gene was up-regulated in⁃
    termittently within 10 days of SCN race 3 infection. The expression of GmRSCN-6 reached a small peak at 3 days. It
    was stimulated that GmRSCN-6 responsed to the invasion hignal of SCN race 3, and the expression of GmRSCN-6
    reached the maximum at 10 days, and then the expression of GmRSCN-6 gene in resistant cultivar was much higher
    than that in susceptible cultivar. The results showed that GmRSCN-6 gene was involved in the resistance of soybean
    cyst nematode race 3.

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    Cloning of soybean E3 ligase gene GmPLR-2 and identification of its function in drought resistance
    ZHANG Liang, LIU Tian-yi, JI Cai-feng, GUO Xuan-lin, SHAO Rui-chao, ZHOU Jing-xuan, WANG Pi-wu
    2020, 42 (5):  835.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019319
    Abstract ( 26 )   PDF (2972KB) ( 23 )  
    Under drought stress, GmPLR-2 gene was up-regulated expression in soybean roots, stems, and leaves. The verification of this gene on drought resistance effection of soybean was necessary to develop the new drought-resistant soybean variety.In this study, the E3 ligase GmPLR-2 gene was cloned, and the plant overexpres⁃ sion vector pCAMBIA3301-GmPLR-2 and the RNA interference expression vector pCAMBIA3301-GmPLR-2-
    RNAi were transformed into the recipient Jinong 38, and molecular detection was erformed on T2 generation trans⁃genic plants. The relevant physiological and biochemical indexes in the transgenic leaves were measured after seven days without watering. The results showed that the plant overexpression vector pCAMBIA3301-GmPLR-2 and the RNA interference expression vector pCAMBIA3301-GmPLR-2-RNAi were successfully constructed, and 12 T2 generation overexpression positive plants and 11 RNA interference positive plants were obtained. The relative water
    content, POD, SOD, and Pro content of over-expressed plants were higher than those of untransformed plants and the content of RNA interference plants was lower than that of untransformed plants after seven days of drought stress. Both are lower than untransformed plants and the content of RNA interference plants is higher than untrans⁃ formed plants, and the difference is extremely significant, which indicates that the expression of GmPLR-2 gene is related to changes in related drought resistance indexes in soybean, and affects soybean drought resistance.

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    Evaluation for Akebia trifoliata(Thunb.)Koidz. var. australis(Diels)Rehd. germplasm resources based on physicochemical property and fatty acid components of seed oil
    LI Yuan-yuan, CHEN Song-shu, LIU Hong-chang, *, ZUO Zong-ming, LUO Pei-gao, ZHENG Zhong
    2020, 42 (5):  843.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019280
    Abstract ( 18 )   PDF (953KB) ( 23 )  
    Screening A. trifoliata(Thunb.)Koidz. var. australis(Diels)Rehd. germplasm suited for edible oil
    so as to provide reference for developing new oil crop. Seed oil of A. trifoliata(Thunb.)Koidz. var. australis(Diels)
    Rehd. germplasms was extracted by soxhlet extraction, and oil ratio among germplasms was compared. Peroxide val⁃
    ue, acid value, iodine value and saponification value were detected according to national standard of edible oil,
    meanwhile, seed oil fatty acid composition of A. trifoliata(Thunb.)Koidz. var. australis(Diels)Rehd. germplasms
    was tested through GC-MS system. The results showed that economic characteristics of A. trifoliata (Thunb.)
    Koidz. var. australis(Diels)Rehd. germplasm seed including oil ratio(36.57%~43.08%), average seed content of
    single fruit(6.60%~11.51%), weight of 1000-seeds(45.63~58.95g) and drying rate(51.93%~64.28%) were
    mainly affected by environmental factors. The peroxide value(0.073~0.126 mmol/kg), acid value(0.418~1.337
    mgKOH/g), iodine value(83.548~89.653 g/100g)and saponification value(199.485~221.418 mg/g)reached the
    national standard of grade 4 edible oil. Most components of seed fatty acid were saturated fatty acid, but the unsatu⁃
    rated fatty acid content was the highest. Unsaturated fatty acid mainly included oleic acid and linoleic acid, which
    accounted for ~70% in seed fatty acid; while saturated fatty acid mainly consists of palmitic acid and stearic acid,
    about ~25% in seed fatty acid.A. trifoliata(Thunb.)Koidz. var. australis(Diels)Rehd. has the potential as new
    type of oil crop. A. trifoliata(Thunb.)Koidz. var. australis(Diels)Rehd. germplasm Qiantong No.1 showed higher
    value among 5 studied germplasms and could be further exploited based on its seed economic characteristics and
    seed oil fatty acid composition.

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    Effects of Funneliformis mosseae on fluorescence parameters and physiological index of continuous cropping peanut leaves
    CUI Li, GUO Feng, ZHANG Jia-lei, YANG Sha, WANG Jian-guo, MENG Jing-jing, GENG Yun, LI Xin-guo, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (5):  851.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019187
    Abstract ( 28 )   PDF (2504KB) ( 21 )  
    Continuous cropping severely decreases peanut yield and quality. In order to investigate the effect of
    Funneliformis mosseae on the growth and development of peanut leaves under continuous cropping, the large-seed
    peanut variety‘Huayu 22’was selected, and the potted method was carried out to study the inoculation with F. mos⁃
    seae on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic-related enzyme activity, antioxidant enzyme actives,
    mineral element content, and leaves dry weight. The results showed that inoculation of F. mosseae significantly in⁃
    creased the chlorophyll content, the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm), the actual photochemical quantum effi⁃
    ciency (ΦPSП), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and the apparent electron transfer rate (ETR) under high
    temperature and strong light irradiation condition compared with uninoculated F. mosseae. Meanwhile, the activity
    of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate ribulose carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) in the leaves inoculated with F. mosseae sig⁃
    nificantly increased by 26.52% in the flowering period and 32.73% in fruiting period compared with the control.
    Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity, ascorbic acid (AsA) and proline content were also significantly in⁃
    creased in the leaves of plants inoculated with F. mosseae. In addition, the content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassi⁃
    um ions and calcium in the leaves of peanut inoculated with F. mosseae was higher than those of control. The leaves
    dry weight were also significantly increased in peanut plants inoculated with F. mosseae. Therefore, F. mosseae can
    promote the growth and development of continuous peanut leaves and alleviate the effect of continuous cropping ob⁃
    stacles on the growth of peanut.

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    Effects of seed soaking with H2O2 on seed germination of peanut under low temperature conditions
    YU Yan, ZHANG Ya-ting, ZHAO Xue, XU Ting, JIANG Yu-qing, LIU Ting-fu, ZHOU Ke-jin
    2020, 42 (5):  860.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019269
    Abstract ( 24 )   PDF (2283KB) ( 22 )  
    In order to investigate the regulative role of seed soaking with H2O2 on seed germination in peanut
    under low temperature (LT) conditions, two different peanut cultivars‘Baisha 1016’and‘Huayu 9122’were used
    to analyze the effects of seed soaking with different concentrations of H2O2 on seed germination, oxidative damage
    and reactive oxygen accumulation, and proline metabolism in peanut during germination stage. The results showed
    that LT treatment significantly postponed the time of radicals breaking through testa, reduced the relative germina⁃
    tion rate, ratio of the length of hypocotyls to seeds, germination index, and seed vigor of both peanut cultivars. Low
    temperature treatment also resulted in the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2. Seed soaking with
    H2O2 could significantly alleviate the inhibitory effects of LT on seed germination of two peanuts, with 1%
    H2O2 shown the best mitigative effects. Meanwhile, seed soaking with 1% H2O2 markedly reduced H2O2 accumula⁃
    tion and lipid oxidation, increased proline content and activities of proline synthase (Ornithine aminotransferase and
    △1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase), while inhibited the activity of proline dehydrogenase in germinating pea⁃
    nut under LT conditions. Altogether, these results indicated that seed soaking with H2O2 could increase the germina⁃
    tion ability of peanut seeds under LT through modulating proline metabolism, increase proline accumulation, and re⁃
    duce LT-induced oxidative damage.
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    Content changes of endogenous hormones in peanut seeds during germination
    CUI Wei-pei, TANG Gui-ying, XU Ping-li, LI Peng-xiang, ZHU Jie-qiong, SHAN Lei
    2020, 42 (5):  869.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019249 收稿
    Abstract ( 43 )   PDF (2818KB) ( 33 )  
     Seed dormancy and germination are two important traits in plant life cycle, in which plant hormones
    play key regulatory roles. In this study, the contents of abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA3), brassinolide (BR) and
    indole acetic acid (IAA) in the different seed parts of peanut varieties Chico (CC) with weaker dormancy and Feng⁃
    hua 1 (FH1) with stronger dormancy were detected by ELISA. The results showed that the ABA contents in the dif⁃
    ferent parts of FH1 at freshly harvested and dry seed stages were significantly higher than those in CC; and the ABA
    contents and ABA/GA3 ratio in cotyledons (Co) of the two varieties showed significant differences, while the overall
    ABA content and ABA/GA3 ratio of the two varieties decreased with the duration of imbibition. It is indicated that
    ABA plays a role in all three sections tested. At the middle and late stages of germination, the GA3 content in the
    cotyledons of the two varieties increased, indicating that GA3 mainly plays a role in the cotyledons. The content
    changes of IAA and BR in the two cultivars had the similar trend during the process of germination, and they mainly
    played a role in the Hypocotyl and radicle (HR) section. The IAA content in fresh seeds was higher. After imbibi⁃
    tion, the IAA content displayed the alteration of“wave type”curve, and as a whole, maintanted the lower level than
    that in resh narrested seeds; and in FH1 IAA contents of the three sections were lower than those in CC varieties.
    The BR contents of two cultivars presented an upward trend during germination, and which of FH1 was higher than
    that of CC seeds on the whole. In conclusion, there were differences in endogenous hormone levels among different
    cultivars. The higher ABA level in FH1 was related to its stronger dormancy. The enhanced GA3, BR level and lower
    IAA level during germination promoted the elongation of hypocotyl and the growth of radicle.

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    Hyperspectral remote sensing estimation model of peanut canopy apar and fapar
    LYU Xiao, ZHAN Shen-ye, YU Hai-qiu, YIN Hong, SUI Ming, JIANG Chun-ji
    2020, 42 (5):  878.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019230
    Abstract ( 20 )   PDF (1702KB) ( 19 )  
     In order to monitor the growth and development of peanut quickly and nondestructively,hyperspectral
    data of peanut canopy including five cultivars of different ecological types in Shenyang, were measured with hyperspec⁃
    tral detection technology, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation(APAR)and fraction of absorbed photosyntheti⁃
    cally active radiation( FAPAR)were acquired simultaneously; logρ、1/ρ、ρ'were performed on the original spectral
    data and six kinds of vegetation indexs were established,then pearson correlation analysis between peanut canopy
    APAR, FAPAR and hyperspectral data were discussed,and the hyperspectral remote sensing estimation models were
    constructed, and simulation models were tested for some chosen models in order to determine the best hyperspectral re⁃
    mote sensing estimation models of peanut canopy APAR and FAPAR in the whole growing period. The results are as
    follows: The correlations between the optimal bands of hyperspectral reflectance, its transformation forms and APAR,
    FAPAR are highly significant(r≥0.3969,P<0.01), the correlation between the first derivative spectralρ′ when the spec⁃
    tral band is 759 nm and the APAR(r=0.7574), the FAPAR of peanut canopy(r=0.6276)is the best. APAR, FAPAR
    can be best simulated by estimation equations of hyperspectral parameters at ρ′759nm y = 797.3846 e271.4883x(R=0.5512,P
    <0.01;RE=0.1213)and y=0.756e85.21x(R=0.4204,P<0.01;RE=0.0788)with the highest fitting coefficient and higher
    value of average relative error(RE=0.0870). The correlations between the optimal bands of six kinds of vegetation in⁃
    dexs including ratio vegetation index(RVI)、difference vegetation index(DVI)、normalized vegetation index(NDVI)、
    renormalized difference vegetation index(RDVI)、vertical vegetation index(PVI)、modify soil adjusted vegetation in⁃
    dex(MSAVI),and APAR is better than that with FAPAR,APAR、FAPAR can be best simulated by MSAVI[723,761]
    with logarithmic function y = 1554ln(x)+ 1631(R=0.7566,P<0.01;RE=0.0870)and RDVI[731,764] with polynomial
    function y = 1.027x2 + 0.713x + 0.729(R=0.6194,P<0.01;RE=0.0699),both with higher value of average relative er⁃
    ror ,the correlation coefficient between simulating data and testing data is highly significant. Peanut canopy APAR and
    FAPAR can be better estimated by ρ′ and vegetation indexs.

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    Effect of different synergistic phosphate fertilizer on growth, yield and phosphorus use efficiency of peanut
    SUO Yan-yan, ZHANG Xiang, SI Xian-zong, SUN Yan-min, LI Liang, YU Qiong, YU Hui
    2020, 42 (5):  888.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019217
    Abstract ( 31 )   PDF (1084KB) ( 37 )  
    The field experiments were conducted to study the effects of phosphate fertilizer combined with dif⁃
    ferent synergist (HA-humic acid, AA-complex amino acid and OA-oxalic acid) on the growth, yield and P use effi⁃
    ciency of peanut in the acid shajiang dark soil in Zhengyang county and calcareous sandy alluvial soil in Qingfeng
    county. The results showed that the peanut yield response to the 85% conventional application rate of phosphorus
    (85%P) with HA, AA and OA were affected by the soil type. Compared with 85% P, the yield increased by 8.82%,
    4.66% and -1.68% in the acid shajiang dark soil, and increased by 8.40%, 3.18% and 12.08% in the sandy alluvial
    soil. The peanut growth and yield were significantly increased under 85%P+HA in the acid shajiang dark soil and
    85% P+OA in the sandy alluvial soil. P synergist also improved P uptake and P use efficiency of peanut due to in⁃
    creasing the labile-P and the moderately labile-P content. Compared with 85% P, peanut P accumulation were sig⁃
    nificantly increased by 26.31% and 22.89% respectively, P apparent recovery efficiencies were increased by 7.74%
    and 4.99% respectively, P agronomy efficiencies were increased by 5.54 g/kg and 5.39 g/kg under 85%P+HA in the
    acid shajiang dark soil and 85%P+OA in the sandy alluvial soil. Therefore, when the P2O5 application rate was re⁃
    duced by 15%, addition of humic acid in the acid shajiang dark soil, and oxalate in the calcarous sandy alluvial soil,
    could improve the P efficiency, maintain the peanut yield with reduced application rate of P2O5.
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    Effects of calcium application on physical and chemical properties of peanut in barren upland red soil
    ZHANG Bo-wen, MU Qing, LIU Deng-wang, LI Lin, WAN Shu-bo, WANG Jian-guo, GUO Feng
    2020, 42 (5):  896.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019236
    Abstract ( 22 )   PDF (683KB) ( 32 )  
    In order to explore the effect of calcium fertilizer on physical and chemical properties of peanut soil
    in arid red soil and to provide theoretical basis for optimizing the growth environment of peanut, three peanut variet⁃
    ies of different grain sizes (large-grain Xianghua 2008, medium-grain Xianghua 55 and small-grain Lanshan
    small-grain) were selected in Changsha, Hunan Province, and cultivated by soil column experiment.In this study,
    the physical and chemical properties of rhizosphere and 0-20 cm soil in the main growth period of peanut were test⁃
    ed and analyzed by setting two treatments of calcium fertilizer (CaO) and non-calcium fertilizer. The results showed
    that calcium application could improve the pH value of peanut soil in all cultivars, all stages except the maturity
    stage, and adjust the soil acid intensity, increase the content of soil organic matter (lanshan small seed > xianghua
    2008 > xianghua 55). The soil alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen content was significantly increased (xianghua 55 > xiang⁃
    hua 2008 > lanshan small seeds). The effective potassium content in soil of large and medium grain varieties was im⁃
    proved better. The available phosphorus content in soil of large and medium grain varieties was decreased. As a re⁃
    sult, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrient elements is sufficient. When soil lacks of calcium, adding
    lime calcium fertilizer, can reduce the soil acidity and improve the organic matter, alkali solution nitrogen, and po⁃

    tassium content, but lower the content of available P. Liming in calcium acid soil peanut production should increase

    phosphate, thereby ensuring the high-efficient and high-yield peanut cultivation.


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    Forecast method of growth stage and yield of soybean based on climate suitability in Inner Mongolia
    JIN Lin-xue, LI Yun-peng, WU Rui-fen, LI Dan, WANG Jia
    2020, 42 (5):  903.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019262
    Abstract ( 16 )   PDF (812KB) ( 18 )  
    It is of great significance to forecast the growth stage and yield for agricultural production and food
    security. The observed data, including weather and development stage from 1981 to 2012 during soybean growth
    season in Inner Mongolia were used to this paper. Based on the physiological characteristics of soybean, the climate
    suitability model was built, the growth stage and yield forecasting models by step of 10 days were established. At
    last the forecasting accuracy rates were tested using the data from 2013 to 2015.The model for each growth stage
    forecasting of soybean passed significance test(P<0.01)based on climate suitability method, and the average ac⁃
    curacy of different stages were more than 90%, except for the stage from filling to mature. It is proved that the
    growth stage model has high forecasting precision. The model for yield forecasting of soybean passed significance
    test(P<0.05)most time, the average accuracy of the actual yield based on climate suitability was 87.6%. The
    growth stage and yield prediction model has high prediction accuracy and can satisfy the needs of operational servic⁃
    es, it also provides reference for forecasting method research of soybean in other soybean areas.

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    Research progresses on biological mechanism of seed storability in soybean
    WANG Rong-fan, YANG Cun-yi
    2020, 42 (5):  911.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019164
    Abstract ( 31 )   PDF (1218KB) ( 41 )  
    Soybean is the main source of high-quality vegetable protein and edible oil. The demand of China’s
    soybean is far beyond its production, so it is urgent to expand the planting areas. South China is one of regions with
    the most potential for soybean production with sufficient sunlight and plentiful rain. However, its hot and humid cli⁃
    mate often leads to soybean deterioration during seed storage, which not only affects the field emergence and seed⁃
    ling growth and further reduces the yield, but also diminishes the quality of soya products. Therefore, it is important
    to explore the biological mechanism of seed storability in soybean. This article summarizes the research progresses
    in the genetic, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of soybean storability. Meanwhile, the future work was pros⁃
    pected to provide aresearch basis for molecular breeding of soybean in South China.
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    Present Situation and Prospect of Peanut Industry in Jiangxi Province
    REN Wei-fang, WEI Xue-jiao, ZENG Zhao-cong, YE Yi, ZHENG Wei, FANG Jia-hai, WAN Li-yun
    2020, 42 (5):  920.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019277
    Abstract ( 68 )   PDF (1447KB) ( 69 )  
    To understand the development law and explore the new development direction of peanut industry
    in Jiangxi Province, this study investigated the change pattern of total peanut yield, yield of planting area, varieties
    and the yield increasing in Jiangxi province and its surrounding provinces with high-yielding performance, such as
    Shandong and Henan. The results showed that the reasons for the slow progress of peanut industry in Jiangxi were:
    1. Peanuts were planted in red soil dryland. There were less organic matter and low nutrients in red soil, which
    could not satisfy the best growth of peanut. 2. The regeneration rate of peanut varieties in Jiangxi Province was slow
    and the varieties degraded seriously. Due to lack of attention to peanut quality improvement, very few high quality
    new varieties were released. 3. High yield cultivation techniques were not updated for excellent varieties in Jiangxi
    Province. The establishment of the technical system of peanut-sesame industry in Jiangxi Province has greatly pro⁃
    moted the development of peanut industry in Jiangxi Province. The results of 2019 regional experiment of peanut in
    Jiangxi Province showed the high yield potential of peanut and the promising future of peanut development in Ji⁃
    angxi Province. The average pod yield and seed yield were the highest in Yueyou 271 (the best variety of the experi⁃
    ment), were 6305.95 kg/hm2 and 4632.57 kg respectively. Yueyou 1712 ranked second with pod yield of 6022.25 kg/hm2, seed kernel yield of 3824 kg/hm2; Xianghua 522 ranked the third whose pod yield was 5451.6 kg/hm2, seed
    yield was 4003.8 kg/hm2. These results indicated that with the further increase of investment in science and technol⁃
    ogy, the cultivation and release of varieties with good yield potential could promote and boost the peanut industry in

    Jiangxi province.



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