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    Great change of peanut planting technology: single seed sowing
    WAN Shu-bo, ZHANG Jia-lei, ZHANG Zhi-meng
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (6): 927-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020208
    Abstract268)      PDF (827KB)(359)      
    In traditional peanut planting, two or more seeds were planted in one hole. Seedlings in the same
    hole competed for fertilizer, water resources, light and heat resources, which led to the different growth of seedlings
    and limited increase of pod yield. The peanut cultivation and physiological ecology innovation team of Shandong
    Academy of Agricultural Science has established peanut single seed sowing technology. It sowed one seed in a hole
    instead of two or more, and expanded plant spacing, alleviated the competition between adjacent plants, and made
    the individual uniform, orderly and robust, which could give full play to the potential of single plant production. The
    number of plants per unit area decreased, which made the group structure more reasonable, and increased the distri⁃
    bution rate of photosynthetic products to pods, thus increased production by increasing economic coefficient. This
    paper discussed the development process, breakthrough of the theory, technology and development prospect of pea⁃
    nut single seed sowing technology, and brought forward the technical bottleneck to limit large-scale promotion, in
    order to speed up the application of this technology.

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    Effect of sweet potato and peanut rotation on physiological characteristics and yield and quality of peanut
    TANG Zhao-hui, GUO Feng, ZHANG Jia-lei, YANG Sha, WANG Jian-guo, MENG Jing-jing, GENG Yun, LI Xin-guo, WAN Shu-bo
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (6): 1002-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020220
    Abstract257)      PDF (1577KB)(153)      
    In order to solve the problem of peanut continuous cropping obstacle, and clarify the alleviation ef⁃
    fect of sweet potato peanut rotation on peanut continuous cropping obstacle, the nutritional growth, physiological
    characteristics, yield and quality of peanut under two conditions of sweet potato peanut rotation (GHZ) and peanut
    continuous cropping (HHZ) were studied in peanut continuous cropping plot for many years. The results showed that
    GHZ treatment significantly promoted the growth of nutrition, increased the leaf area index, chlorophyll content and
    net photosynthetic rate of peanut, increased the photosynthetic capacity, nitrate reductase activity, root activity, dry
    matter accumulation, pod yield and kernel rate. In addition, compared with HHZ treatment, GHZ treatment signifi⁃
    cantly increased protein content, crude fat content and O/L ratio of peanut kernel, decreased soluble sugar content
    and improved peanut kernel quality. Sweet potato peanut rotation can alleviate the obstacle of peanut continuous

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    Variation trend of rapeseed production in China from 2008 to 2019
    LENG Bo-feng, LI Xian-rong, CHEN Xue-ting, TANG Jing, CHEN Zhuo-er, ZHANG Qing, WANG Tao, TIAN Yu, WEI Meng-sheng, YAN Hua, LIU Cheng, FENG Zhong-chao
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (2): 171-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019320
    Abstract195)      PDF (26142KB)(704)      
    To better understand the variation on rapeseed traits in recent 12 years in China, and to provide sug⁃
    gestions for high yield cultivation of rapeseed cultivars, yield data of 7916 samples from 18 provinces with fixed ob⁃
    servation points of China Agriculture Research System (rapeseed) from 2008 to 2019 was collected. Descriptive sta⁃
    tistical method was used to report the variation trend of planting pattern, planting density, plant height, branch, fruit⁃
    ing, yield per unit area and disease of rapeseed in China over the past 12 years. The results showed that, during the
    past 12 years, direct seeding percentage increased by 30.74 points, planting density increased by 56.66%, effective
    branches decreased by 16.05%, first effective branch height increased by 50.20%, plant height increased by 8.82%,
    effective pod per plant decreased by 22.14%, seeds per pod increased by 3.02%, 1000-seed weight decreased by
    0.62%, average yield per plant decreased by 22.38%, theoretical yield increased by 15.00%, actual yield increased
    by 14.03%, cold injury index decreased by 13.57 points, sclerotinia stem rot desease index decreased by 0.83
    points, other pests and diseases index increased by 2.34 points. It was suggested that in the future, high-yieldingrape cultivars should be planted with more density tolerance, more branches, more effective pods per plant and more
    suitable for environments. Meanwhile, according to the actual situation of each region, the cultivation method of
    rapeseed should be guided especially on planting density.

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    Variation of nutritional components in different developmental stages and different parts of seeds in peanut
    GUO Jian-bin, LI Wei-tao, DING Ying-bin, XU Si-liang, HUAI Dong-xin, LIU Nian, CHEN Wei-gang, HUANG Li, LUO Huai-yong, ZHOU Xiao-jing, LEI Yong, JIANG Hui-fang
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (6): 1051-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019289
    Abstract166)      PDF (1449KB)(193)      
    In this study, the different oleic acid peanut varieties were used to analyze the accumulation of oil
    content, fatty acids ,and sucrose content during the seed development of peanut, the differences between apical and
    basal seeds, and different parts of seeds. The results showed that during the development of seeds, the oil content in⁃
    creased, the accumulation rate of oil content in high oil varieties was higher than that of low oil varieties, and the su⁃
    crose content decreased. The unsaturated fatty acids gradually increased, saturated fatty acids and very long-chain
    fatty acids gradually decreased, the linolenic acid gradually decreased to untraceable level, the decrease rate of pal⁃
    mitic acid, linoleic acid,linolenic acid and the increase rate of oleic acid in high oleic acid materials were higher
    than those in normal oleic acid materials. There was no significant difference in the fatty acids of the various materi⁃
    als between the apical and basal seeds, while the oil content of the basal seeds was higher than that of the apical
    seeds; The palmitic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, behenic acid and tetracosanoic acid content in embryos
    were significantly higher than those in cotyledons. The oil content, stearic acid andoleic acid content in embryos
    were lower than those in cotyledons. Linolenic acid were about 0.5% in embryo, but not detected in cotyledons. The
    results could guide the quality selection for the purpose of industrial oil and edible peanut variety.

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    Effects of sugarcane/peanut intercropping on soil microenvironment in different plough layer
    TANG Xiu-mei, MENG Xiu-zhen, JIANG Jing, HUANG Zhi-peng, WU Hai-ning, LIU Jing, HE Liang-qiong, XIONG Fa-qian, ZHONG Rui-chun, HAN Zhu-qiang, HE Long-fei, TANG Rong-hua
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (5): 713-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019318
    Abstract166)      PDF (1663KB)(128)      
    Sugarcane/peanut intercropping is a high efficient planting pattern in southern China. This paper in⁃vestigated the effects of sugarcane/peanut intercropping on the variation and relevance of soil nutrients,enzymes and microbes. The results showed that intercropping, compared with monoculture, significantly boosted the quantity of available N,organic matter,microbial biomass N,fungi,actinomycetes and protease activity in 0-20 cm inter⁃ cropping peanut soil as well as the number of soil bacteria, actinomycetes, total microbial, microbial biomass N and protease activity in 0-20 cm intercropping sugarcane soil. Total phosphorus, total potassium and protease activity
    significantly increased in 20-40 cm intercropping sugarcane soil and actinomyces and protease activity significantly
    increased in 20-40 cm intercropping peanut soil. Soil fungi, sucrase and microbial biomass C content increased sig⁃
    nificantly in 40-60 cm intercropping peanut soil. Sucrose activity significantly declined in intercropping sugarcane
    soil. Available N, P and K, organic matter content, the activity of urease and acid phosphatase and microbe quantity
    tended to decrease along with the increase of intercropping soil depth. There was a significant or extremely signifi⁃
    cant positive correlation between available nutrients and urease, acid phosphatase, microbial biomass N and mi⁃
    crobe quantity, indicating that soil nutrients, enzymes and microbes interact to maintain a good intercropping soil

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    Progress on production and technology development of high-oleic acid peanut in China
    LIU Fang, ZHANG Zhe, WANG Ji-jun
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (6): 956-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020215
    Abstract157)      PDF (569KB)(162)      
    Peanut is one of the main oil and cash crops in China. Realizing high-oleic acid in peanut planting
    and processing is the fundamental direction to promote peanut industry development and strengthen agricultural
    supply-side structural reform. In this paper, the characteristics of high-oleic acid peanut were summarized, the de⁃
    velopment of high-oleic acid peanut in China was briefly reviewed, the research progress of high-oleic acid peanut
    in variety breeding and cultivation technology was expounded, and the existing problems and development counter⁃
    measures in the production and research of high-oleic acid peanut were discussed.

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    Research advances in the biosynthesis and regulation of lipid in oil crops
    FAN Shi-hang, LIU Nian, HUA Wei
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (3): 361-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021097
    Abstract156)      PDF (2044KB)(221)      
         Vegetable oil is not only the main source of edible oil but also an important renewable biofuel for nproduction and industry for humans. Thus, it is of great scientific significance and application value to elucidate the mechanism of the biosynthesis and regulation of oil in plants, which can improve the content and composition of vegetable oil. In this review, the biosynthesis of plant oil and the progress of genetic research on oil syntheses such as maternal effect, QTL, and GWAS were summarized to uncover the mechanism of lipid accumulation of oil cropsMeanwhile, we summed up the well-known genes that participate in lipid biosynthesis and regulation. This paper was expected to shed light on current research status in this field, provide an important reference to the further understanding of the regulation of oil crops lipid biosynthesis, and to give a better theoretical basis to oil crops molecular improvement and genetic breeding.

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    Content changes of endogenous hormones in peanut seeds during germination
    CUI Wei-pei, TANG Gui-ying, XU Ping-li, LI Peng-xiang, ZHU Jie-qiong, SHAN Lei
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (5): 869-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019249 收稿
    Abstract144)      PDF (2818KB)(151)      
     Seed dormancy and germination are two important traits in plant life cycle, in which plant hormones
    play key regulatory roles. In this study, the contents of abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA3), brassinolide (BR) and
    indole acetic acid (IAA) in the different seed parts of peanut varieties Chico (CC) with weaker dormancy and Feng⁃
    hua 1 (FH1) with stronger dormancy were detected by ELISA. The results showed that the ABA contents in the dif⁃
    ferent parts of FH1 at freshly harvested and dry seed stages were significantly higher than those in CC; and the ABA
    contents and ABA/GA3 ratio in cotyledons (Co) of the two varieties showed significant differences, while the overall
    ABA content and ABA/GA3 ratio of the two varieties decreased with the duration of imbibition. It is indicated that
    ABA plays a role in all three sections tested. At the middle and late stages of germination, the GA3 content in the
    cotyledons of the two varieties increased, indicating that GA3 mainly plays a role in the cotyledons. The content
    changes of IAA and BR in the two cultivars had the similar trend during the process of germination, and they mainly
    played a role in the Hypocotyl and radicle (HR) section. The IAA content in fresh seeds was higher. After imbibi⁃
    tion, the IAA content displayed the alteration of“wave type”curve, and as a whole, maintanted the lower level than
    that in resh narrested seeds; and in FH1 IAA contents of the three sections were lower than those in CC varieties.
    The BR contents of two cultivars presented an upward trend during germination, and which of FH1 was higher than
    that of CC seeds on the whole. In conclusion, there were differences in endogenous hormone levels among different
    cultivars. The higher ABA level in FH1 was related to its stronger dormancy. The enhanced GA3, BR level and lower
    IAA level during germination promoted the elongation of hypocotyl and the growth of radicle.

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    Advances in plant architecture studies of peanut
    LI Guo-wei, QIN Sheng-hao, LIU Yi-yang, ZHANG Jia-lei, HAN Yan, WAN Shu-bo
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (6): 934-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020212
    Abstract141)      PDF (732KB)(166)      
    Plant architecture plays an important role in the formation of crop yield. Peanuts blooms on the
    ground and bears fruit underground, the specific characteristics determine that the cultivars with more flowers at the
    base have higher single plant productivity. Due to differences of ecological environment and cultivation habits, pea⁃
    nut cultivars of three different growth habits including erect type, semi spreading type and spreading type, coexist in
    different countries and different ecology regions, and the yield of peanut varies greatly in different regions. In this
    paper, the progress of the main archievements on peanut plant architecture was summarized, and the relationship be⁃
    tween plant architecture and yield formation was reviewed. The characteristics of ideal plant architecture and ideas
    for peanut ideal architecture breeding were suggested.

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    Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of auxin response factor gene family in Arachis hypogaea L.
    TANG Gui-ying, PENG Zhen-ying, XU Ping-li, LI Peng-xiang, ZHU Jie-qiong, SHAN Lei, WAN Shu-bo
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (6): 1100-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020213
    Abstract141)      PDF (5939KB)(229)      
     Auxin response factor (ARF) is an essential transcription factor (TF) in auxin signal transduction
    pathway. It plays key roles in many processes of plant growth and development, such as seeds gemination, organs
    formation, fruits maturation and embryogenesis. To understand the characteristics of AhARF gene family in peanut,
    62 AhARF genes were identified by bioinformatics methods. These genes were located on 18 chromosomes except
    Chr1 and Chr11, and the amount of genes distributed on the corresponding chromosome of sub-genome A and B is
    approximate. According to the phylogenic relationship of AtARF and AhARF genes, 62 AhARFs and partial AtARFs
    were classified into the other four clades except for ClassIII (Arabidopsis special branch). 33 segmentally duplicated
    gene pairs have been detected in AhARF gene family, and their ratios of Ka/Ks were all less than one, suggesting
    that the purifying selection might participate in expansion of ARF genes during peanut evolution. In addition, their
    physical and chemical properties, and the conserved domains of their proteins corresponding to the genes were pre⁃
    dicted and analyzed by bioinformatics in this study. Furthermore, based on the transcriptome data of 22 different tis⁃
    sues, the gene expression patterns of AhARF genes were displayed by heatmap. To explore the biological function of
    AhARF10, AhARF20,AhARF23 and AhARF46, their spatio-temporal expression profiles were analyzed using realtime
    PCR. The results of this study laid a foundation for further research on the function of ARF gene family in Ara⁃
    chis hypogaea L.

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    Identification and evolutionary analysis of DGAT gene family in Legumes
    WEI Chen-dan, YU Ji-gao, TENG Jia, WANG Jin-peng
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (5): 807-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019271
    Abstract139)      PDF (5453KB)(134)      
    Bioinformatics was used to identify DGAT (Diacylglycerol acyltransferase) gene in 12 legume ge⁃nomes. It was found that the gene copies in the tetraploid peanut and soybean genomes were relatively large, 17 and 10 respectively. It may be an important factor leading to higher oil synthesis capacity than other crops. Through phy⁃logenetic analysis of family genes, it was found that DGAT gene existed before the differentiation of eudicots, and re⁃peated whole genome double in legumes allowed the family to expand; and tandem repeats played an important role for family expansion. The role of the two paralogous genes in the grape, due to tandem repeats, increased the number of gene copies by 150%. The relationship between DGAT gene expression patterns in different tissues and its phylog⁃eny was also correlated. The gene family was relatively conservative and maintains a consistent evolution rate with the evolution of the leguminous genome. The study provided important genomic support for understanding the evolu⁃ tion of DGAT genes on the legume scale and improving the quality of synthetic oils such as soybeans and peanut.

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    Research progress of peanut pod development and its regulation mechanisms
    LIU Wen-wen, WANG Jian-guo, WAN Shu-bo, PENG Zhen-ying, LI Xin-guo
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (6): 940-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020234
    Abstract136)      PDF (1105KB)(181)      
    Peanut is an important oil and cash crop, and plays an important role in adjusting the structure of
    agricultural planting industry. Pods are the harvesting organs of peanuts. Further research on the development and
    regulation of peanut pods can provide a theoretical basis for high-yield breeding. This article reviewed the development
    of peanut pod in recent years, including the effects of internal and external limiting factors on peanut pod
    development, the better understanding of their molecular regulatory mechanisms such as hormones, nutrients, genetics
    research, DNA and RNA, which would provide a good reference for the subsequent researches.

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    Genome-wide identification and expression pattern analysis of peanut argonaute gene family
    LU Xiao-dong, LI Chun-jua, ZHANG Hao, SUN Quan-xi, YAN Cai-xia, ZHAO Xiao-bo, WANG Juan, YUAN Cui-ling, SHAN Shi-hua
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (5): 767-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020045
    Abstract134)      PDF (3591KB)(144)      
    AGO(Argonaute) protein is a core component of RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) and plays
    an important role in plant growth and development. The completion of peanut genome sequencing provides the con⁃
    dition for analyzing the AGO gene family on the whole genome. The conserved domain of AGO protein was used to
    obtain the members of the peanut AGO gene family which was based on the Peanut base database and NCBI. The
    phylogenetic trees, physicochemical properties, chromosomal distribution, genes structure,domain structure, and
    gene expression patterns in 22 tissues and under stresses were analyzed. The results showed that 51 members of the
    peanut AGO genes including 12 of the A.duranensis genomes, 12 of the A.ipaensis genomes and 27 of the peanut cul⁃
    tivars were identified,. Chromosomal location analysis showed that these members were unevenly distributed on the
    peanut chromosomes, and 10 pairs of AGO members from the A.duranensis and A.ipaensis genomes had a significant
    homology relationship. The expression pattern analysis shown that AdAGO2, AiAGO4, AdAGO3, AiAGO7, AdAGO8,
    and AiAGO8 had high-level expression in 22 tissues of peanut; and the AGO gene family shown higher expression in

    peanut shoot tip and stamens than other tissues. This study provided some theoretical evidence for further

    revealing the function of AGO protein, and exploring targeted gene resources related to stress-resistant breeding in peanut.

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    Present Situation and Prospect of Peanut Industry in Jiangxi Province
    REN Wei-fang, WEI Xue-jiao, ZENG Zhao-cong, YE Yi, ZHENG Wei, FANG Jia-hai, WAN Li-yun
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (5): 920-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019277
    Abstract133)      PDF (1447KB)(166)      
    To understand the development law and explore the new development direction of peanut industry
    in Jiangxi Province, this study investigated the change pattern of total peanut yield, yield of planting area, varieties
    and the yield increasing in Jiangxi province and its surrounding provinces with high-yielding performance, such as
    Shandong and Henan. The results showed that the reasons for the slow progress of peanut industry in Jiangxi were:
    1. Peanuts were planted in red soil dryland. There were less organic matter and low nutrients in red soil, which
    could not satisfy the best growth of peanut. 2. The regeneration rate of peanut varieties in Jiangxi Province was slow
    and the varieties degraded seriously. Due to lack of attention to peanut quality improvement, very few high quality
    new varieties were released. 3. High yield cultivation techniques were not updated for excellent varieties in Jiangxi
    Province. The establishment of the technical system of peanut-sesame industry in Jiangxi Province has greatly pro⁃
    moted the development of peanut industry in Jiangxi Province. The results of 2019 regional experiment of peanut in
    Jiangxi Province showed the high yield potential of peanut and the promising future of peanut development in Ji⁃
    angxi Province. The average pod yield and seed yield were the highest in Yueyou 271 (the best variety of the experi⁃
    ment), were 6305.95 kg/hm2 and 4632.57 kg respectively. Yueyou 1712 ranked second with pod yield of 6022.25 kg/hm2, seed kernel yield of 3824 kg/hm2; Xianghua 522 ranked the third whose pod yield was 5451.6 kg/hm2, seed
    yield was 4003.8 kg/hm2. These results indicated that with the further increase of investment in science and technol⁃
    ogy, the cultivation and release of varieties with good yield potential could promote and boost the peanut industry in

    Jiangxi province.

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    Effect of different synergistic phosphate fertilizer on growth, yield and phosphorus use efficiency of peanut
    SUO Yan-yan, ZHANG Xiang, SI Xian-zong, SUN Yan-min, LI Liang, YU Qiong, YU Hui
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (5): 888-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019217
    Abstract133)      PDF (1084KB)(129)      
    The field experiments were conducted to study the effects of phosphate fertilizer combined with dif⁃
    ferent synergist (HA-humic acid, AA-complex amino acid and OA-oxalic acid) on the growth, yield and P use effi⁃
    ciency of peanut in the acid shajiang dark soil in Zhengyang county and calcareous sandy alluvial soil in Qingfeng
    county. The results showed that the peanut yield response to the 85% conventional application rate of phosphorus
    (85%P) with HA, AA and OA were affected by the soil type. Compared with 85% P, the yield increased by 8.82%,
    4.66% and -1.68% in the acid shajiang dark soil, and increased by 8.40%, 3.18% and 12.08% in the sandy alluvial
    soil. The peanut growth and yield were significantly increased under 85%P+HA in the acid shajiang dark soil and
    85% P+OA in the sandy alluvial soil. P synergist also improved P uptake and P use efficiency of peanut due to in⁃
    creasing the labile-P and the moderately labile-P content. Compared with 85% P, peanut P accumulation were sig⁃
    nificantly increased by 26.31% and 22.89% respectively, P apparent recovery efficiencies were increased by 7.74%
    and 4.99% respectively, P agronomy efficiencies were increased by 5.54 g/kg and 5.39 g/kg under 85%P+HA in the
    acid shajiang dark soil and 85%P+OA in the sandy alluvial soil. Therefore, when the P2O5 application rate was re⁃
    duced by 15%, addition of humic acid in the acid shajiang dark soil, and oxalate in the calcarous sandy alluvial soil,
    could improve the P efficiency, maintain the peanut yield with reduced application rate of P2O5.
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    Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and superphosphate on yield and quality of peanut in saline and non-saline soil
    YANG Ji-shun, TANG Zhao-hui, XU Yang, LI Shang-xia, CUI Li, SI Tong, GUO Feng, CI Dun-wei
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (6): 1019-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020219
    Abstract133)      PDF (848KB)(139)      
    The contradiction between the insufficient supply of calcium (Ca) and the high demand of peanut
    plants has become increasingly prominent, which has become one of the most important yield limiting factors of pea⁃
    nut. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can improve plant roots in soil environment, enhance the absorption of nu⁃
    trients and the resistance to stress. In this study, Huayu 22 and Huayu 25 were selected to set AMF and superphos⁃
    phate single and compound treated in saline and non-saline soil to study the effects of AMF and superphosphate on
    peanut growth, yield, and quality. The results showed that under the same compound fertilizer treatment, the peanut
    plant biomass was increased, the total pot number, full pot number, double kernel number, 100 pot weight and 100
    kernel weight per plant were increased, and the yield was thus increased. In saline soil, the compound effect of AMF
    and superphosphate > AMF >superphosphate; in non-saline soil, the compound effect of AMF and superphos⁃
    phate > superphosphate > AMF. AMF and superphosphate could significantly increase protein and oleic acid con⁃
    tent and ratio of oleic acid to linoleic acid, reduce linoleic acid content, but had no significant effect on fat content.
    This study provided a theoretical basis and technical support for the application of AMF and superphosphate in the
    efficient production of peanuts in different soil types.

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    Application of nanomaterials in plant genetic transformation
    GAO Hong-fei, FAN Shi-hang, LIU Jing-lin, XIONG Chong-ming, HUA Wei, LI Jun
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (1): 64-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020206
    Abstract129)      PDF (396KB)(186)      
    To break the main obstacle that the cell wall preventing delivery of exogenous biomolecules into in⁃
    tact cell during plant genetic transformation, nanomaterial-mediated gene delivery technology was currently suc⁃
    cessfully applied. Traditional transgenic methods require the aid of external force or the mediation by creatures like
    agrobacterium. The nano-carriers for genetic delivery possess outstanding advantages such as excellent biocompati⁃
    bility, ability to protect external DNA/RNA against nuclease degradation, high transfection efficiency, thus provide
    a new promising way for plant genetic engineering. In this paper, we summarized the bottlenecks of plant genetic
    transformation met currently, the drawbacks of the existing methods and the advantages of nanomaterial-mediated
    delivery. And the key techniques and research progresses of nanoparticles-mediated plant transformation were dis⁃
    cussed in detail. Ultimately, the advantages and disadvantages as well as future direction and problems of this newly
    formed technology were also discussed and prospected.

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    Response patterns of malonyl-CoA:ACP malonyltransacylase (MCMT) gene family to different stresses in peanut
    PENG Zhen-ying, MENG Jing-jing, TANG Zhao-hui, WANG Jian-guo, ZHANG Jia-lei, GUO Feng, YANG Sha, ZHANG Zhi-meng, DING Hong, LI Xin-guo, WAN Shu-bo
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (6): 1078-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020193
    Abstract121)      PDF (5006KB)(137)      
     Malonyl-CoA:ACP malonyltransacylase (MCMT) catalyzed the formation from malonyl-CoA to mal⁃
    onyl monoacyl ACP. It is not only a basic component of the synthesis of biological fatty acids, but also an important
    component of cell membrane, lipid storage and lipid signaling molecules. But so far there has been little study on
    this gene family. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major oil and cash crop in China, it is very important to delve in⁃
    to the mechanism of oil synthesis of peanut. In this paper, members of peanut MCMT gene family were systematical⁃
    ly analyzed. In cultivated peanut genome, 5 AhMCMTs genes were distributed on 5 different chromosomes. All of
    them contained more than one intron, with the number of 9-12. The length of the proteins varied from 277 to 472
    amino acids without transmembrane structure, and were located in chloroplast. Three AhMCMTs were alternatively
    spliced, among which arahy. FJ253B and arahy. R7F6LC each had 6 splicing variants, and arahy. T9C115 had 2
    splicing variants. The main types of alternative splicing are intron retention, exon jumping, and variable splicing at
    5’-UTR. Through the analysis of evolutionary tree, it was found that there were more MCMT genes in the genomes
    of cultivated peanut, Brassica rapa, Camellia sinensis, Lupinus angustifolius, which may be caused by gene family
    expansion. From peanut transcriptome data, results showed that their tissue-specific expression patterns were signif⁃
    icantly different. Arahy.FJ253B had the highest expression level and was expressed in almost all tissues and organs,
    which was speculated to be the main gene responsible to growth and development. Using peanut root and leaf tran⁃
    scriptome data from different stress treatments of peanut young seedlings, these 5 AhMCMTs response varied under
    different stresses, and had different expression patterns in roots and leaves. It indicated that 5 AhMCMTs had differ⁃
    ent function division to stress.

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    Effects of nitrogen application and intercropping with cassava on bacterial community structure in rhizo⁃sphere soil of peanut in maturation stage
    LIN Hong-xin, YUAN Zhan-qi, XIAO Yun-ping, WANG Rui-qing, LYU Feng-juan, ZHANG Zhi-hua
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (5): 723-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019254
    Abstract119)      PDF (3827KB)(94)      
    To clarify the difference of bacterial community characteristics in maturation stage between the cas⁃
    sava-peanut intercropping pattern and peanut monocropping pattern in the condition of equal fertilizer rate, cassava
    variety“South China 205”and peanut variety“Yueyou 200”were used as experimental materials, two nitrogen lev⁃
    els (with and without nitrogen fertilization) and three patterns (cassava monocropping, peanut monocropping and cas⁃
    sava intercropping with three rows peanut) were applied. The effects of nitrogen application and intercropped with
    cassava on bacterial community structure in rhizosphere soil of peanut in maturation stage were investigated by the
    high-throughput sequencing technique. The results showed that Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) of the cassava-pea⁃
    nut intercropping pattern was more than one in the condition of equal fertilizer rate, which showed intercropping ad⁃
    vantage, and increased land utilization by 49%-60%. The four dominant groups of bacteria in peanut rhizosphere
    soil in maturation stage were in the decreasing order of chloroflexi, proteobacteria, actinobacteria and acrobacteria,
    and the total proportion was 84.42%-84.59%. There were 477 genera of bacteria in peanut rhizosphere soil. While,
    no significant effect were detected in the alpha diversity of bacteria in peanut rhizosphere soil in treatment of nitro⁃

    gen application and intercropped with cassava. Meanwhile, cassava intercropping significantly reduced the relative

    abundance of Proteobacteria by 18.12%. Among the top 30 relative abundance bacteria genera, significant differenc⁃
    es were found in TK10 and Roseiflexus among different treatment. Nitrogen application could significantly reduce
    the relative abundance of candidatus_solibacter, acidimicrobiales and amycolatopsis by 41.18%, 33.11% and
    71.98%, respectively. Redundancy analysis revealed that available phosphorus and pH significantly affected the
    bacterial community composition of peanut rhizosphere soil. These findings provide information for understanding
    the microecological environment of peanut rhizosphere in intercropping system.

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    Effects of single seed sowing on biological characteristics of peanut
    ZHANG Jia-lei, ZHANG Lei, LIN Ying-jie, LIU Ying, WANG Jian-guo, GUO Feng, TANG Zhao-hui, LI Xin-guo, WAN Shu-bo
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2020, 42 (6): 960-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020048
    Abstract115)      PDF (2671KB)(119)      
    The objective of this study was to elucidate the biological basis of single seed sowing for increasing
    production. Selecting Huayu 25 as test material, three treatments as SS (Single seed sowing, hole spacing of 10 cm),
    DS (Double seed sowing, hole spacing of 20 cm) and TS (Three seed sowing, hole spacing of 20 cm) were set to re⁃
    search the differences of flowering dynamics, total flowers, number of needles and fruit, plant characteristics and dry
    matter weight of peanut in different sowing methods. The results showed that the primary flowering stage of SS treat⁃
    ment was 1-2 days earlier than that of DS and TS, and full flowering stage was 2-4 days earlier than that of DS and
    TS. The flowering number of single plant of SS was up to 11.0 per day, and at the early stage of the whole flowering
    period, the flowering number per day was large. The total flower number of a single plant of SS could reach 168.5,
    which was significantly higher than that of DS and TS. The number of pods per plant, especially the number of full
    pods per plant and the pod number per first pair lateral branch of SS were significantly higher than those in DS and
    TS, and the increase of full pod per unit area was the main reason for the increase of yield. The peanut of SS had the
    lowest main stem height and lateral branch length, and the plant of TS had the highest height, but the branch num⁃
    ber and main stem node number of SS were significantly higher than DS and TS, which was conducive to dwarf and
    strong plants. The dry weight of stem, leaf and pod per plant of SS was significantly higher than that of DS and TS,
    and the dry weight of stem, leaf and pod per unit area of SS was significantly higher than that of DS treatment. There⁃
    fore, the uniform distribution of single seed sowing plants could reduce the competition among plants and help to
    give full play to the production potential of single plant.

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