The variety Jinhuangma was used as the test material, and different nitrogen reduction (RSN4, at 0% less on the basis of 105 kg·hm-2; RSN3, RSN2, RSN1, RSN0 represent 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% reduction of nitrogen fertilizer, respectively) were set to study the effect on the yield of continuous cropping sesame and the bacterial community structure in rhizosphere soil under healthy or bacterial wilt conditions by using high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that the yield of sesame with 25% reduction of nitrogen fertilizer (RSN3) did not decrease significantly compared with RSN4 treatment. The α-diversity indexes of Obs, Shannon, Chao1 in RSN2 (e.g. 50% N reduction), were significantly higher by 11.53%, 3.39%, and 12.71% than those in RSN4, respectively, and Shannon index from healthy plants was significantly higher by 1.61% than that from diseased plants, and the interaction of nitrogen reduction and growth state treatment (e.g. healthy and diseased) had a significant effect on Shannon index. Compared with RSN3, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria with RSN1 (75% N reduction) significantly increased by 39.70%, but Firmicutes decreased by 30.60%, respectively. Rrelative abundance of Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Nitrospirae of rhizosphere soil from healthy plants were significantly higher by 32.42%, 155.26% and 38.54% than those from diseased plants respectively, while Firmicutes decreased significantly by 47.47% compared with diseased plants. Relative abundance of Bacillus and Massilia in RSN3 increased by 119.10% and 87.18% compared with RSN2, respectively, and that of Paenibacillus in RSN3 increased by 59.29%-193.42% compared with RSN0, RSN1 and RSN2. Relative abundance of Candidatus_Solibacter and unidentified_Nostocales from rhizosphere soil bacteria of healthy plants were 43.68% and 235.90% higher than those of diseased plants (P < 0.05), while the four genera of bacteria from rhizosphere soil of diseased plants (Bacillus, Massilia, Ramlibcter, and Paenibacillus) increased by 64.63%-106.67% than those of healthy plants (P < 0.05). Relative abundance of Carbohydrate_metabolism from rhizosphere soil of healthy plants increased by 0.94% compared with the diseased plants (P < 0.05), while the relative abundance of membrane_transport from rhizosphere soil of healthy plants was 2.37% lower than that of diseased plants (P < 0.05). Compared with RSN0 treatment, the relative abundance of metabolism_of_cofactors_ and_vitamins and nucleoside_metabolism of RSN3 increased by 1.78% and 3.63% (P < 0.05), while the relative abundance of translation, lipid_metabolism, and folding_sorting_and_degradation decreased significantly by 4.58%, 4.52% and 7.74%, respectively (P < 0.05). The contributions of three main environmental factors (pH, available potassium and available zinc) of the bacterial community change were 3.91%, 5.93% and 6.94%, respectively. In conclusion, appropriately reducing the amount of nitrogen fertilizer by 25% affects little on sesame yield, and improves the structure and function of rhizosphere soil bacterial community, which is conducive to the healthy growth of continuous cropping sesame in red soil.