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    Research progress on the main nutritional components and physiological functions of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.
    Ting-ting GUO, Chu-yun WAN, Feng-hong HUANG, Chun-lei WEI, Zheng-hua HU
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 1174-1180.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020145
    Abstract495)   HTML16)    PDF (479KB)(362)      

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L., TN), is a perennial herb of Cyperus Linn. It has the advantages of wide adaptability, short growth period, large biomass and high oil content. Stems and leaves of TN can be used as silage, and tubers of TN can be eaten raw or cooked. Noteworthily, TN can be used for oil production, and the cake can be further applied for feed. Therefore, as a new crop, TN integrates food, oil and fodder as a whole and has high economic value and development potential. In order to deeply understand TN and promote its high-value utilization, the research progress of the main nutrients such as oil, protein and polysaccharide in TN were summarizd. The physiological functions of TN in reducing blood lipid, lowering blood glucose, antioxidantion and protecting liver were expounded in detail. Moreover, the market scale and scientific research prospect were forecasted.

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    A preliminary study on the coupling effect of aflatoxin green control and super-nodulation
    Yang ZHOU, Xiao-feng YUE, Xiao-qian TANG, Hong-lin YAN, Qi ZHANG, Pei-wu LI
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 947-960.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021300
    Abstract376)   HTML46)    PDF (7632KB)(241)      

    Peanut and soybean are important oilseeds and cash crops in China, however they are also vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination, which seriously threatens food safety and restricts industrial development. The prevention and control of aflatoxin occurrence in food is currently an intense research challenge globally. We first put forward the research idea of coupling the aflatoxin green control with the promotion of root nodule nitrogen fixation, based on the research idea, the microbial agent ARC-BBBE was invented. In this study, the effect of on-the-field application of microbial agent ARC-BBBE in the control of Aspergillus flavus and its toxin on peanut was reported. The research was carried out by investigating the effects of ARC-BBBE on biological and economic traits of peanut, and identifying the effects of ARC-BBBE on nodulation and nitrogen fixation of peanut and soybean, to provide theoretical basis and scientific guidance for controlling aflatoxin contamination and reducing the fertilizer and pesticide use from the source in the field. In field control trials, ARC-BBBE was applied to the soil at a dosage of 30 kg/hm2 with base fertilizer during planting in the peanut-producing provinces of China for 2 consecutive years. At the same time, peanut and soybean pot experiments were also conducted. The level of aflatoxin in the soil was investigated by the spread plate method. And the aflatoxin content in peanut samples was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Measurement of the nitrogen fixation activity of root nodules was performed using acetylene reduction assay. Finally, the number and weight of root nodules were calculated using a 5-point sampling survey. Results showed that ARC-BBBE significantly reduced the abundance of aflatoxin-producing fungi in soil and the level of aflatoxin in peanut, with an average reduction of 66.5% in the abundance of toxin-producing fungi and decrease of 83.5% in aflatoxin content. The application of ARC-BBBE resulted in a general super nodulation phenomenon in peanut roots, and its nitrogenase activity was also verified in this work. The average number of nodules increased more than 10 folds (50 folds in poor soil areas), the nodule weight increased more than 8.8 folds, and the nodule nitrogenase activity per gram increased more than 5 folds. The fruit filling rate and yield were significantly increased and the leaf color was dense green. In addition, the results of peanut pot experiment in greenhouse showed that the number of nodules was 2.2 folds higher, nitrogen fixing enzyme activity was 4 folds higher and chlorophyll content was 21.3% higher in the ARC-BBBE treated group compared to the control group. The results of soybean potted planting experiment in greenhouse revealed that ARC-BBBE also promoted nodulation and nitrogen fixation in soybean, with a 13.5-fold increase in the number of nodules and a 19.8-fold increase in nodule weight in the ARC-BBBE-treated group compared to the control group. At 26 days after sowing, the root nodules in the treatment group had nitrogen fixation activity while those in the control group had no activity, and biological indices such as root length, root weight, fresh weight and chlorophyll level were significantly enhanced in the treatment group. The effect of ARC-BBBE on the control of Aspergillus flavus and its toxin in peanut is extremely obvious. ARC-BBBE does not only effectively inhibit peanut aflatoxin-producing fungi and reduce the risk of aflatoxin contamination from the source of production, but also significantly improves the amount of peanut root nodules and nitrogen-fixing enzyme activity, which is of remarkable growth-promoting, yield-increasing, disease-control, safety-preserving properties, and economic, social and ecological benefits. Thus, it is of great significance in minimizing the application of pesticides and fertilizers, protecting farmland ecology, and promoting the high-quality environment-friendly development of the peanut industry, which is prospective for application in the production of peanut, soybean and other leguminous crops in the future.

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    Screening of nitrogen efficient winter rapeseed varieties for growing in yellow soil in Guizhou Province
    Quan-quan WEI, Yong RAO, Meng ZHANG, Bin YANG, Ying GAO, Ling-qin ZENG, Di FAN, Wen-hao FENG, Hua-gui XIAO
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 982-995.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020283
    Abstract263)   HTML13)    PDF (490KB)(190)      

    In order to identify high nitrogen efficiency winter rapeseed for both paddy-dryland rotation and dryland rotation planting in yellow soil in Guizhou Province, field experiment was conducted on growth, nutrient absorption and utilization efficiency of different rapeseed varieties under 4 nitrogen application rates (0, 45, 135 and 180 kg/hm2, named as N0, N45, N135 and N180 respectively) using 26 varieties.Results showed that yield of all tested varieties increased with nitrogen application rates. Under N180 treatment, Deyouza 11 had the highest yield, output value and economic benefit under dryland rotalion. Its yield, output value and economic benefit reached 3130 kg/hm2, 15 650 yuan/hm2 and 9998 yuan/hm2. And Deyouza 11 also had the highset yield, output value and economic benifit under paddy-dryland rotation, reached 2767 kg/hm2, 13 835 yuan/hm2 and 8183 yuan/hm2, respectively. Deyouza 11 also had the largest biomass in both dryland rotation and paddy-dryland rotation. Nitrogen agronomic efficiency in dry field planting increased firstly, and then decreased with nitrogen application rate, and reached the peak value in N135 treatment. Partial nitrogen productivity and uptake efficiency of all tested varieties decreased with nitrogen application rate. Compare to paddy-dryland rotation, rapeseed yield, nutrient uptake and nitrogen use efficiency in dryland rotation were much higher. The nitrogen agronomic efficient of winter rapeseed in dry field planting increased firstly, and then decreased with the increase of nitrogen application rate, and reached the maximum value in N135 treatment. Under different nitrogen application conditions, partial nitrogen productivity and nitrogen absorption rate of all tested winter rapeseed varieties decreased with the increase of nitrogen application rate. The yield, nutrient uptake and nitrogen use efficiency of winter rapeseed planted in dryland rotation were better than those in paddy-dryland rotation. Considering the yield, economic benefit and nutrientnitogen uptake and utilization, 8 varieties were recommended for dryland rotation, including Deyouza 11, Qianyouzao 2, Longting 1, Qingyou 1, Jinyou 8, Qingyou 3, Jinnongyou 1 and Qianyouzao 1. And 8 varieties were recommended for paddy-dryland rotation, including Deyouza 11, Qianyou 28, Guangyuan 68, Qingyou 3, Hualongyou 1, Longting 1, Qingyou 1 and Rongyou 28. It was suggested that nitrogen management of winter rapeseed should be adjusted according to rotation patterns.

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    Effects of different phosphate fertilizer on Brassica napus cultivars grown with yellow-brown earth and acid purplish sandy soil
    Ya-jie WANG, Bing-bing ZHANG, Pan YUAN, Jia-wu ZHOU, Guang-da DING, She-liang WANG, Hong-mei CAI, Chuang WANG, Fang-sen XU, Lei SHI
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2022, 44 (1): 147-157.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020303
    Abstract228)   HTML11)    PDF (2561KB)(213)      

    To improve phosphorus (P) uptake efficiency and high yield of rapeseed (Brassica napus) on 2 soil types (yellow-brown earth and acid purplish sandy soil) with low soil P availability, P fertilizer application scheme were studied based on characteristics of soil, fertilizer and rapeseed varieties. Cultivars Zhongshuang 11 (ZS11) and Shengguang 168 (SG168) were investigated on effects of single superphosphate (SSP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and calcium-magnesium phosphate (CMP) on seedling growth, yield, yield-related traits, P uptake and physiological P use efficiency by pot experiments. Results showed that application of P fertilizer significantly promoted plant growth, increased the number of primary branches and siliques per plant, and finally increased seed yield as compared with control of without P. The plant growth of both cultivars on acid purplish sandy soil were significantly better than those on yellow-brown earth in the control. Under the same fertilizer treatment, plant growth of both cultivars on yellow-brown earth were better than those on acid purplish sandy soil, and seed yield of SG168 was significantly higher than that of ZS11 on yellow-brown earth. The seed yield of both cultivars grown on yellow-brown earth treated with DAP and grown on acid purplish sandy soil treated with CMP were the highest among all the treatments with the same soil. In addition, P uptake efficiency of SG168 was higher than that of ZS11 treated with the same fertilizer in the same soil. DAP and DAP or SSP were recommended to apply to cultivar ZS11 and cultivar SG168 grown on yellow-brown earth, respectively. CMP was recommended to apply to both cultivars on acid purplish sandy soil.

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    Current situation of soybean production and consumption in China and strategies to improve self-sufficiency rate
    Lu-lu LIU, Jian-fei LI, Yue SHU, xiao-yang CHEN, Gui-xiang TANG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2022, 44 (2): 242-248.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022015
    Abstract227)   HTML19)    PDF (475KB)(348)      

    Low self-sufficiency rate and the higher foreign dependence rate of about 87% have seriously threatened the soybean safety in China. In recent years, with the changes of the international situation and the COVID-19 epidemic, soybean production, processing and consumption in China have attracted more attention at home and abroad. China unveiled "No. 1 central document" proposed a soybean revitalization plan in 2019, putting forward the goal of "one expansion and two improvements" to strengthen the competitiveness of China's soybean industry in the international agricultural market. This paper reviewed the current situation of soybean production, processing, trade and consumption in China in recent years, and upgraded strategies to enhance China's soybean industry and enhanced the self-sufficiency rate according to China's national conditions.

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    Identification of saline-alkali tolerant germplasm resources of soybean during the whole growth stage
    Yi-qiang HAN, Ya-mei GAO, Yan-li DU, Yu-xian ZHANG, Ji-dao DU, Wen-hui ZHANG, Shao-yu PAN
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 1016-1024.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020353
    Abstract222)   HTML11)    PDF (1605KB)(282)      

    Saline-alkali stress always exists in all stages of crop, and it is of great significance to screen saline-alkali tolerant soybean resources in the whole growth period. The salt species, salt content and pH value of saline-alkali soil in Daqing area were firstly measured, then the salt species and concentration of salt for screening were determined. In culture dish, germination bag and pot screening experiment, the saline-alkali tolerance of soybean was evaluated by the germination rate, the amount of matter at seedling stage and the dry matter weight at maturity stage. The results showed that the soil in Daqing area was sulfate soda saline-alkali soil, and the saline alkali solution is the mixed saline alkali solution of NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3 and Na2SO4 (molar ratio is 1:1:9:9), and the total salt concentration calculated by Na ion content is 80 mmol · L-1, and the pH value of the solution is 8.9. Therefore, the salt content and pH value of soil in pot experiment were 3.3 ‰ and 8.9, respectively. Among the 887 soybean cultivars identified, the seed coat colors were black, brown, red, green, yellow and double color, and the correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between salt tolerance and seed coat color of soybean. 296 tolerance soybean cultivars were selected from 887 soybean resources in germination stage, and 123 cultivars among 296 cultivars were identified as high resistance in germination and seedling stage, furthermore 7 resistant soybeans, including 5 from South China, 2 from Huanghuai, and 62 tolerant soybeans were obtained in the whole growth stage, and the proportion of pot screening was 56.10%. This study established a stepwise screening method from germination stage, seedling stage to the whole growth stage, and 69 salt and alkali resistant resources were selected from 887 soybean germplasm resources, which provided material basis for salt tolerance breeding and utilization of salt tolerant gene resources.

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    Quantitative trait locus analysis for sesame oil and fatty acid contents
    Rong ZHOU, Fang-tao XU, Chen SHENG, Jun YOU, Dong-hua LI, Sheng-nan SONG, Lin-hai WANG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 1042-1051.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021107
    Abstract219)   HTML9)    PDF (3873KB)(162)      

    In this study, the oil content, oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid content variations of the RIL population, that generated from the high oil content sesame cultivar "Zhongzhi 13" (56.31%) and the low oil content sesame material ZZM2748 (48.75%) with 548 lines, were studied in two different environments by near infrared method, and the QTL were mapped using the two softwares WinQTLCart2.5 and ICIMapping3.0 based on a genetic linkage map. It was found that the oil content and fatty acid content of the population had great variation. The RIL oil contents varied from 42.43% to 58.38% in different environments, and it had no significant correlation with oleic acid and linoleic acid content but palmitic acid content. A total of 50 QTLs were mapped and distributed in 11 linkage groups of sesame, with the contribution rate varying from 1.59% to 40.62%. Among them, 21 QTLs were detected by the two software parallelly, and 7 QTL were repeatedly detected in the two environment. The two QTL qSOC_10.3 and qSOC_11.1contributed 34.38% and 40.62% to the phenotype variations respectively, and were the major loci for the oil content variation. Especially, qSOC_11.1 also exhibited pleiotropic for oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid. In combination with gene annotation and differential expression analysis, 24 candidate genes were found at the two major loci. The genetic variation characteristics of sesame oil content and different fatty acid content, QTL and candidate genes obtained in this study have guiding significance and application value for genetic improvement of related traits.

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    Creation of Brassica napus dwarf material LSW2018
    Fang WANG, Rui-mao ZHANG, Sha HUANG, Rong TANG, Lu-lu WANG, Bin YANG, Zhuan-zhuan WANG, Yuan-yu YANG, Min WANG, De-gang ZHAO, Chao LI
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2022, 44 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021333
    Abstract216)   HTML192)    PDF (2406KB)(188)      

    In this study, a hybrid combination was contructed with F1 of Deyou 5, a Brassica napus variety, as female parent and a new line 273R as male parent. In the F2 generation, 6 mutant plants with obvious shorter plant types at seedling stage were selected. After 5 generations of purification, we bred a stable new germplasm, LSW2018. The germplasm shows dwarf marker characters at seedling stage, with shrunken, thicker and darker leaves, shorter petiole. The growth is lightly weak but stable, plant height is significantly shorter than that of the normal variety. From the budding stage to maturity, LSW2018 gradually turned into a normal shape, with shorter internodes and thicker stalks, stronger lodging resistance, and lower branching positions. The flowering habit, branching angle, inflorescence characteristics, primary and secondary branches, grains, and other characteristics of LSW2018 are not significantly different from those of the homologous normal high-stalk line HSW2018, but the plant height and branch height are extremely different. The average transplanting plant height of LSW2018 is 136.24 cm and the direct seeding is 110.4 cm. In short, LSW2018 is considered to be a new short-stem Brassica napus germplasm suitable for mechanized and light-simplified planting, which might have high utilization value and broad application prospects.

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    Progress on WRI1 regulation of plant oil biosynthesis
    Long-fei JIN, Li-xia ZHOU, Hong-xing CAO, Yao-dong YANG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2022, 44 (4): 687-698.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021177
    Abstract212)   HTML48)    PDF (1143KB)(222)      

    Oil is the main energy storage substance and an important membrane component of plant. Oil is also involved in the signal transduction, stomatal opening and closing, pollination and fertilization, seed germination, and stress response. WRINKLED 1 (WRI1), a member of the AP2 transcription factor family, is master regulator in transcriptional control of plant oil biosynthesis. This paper reviewed recent advances in regulatory mechanism of WRI1 on plant oil biosynthesis, including (1) the discovery, origin, and evolutionary characteristics of WRI1; (2) gene expression characteristics, gene structure, protein structure, and promoter cis-acting elements of WRI1; (3) regulation mechanism of transcription level and translation level, and downstream target genes of WRI1; (4) the future research direction and application prospects. This review is expected to provide a reference for further understanding the molecular mechanism of WRI1 regulating plant oil synthesis, and also provide a theoretical basis for improving oil crops with WRI1.

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    Tigernut industry in China: current status of development, potential and adaptive suggestions
    Xiang-dong YANG, Zi-yong LI
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2022, 44 (4): 712-717.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021304
    Abstract209)   HTML6)    PDF (454KB)(149)      

    Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) received increasing attention in recent years because of its comprehensive utilization potentials. As a new source of food, vegetative oil, feed for the consumption of humans and livestock, it accumulates great nutrients including oil, starch, sugars, protein, dietary fibers etc. in its underground tubers. The aboveground grass could also be utilized as high-quality forage for livestock. As a multi-purpose crop originated in the desert area, tigernut has the characteristics of wide adaptability, higher biomass yield and value added chain, and shows great potential for the verstile applications in agricultural and industrial sectors. Abundant marginal land with sandy texture provides a basis for the development of tigernut industry in China. Currently, foundation of tigernut industry has been established in China, and the essentials of the industrial chain are also in place. The present paper reviewed the characteristics and utilization of tigernut as a cultivated crop in China, and analyzed its current status of research and industrial development. Potential, problems and adaptive suggestions related to the industry were also discussed.

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    Identification of candidate gene controlling shade-tolerant by BSA-Seq in soybean
    Wei-ming ZENG, Yan-zhu SU, Zhen-guang LAI, Shou-zhen YANG, Huai-zhu CHEN, Yu-rong TAN, Zu-dong SUN, Jun-yi GAI
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 1006-1015.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020358
    Abstract208)   HTML7)    PDF (1791KB)(223)      

    Intercropping patterns of soybean is an important model in southern China, the shading stress of high stalk crops is an important factor that affects the yield and quality of intercropped soybean. Therefore, it is particularly important to analyze the shade tolerance of soybean. In this study, a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) established from the shade-tolerant (Aijiaozao) and shade-sensitive (Chippewa), 30 shade-tolerant and shade-sensitive accessions were selected to construct two DNA hybrid pools, respectively. Progeny hybrid and parent pools were covered for an average depth of 60× and 30×. By calculating the SNP-index of two progeny pools, the differences of SNP-index between shade-tolerant and shade-sensitive chromosomal segments were compared. And the candidate genes of shade tolerance were predicted based on their functional annotations. The results showed that 11 963 077 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained from four samples. There were 408 genes were found that they were mainly located on chromosome1 (51 942-505 708 bp), chr. 4 (50 972 768-51 854 631 bp), chr. 9 (48 778 767-50 178 743 bp) and chr. 18 (40 858 027-43 909 456 bp). According to gene annotation and functional analysis, five candidate genes might be related to shade tolerance of soybean, including 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase 5-like, auxin-induced protein 5NG4-like, phytochrome-associated serine/threonine protein phosphatase-like, MYBJ6 and MYB128 were identified. They might play an important role in the process of soybean shade tolerance. The results will lay an important foundation for the molecular mechanism of soybean shade tolerance, and laid solid theoretical foundation for map-based cloning of shade-tolerant genes in soybean.

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    Research advances of herbicide-resistant rapeseed on mechanisms and germplasms
    Wen-Jie GUAN, Fu-Gui ZHANG, Gui-Xin YAN, Qi-Ming MA, Xiao-Ming WU
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 1159-1173.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020354
    Abstract206)   HTML16)    PDF (1324KB)(207)      

    Weed is one of the most serious biological disasters that seriously damage the yield and quality of Brassica napus. Cultivating herbicide resistant B. napus varieties is an effective and economic way to control weeds in rapeseed field. In this paper, three kinds of herbicides, glyphosate, glufosinate and ALS enzyme inhibitors, which have the greatest potential for field application are mainly reviewed. The mechanisms of herbicide action and herbicide resistance are summarized. The research advances of B. napus resistant germplasms in China and abroad are further reviewed according to the germplasm creation methods. Finally, the development strategies of herbicide resistant rapeseed germplasm are put forward: strengthening the research of resistance mechanism and gene exploration, and using new technologies such as gene editing to create new non-transgenic rapeseed germplasms with multi herbicide resistance.

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    Breeding of elite restorer lines based on 3 Pol CMS lines in spring Brassica napus L.
    Xu-tao ZHAO, Hai-dong LIU, Kai-xiang LI, Liang XU, De-zhi DU
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 961-970.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020274
    Abstract200)   HTML25)    PDF (1514KB)(134)      

    To find out elite restorer lines during high yield hybrid breeding, 3 Polima cytoplasmic male sterile (Pol CMS) lines of spring Brassica napus L. were used to formulate stronger hybrid combination in spring rapeseed area. SLAF-seq was used to develop SNP markers for the 3 sterile lines and also 118 restorer lines. All 121 materials were clustered based on SNP markers. According to clustering results and their flowering times, 40 restorer lines were selected from each categories to the 3 sterile lines respectively. Under the adopted NCⅡ design, 120 hybrid combinations were prepareed and analysed on their combining ability, heterosis and correlation of parental genetic distance, combined cluster and high-yield combinations. Results showed that genetic clustering divided 121 B. napus resources into 5 categories. The 3 sterile lines were grouped into category V. General combining ability (GCA) of the 43 parents varied from -20.78 to 30.42. Three restorer lines (R83, R107 and R13) and one sterile line S3 (105A) had larger GCA. In the combinations, S3×R13, S1×R48, S3×R11, and S2×R89 had higher special combining abilities. The combination S3×R13 had the largest yield over-standard heterosis and over-parent heterosis (37.12% and 42.52% respectively). Genetic distance and individual yield were extremely positively correlated, with correlation coefficient of 0.390. Among the hybrid combinations, most of the restorers with top 20 yields were from Type I group, which had large genetic distance with the sterile lines. Meanwhile, some varieties popularized in spring rape areas, including restorer lines of Qingza 2, Qingza 7, Qingza 9 and Qingza 12 were all derived from hybrids of Type I and sterile line S3 (105A). Therefore, it was considered that sterile lines crossed Type Ⅰ restoring lines could be strong hybrid combination in spring B. napus.

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    QTL mapping for 100-pod and 100-seed weights in cultivated peanut
    Feng-gao CUI, Xiao-hui HU, Hua-rong MIAO, Sheng-zhong ZHANG, Juan WANG, Song WANG, Gang HOU, Jie SUI, Jian-cheng ZHANG, Jing CHEN
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 1025-1030.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021015
    Abstract198)   HTML11)    PDF (362KB)(169)      

    A peanut recombinant inbred population with Huayu 28 and P76 as parents was used to perform genetic mapping for 100-pod and 100-seed weight. Phenotypic data of 100-pod and 100-seed weight were collected in 3 environments. QTL mapping analysis was performed with individual environmental analysis and multi-environmental joint analysis. Multi-environmental joint analysis demonstrated 5 QTLs for 100-pod weight and 10 QTLs for 100-seed weight. Individual environmental analysis yielded 3 QTLs for 100-pod weight (qHPW05.1, qHPW07.1, qHPW19.1) on 3 linkage groups, and 4 QTLs for 100-seed weight (qHSW05.1, qHSW07.1, qHSW19.1, qHSW20.1) on 4 linkage groups. Among these, qHPW07.1, qHPW19.1, qHSW 07.1 and qHSW 19.1 could be detected in two or three environments with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) ranging from 4.610%-8.840%, 9.985%-11.224%, 7.155%-10.464% and 7.239%-13.845%. qHPW07.1 could be detected in 3 environments with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) of 4.610%-8.840%. Comparative analysis of all QTLs revealed two QTL clusters on LG07 (Cluster I) and LG19 (ClusterⅡ). These results provided a theoretical basis for both improvement of peanut yield and cloning of associated genes.

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    Analysis on nutrients and comprehensive feeding evaluation of peanut plant
    Jian-wei LYU, Min JIANG, Yong-guo TIAN, Ting-hui HU, Liang-qiang CHENG, Qing-lin RAO, Jin-hua WANG, Jun WANG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 1031-1041.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021145
    Abstract197)   HTML8)    PDF (803KB)(158)      

    The present study was carried out to screen comprehensive feeding evaluation indexes of peanut straw and to identify peanut germplasm resources with highly feeding value. Forty peanut varieties and breeding lines were used for detecting protein, ash, calcium, phosphorus, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and in vitro dry matter digestion (IVDMD) of stalks and leaves by employing near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology respectively, as well as calcium, phosphorus and protein of seeds. By comparing content of nutrients between peanut leaves and stalks, peanut leaves contained 5% higher content of protein, approximately equal content of ash, calcium and phosphorus, and lower content of NDF, ADF, ADL, reflecting that peanut leaves have higher feeding value than peanut stalks. There were significant and positive correlation between content of calcium and phosphorus in peanut stalks, leaves and seeds respectively, indicating that absolute synergistic absorption existed. Furthermore, both content of calcium and phosphorus were significantly negative with content of protein in stalks and leaves respcetively, while the both content of calcium and phosphorus were significantly positive with content of protein in peanut seeds. Five comprehensive indexs with 91.12% accumulative contribution of 18 indexes of peanut stalks and leaves were extracted by PCA analysis. Based on comprehensive score (namely D) of each peanut variety, 40 peanut varieties and lines were divided into 3 groups by cluster analysis, the first group contained 10 peanut varieties with high comprehensive feeding scores (CFS) , the second group contained 17 peanut varieties with medium CFS, and the third group contained 13 peanut varieties with low CFS. The optimal mathematical model of peanut feeding evaluation was established on account of D scores and 18 indexes of peanut stalks and leaves, namely D=0.014X1+0.012X2-0.003X5+0.009X7-0.023X8+0.009X10+0.011X16-1.582 (R2=0.994, F=764.329, P=0.000), which showed high estimation accuracy above 88%. Hence, 7 indexes were screened out, which consisted of five indexes of stalks (protein, ash, NDF, DM and ADL) and 2 indexes of leaves (protein and DM).

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    Research progress on carotenoid bioavailability and its emulsion delivery system
    Meng-jia SUN, Qian-chun DENG, Shuang QUAN, Xiao YU, Hong-jian CHENG, Ya-shu CHEN, Chun-yan CHEN
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2022, 44 (1): 215-230.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020350
    Abstract191)   HTML12)    PDF (1178KB)(255)      

    With the continuous improvement of material living standard, changes in working environment and living state have led to the development of the sub-health status and the aging of the population. Dietary supplements with multiple biological functions have become a hot topic for consumers and researchers. Carotenoids are not only natural pigments that play a key role in photosynthetic organisms, but also have various protective functions for human health. Therefore, they are often used as nutritional supplements in the food industry and pharmaceutical industry. However, the high sensitivity of carotenoids to processing conditions and environmental factors, as well as their strong hydrophobicity limit the bioavailability of carotenoids and their wide application in complex processed food environments; other nutrients such as lipid, cellulose, protein and mineral elements in food matrix also have great influence on the bioavailability of carotenoids. Related research has shown that emulsion, a special delivery system, can protect carotenoids from environmental factors and improve their bioavailability in the human body. From the perspective of multiple factors affecting the bioavailability of carotenoids, this review focused on the research progress and application status of carotenoids bioavailability regulated by emulsion delivery systems, and looked into the future development trend of these delivery systems.

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    Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of PHY gene family in Brassica napus
    Wen-qian LI, Pan XIE, Wei LIU, Yu KANG, Li LIAO, Rui REN, Lun-wen QIAN, Chun-yun GUAN, Xin HE
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2022, 44 (1): 45-56.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021206
    Abstract189)   HTML20)    PDF (4628KB)(195)      

    Phytochrome (PHY), as a receptor for red and far-red light sensing in plants, plays an important role in the regulation of response to shade, biological and abiotic stress. Identification of PHY family genes in Brassica napus and analysis of their molecular mechanism are helpful to improve the light energy utilization rate of B. napus, and to cultivate varieties with resistance to stress, and suitable for dense planting and machine harvesting. In order to study the family characteristics of PHY genes in B. napus, five AtPHY genes were used as reference sequences, 11, 6, 5, 5, 10 and 9 PHY genes in Brassica napus, B. oleracea, B. rapa, B. nigra, B. juncea and B.carinata were identified, respectively. Results of bioinformatics analysis showed that the sequences and gene structures of PHY were highly conserved in Brassicaceae species. In B. napus, PHYA (subgroup) members were mainly expressed in roots, while PHYB members were mainly expressed in leaves. PHYA and PHYB were regulated by heat and cold stresses, but the effect of abiotic and hormone treatments on PHY genes expression were not obvious. During vernalization, the expression levels of PHYB subgroup were down-regulated, while PHYC and PHYE expressions were up-regulated. In PHYA subgroup, only a few genes were up-regulated after vernalization treatment. Most PHY genes were strongly repressed by infection of S. sclerotiorum, while 2 members of PHYA subgroup were induced.

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    QTL mapping and candidate gene analysis of branch angle in Brassica napus L.
    Xiao-zhen ZHAO, Wei-guo ZHAO, Chun ZHANG, Kun-jiang YU, Men-lu PENG, Feng CHEN, Wei ZHANG, Cheng-ming SUN, Bao-jun LI, Hao WANG, Xiao-dong WANG, Jie-fu ZHANG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2022, 44 (1): 25-34.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020307
    Abstract188)   HTML15)    PDF (624KB)(156)      

    Branch angle is important in plant-type traits of rapeseed. For better understand molecular regulation of moderately compact branch angle for high yield and mechanized harvesting, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was constructed from Holly and APL01 with significantly different branch angles. Their phenotype of branch angle was investigated in 2 environments. Results showed that branch angles of the RIL population showed continuous variation and normal distribution. QTL mapping analysis was performed using high-density SNP genetic linkage map constructed in previous study. As a result, 8 branch angle QTLs were mapped on chromosomes A9, C3, C4 and C7 respectively. The phenotypic variation explained by a single QTL ranged from 4.05% to 9.60%. Compared with previous studies, 2 new QTLs cqBA.C4-2 and cqBA.C4-3 were stably expressed in the 2 environments, and explained 5.13%-6.80% and 4.60%-7.21% of the phenotypic variation respectively. According to resequencing results of Holly and APL01, a total of 7226 SNPs and 829 InDels were found within cqBA.C4-2 confidence interval (10.32-14.3 Mb), of which 7226 SNPs contained 220 non-synonymous mutations and 5 stop-gain mutations, 15 out of 829 InDels caused frameshift mutations. These mutation sites corresponded to 55 genes. A total of 416 SNPs and 65 InDels were found within cqBA.C4-3 confidence interval (44.39-44.46 Mb), of which 416 SNPs contained 50 non-synonymous mutations, 1 out of 65 InDels caused frameshift mutations. And these mutation sites corresponded to a total of 15 genes. According to Arabidopsis homologous genes function annotation, 4 candidate genes related to branching angles were found as BnaC04g13100D, BnaC04g15900D, BnaC04g16280D, and BnaC04g44330D. The above results were expected to provide valuable information for revealing regulation of rapeseed branching and cultivating compact rapeseed varieties through molecular design methods.

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    Phenotypic diversity analysis of new rapeseed germplasm materials derived from interspecific hybridization between Brassica juncea × B. napus
    Feng-ping SONG, Jia-qing CHENG, Zhen-xing LIU, Zhi-qiang CHENG, Tian-tian CHENG, Zu-qing MENG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 971-981.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020288
    Abstract188)   HTML11)    PDF (2526KB)(149)      

    In order to broaden the genetic background of Brassica napus, 54 new lines of B. napus were created by interspecific hybridization between B. juncea and B. napus, and their phenotypic diversity was analyzed. The results showed that, (1) the variation coefficient of 22 quantitative traits ranged from 1.64 to 2.04. The genetic diversity index of 22 morphological traits ranged from 0 to 1.86. Among them, the diversity level of silique length, siliques per plant, seeds weight per plant, growth duration, branch height, protein content and oil content were higher than those of other B. napus reported at home and abroad, which indicated that interspecific hybridization between B. juncea and B. napus could create rich genetic variation and broaden the genetic background of B. napus. (2) Principal component analysis transformed 44 phenotypic traits into 10 comprehensive indexes. The yield and quality related traits such as silique number of the main inflorescence, siliques per plant, seeds per silique, erucic acid , linoleic acid, oleic acid, protein, oil content and other yield and quality related traits were the main indicators reflecting the phenotypic characteristics of new type B. napus. The target line might be obtained by selecting. (3) Affected by the directional breeding of B. napus, the materials tested in this experiment have the phenotypic characteristics biased to B. napus. Cluster analysis integrated 44 phenotypic characteristics, and divided 54 lines into 3 groups, of which 29 lines and parents of B. napus were clustered into one group, representing the parent group of B. napus. The 18 lines were clustered into one group, which was far away from the parent of B. napus group, having less advantage in vegetative growth, and poor comprehensive characteristics with low yield. The 7 lines were clustered into the same group, which was close to B. napus parent, having strong nutritional growth advantage with high yield. For the 7 lines had excellent comprehensive characteristics, they might be used as further breeding objects in this area.

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    A study on the function of GmWUS2 gene regulating the number of soybean nodules
    Lu HAN, Ke-xin QU, Yong-fu FU, Qing-shan CHEN, Xiao-xia WU, Xiao-mei ZHANG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2022, 44 (2): 289-297.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021040
    Abstract186)   HTML8)    PDF (3004KB)(197)      

    The nodulation and nitrogen fixation of legumes have a great significance in agriculture, such as production, nutrient efficiency, and soil improvement. WUS gene plays an important role in meristem function in plants. The bioinformatics analysis shows that the protein encoded by the soybean WUS gene (GmWUS) and the ArabidopsisWUS gene (AtWUS) share a high conserve amino acid sequence, even though there is a big difference at C-terminal. The promoter sequence GmWUS2pro, 3000 bp upstream of the transcription start site, was amplified from the genome of soybean Tianlong 1, and fused with the reporter gene GUS to obtain the GmWUS2pro:GUS expression vector. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that GmWUS2 gene was highly expressed in soybean flowers and nodules. Through hairy root transformation mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and GUS staining, it was found that the GmWUS2 promoter was active in both the roots and the nodules in soybean. The knockout vector of GmWUS2 was constructed using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, while overexpressing vector was constructed at the same time, and both vectors were transformed into soybean hairy roots, which was further inoculated with rhizobia HH103. The phenotypic differences between Gmwus2 mutant hairy roots and GmWUS2 overexpression hairy roots were statistically analyzed compared to an empty vector. It was found that the knockout of GmWUS2 significantly promoted the nodule and leaf development, suggesting the GmWUS2 gene affected growth of both the above-ground and underground parts of plants. Our results indicate that the WUS gene plays an important role in soybean nodule development, providing useful clues for both studying soybean nodulation and improving biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural production.

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