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  • Mao-lin YAN, Wen-hua SHI, Xiao-liang ZHOU, Zhi-dan ZHANG, Yang ZHANG, Cheng-liang WU
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2023, 45(4): 643-653. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022158

    To better understand import dependence and industrial safety on Chinese vegetable oils, two oilseeds (soybean and rapeseed) and 5 vegetable oils (soybean oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and palm oil) were used as examples, to measure safety evaluation indexes, and to analyze the reliability and industrial safety status. Results showed that both soybean and rapeseed import concentrations are decreasing, dependence on single country became lower, thus the import reliability became higher. But the industrial safety index of both was higher than 80, still at a crisis state in 2020. In terms of main vegetable oils, the concentration of three oils (soybean oil, peanut oil and rapeseed oil) was decreasing, with low dependence on a single country with high import reliability, while sunflower oil and palm oil were relatively concentrated, with high dependence on single country in low import reliability. In 2020, the industrial safety index of soybean oil and peanut oil were 60 and 68 respectively, which were in an unsafe state. The industrial safety index of rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and palm oil were all greater than 80, which were all in crisis states. The safety problems of plant oilseed and oil industry are severe in China. We suggested that moderately expanding the cultivated area of oilseeds, cultivating high quality germplasm resources, improving mechanization level and domestic oil supply chain system, using the geopolitical advantage to establish good partnership, deepening the international trade cooperation, and encouraging competent agricultural enterprises to expand international raw material base and supply chain.

  • Na ZHANG, Jun-yan WU, Wei-liang QI, Li MA, Rui ZENG, Xiao-lei TAO, Wen-xin YANG, Li-jun LIU, Xue-cai LI, Gang YANG, Wan-cang SUN
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2023, 45(4): 694-703. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022176

    To study the function of VDAC1 gene in Brassica napus under low temperature stress, CDS region of BnVDAC1 gene was cloned using cDNAs as templates from both Tianyou 2288 (weak cold resistance) and 16NTS309 (strong cold resistance). Bioinformatics analysis found that their BnVDAC1 genes encoded 276 amino acids. The isoelectric points were 7.28 and 8.46 respectively. The proteins were stable (< 40). The secondary structures were mainly random coil, and the tertiary structures were composed of 2 β-barrels surrounded by β-sheets. Through pBI121-BnVDAC1-GFP fusion expression vector, tobacco leaf subcellular localization showed thatBnVDAC1 was mainly located in mitochondria or plasma membrane. The quantitative results showed that the relative conductivity, relative water content, H2O2 and O2?- content of the leaves of the 2 varieties were different under low temperature treatment. The expression level of BnVDAC1 was correlated with relative conductivity, relative water content and ROS changes. The differences in relative conductivity, relative water content, H2O2 and O2?- content of leaves between the 2 varieties under low temperature treatment were analyzed and compared. The quantitative results showed that the expression level of BnVDAC1 was correlated with relative conductivity, relative water content of leaves and ROS changes. The gene had obvious variety specificity and tissue expression specificity.

  • Ting LI, Jia-qi WANG, Wei-cong HUO, Jin-feng WU, Jia-shi PENG, Ding-gang ZHOU, Ming-li YAN, Da-wei ZHANG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2023, 45(4): 711-719. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022134

    Brassica juncea exhibites relatively tolerance to heavy metal cations. Because of NRAMP (natural resistance associated macrophage protein) is mainly involved in absorption and transport of metal cations, we used NRAMP homologous genes of Arabidopsis thaliana as reference, to better understand the NRAMPs in B. juncea. Thus 18 BjNRAMP memmbers in B. juncea were identified on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that BjNRAMPs were clustered into 2 clades. Their expansionswere possibly caused by B.juncea genome triplication after the divergence of Arabidopsis and Brassica. Transcriptome sequencing data from roots and leaves under different concentration of cadmium (Cd) treatments indicated that expressions of BjNRAMPs were tissue-specific, in which BjNRAMP1.4 expression in root was increased under 30 mg/kg of Cd treatment. BjNRAMP2.2 expression in leaf was induced by 10 mg/kg of Cd treatment, but decreased in roots. After transformed into yeast, overexpression of BjNRAMP1.4 in Cd-sensitive yeast mutants significantly improved its tolerance to Cd. Promotion function of BjNRAMP2.2 played a limited role, not as good as BjNRAMP1.4.

  • Sheng-nan MA, Hao-ran ZHANG, Yue WANG, Xu-hang ZHANG, Ya-qi HUANG, Jiang-xu WANG, Zhen-bang HU, Da-wei XIN, Qing-shan CHEN, Jin-hui WANG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2023, 45(4): 720-727. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022153

    Soybean can symbiosis with rhizobia to produce nodule, through which symbiosis nitrogen fixation can provide essential nitrogen source for soybean growth and development. Rhizobia type III effectors are important signal molecules regulating symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which is very important for the establishment of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In this study, NopAA mutants of rhizobia HH103 type III effecting factor were constructed and identified by bioinformatics analysis, three-parent hybridization and Southern blot were used to construct the mutant. Expression analysis showed that NopAA mutation significantly reduced the expression of soybean immune-related gene PR1. Through NopAA expression detection during nodule formation, it was found that NopAA could still be expressed by rhizobia after nodule maturity. Finally, NopAA mutation can significantly inhibit the production of nodule through nodule formation ability identification. This study laid a foundation for revealing the mechanism of the type III effector NopAA and provided a theoretical basis for the utilization of co-organic nitrogen fixation in soybean agricultural production.

  • Hai-tang FENG, Han-zhong WANG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2024, 46(2): 221-227. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2024021

    China's vegetable oil industry has historically relied heavily on imports, which poses a substantial risk not only to national oil supply security but also across various domains including politics and economics. Given the intricate dynamics of global power competition, it is strategically imperative to optimize domestic land resource utilization efficiently while fostering ongoing advancements in agricultural science and technology. These measures are essential for bolstering vegetable oil production capacity domestically as well as diversifying import sources. By doing so effectively addresses potential security risks linked to edible vegetable oil supply chain disruptions while simultaneously safeguarding political stability, ensuring economic resilience, and promoting public welfare.

  • Yu-qi HE, Kun-jiang YU, Yuan-hong LI, Qian WANG, Xu YANG, Xian-ya WANG, En-tang TIAN
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2023, 45(4): 684-693. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022147

    To achieve stable high yield and suitable mechanized cultivar for rapeseed(Brassica napus L.), QTLs on developmental plant height were studied using an population named AH, which composed of 189 recombined inbred members. Net increase in plant height of 5 growth stages and final plant height at maturity were investigated in Guiyang in 2020, and phenotypic variation and their correlations were analyzed. Based on previous constructed high-density molecular marker genetic linkage map, QTL mapping was performed to identify the stage-specific expression QTLs regulating plant height development on a genome-wide scale. Results showed great variations in plant height during the 5 growth stages after budding. Plant height changed the most in the 1st week, and the increase gradually slowed down over time. Net height growth at each stage was positively correlated with the previous stage. A total of 60 QTLs were detected in the 5 stages, including 4 major QTLs, 8 QTLs stably expressed in 2 different stages, and the others (specifically expressed in at least one stage). 6 QTLs were identified at maturity, including one major QTL. Comparative analysis showed that 6 QTLs at maturity stage were not detected at 5 developmental stages. Totally 5 major QTLs identified in this study have not been reported yet, thus can be used as new loci for developmental plant height breeding in B. napus. Combined with gene function annotation, 15 candidate genes related to plant height were preliminarily screened. It was expected to deepen the understanding of genetic regulation on rapeseed plant height, and provide new resources for semi-dwarf breeding.

  • Yu-qin TU, Jia-jia XIN, Yang ZHANG, Nan-feng ZHANG, Xing-lin DAI, Wei-feng TU, Jie TANG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2023, 45(4): 675-683. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022162

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is the largest oil crop in China, and the mechanized production is the inevitable trend of rapeseed industry. But the long flowering period and inconsistencies of silique mature caused by indeterminate inflorescence in rapeseed are key links affecting mechanized harvest. Therefore, gene mapping, candidate gene prediction and cloning of the determinate inflorescence trait are of great significance for the genetic improvement of rapeseed, the cultivation of new varieties suitable for mechanized harvest and the breaking of the bottleneck of rapeseed mechanized production. A natural and novel rapeseed mutant with determinate inflorescence was identified in this study. The F2 isolated population was constructed by crossing with Zhongshuang 11(ZS11).Two pools with 20 determinate and indeterminate inflorescence F2 lines were used for gene mapping of determinate inflorescence, 20× and 10× depth of whole genome re-sequencing were conducted for the two pools and parental lines, respectively. A total of 277 679 SNP and 302 625 InDel polymorphic sites were identified for whole genome mapping of determinate inflorescence traits. Using the △ SNP-index method for association analysis, a total of 892 polymorphic marker loci were screened, containing 683 genes, which were mapped on six significantly associated interval of chromosome A09, A10 and C09, of which, the locus on chromosome C09 exhibited the highest peak. By A. thaliana genome homologous sequence alignment, combined with gene functional annotation and sequence difference analysis, genes of BnaA09g34410D, BnaA09g37880D, BnaA09g38520D, BnaC09g40470D, BnaC09g40480D and BnaC09g49710D were predicted as potential candidate genes of determinate inflorescence within the association interval on chromosomes A09 and C09. The genes of BnaA09g34410D, BnaA09g37880D and BnaC09g49710D were involved in the control of flower development and flowering time, and the three genes located within associated interval of chromosome C09 with the highest peak having sequence differences of allelic genes, were predicted as the main genes controlling this determinate inflorescence trait. The results establish the theoretical foundation for the cloning and function identification of the determinate inflorescence genes in rape.

  • Bo-shou LIAO
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2024, 46(1): 1-6. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2024051

    Implementation of the novel grand-food security strategy based on the principles of all-encompassing approach to food is highly crucial for diversifying sources, increasing supply amount, improving nutritional quality, enhancing market competitiveness, protecting eco-systems, ensuring self-coordination, promoting healthy consumption, and elevating comprehensive management of various foods in China under the New Era. Since the opening police starting in 1978, historical changes have occurred in production, trade and consumption of major agricultural products including the oilseeds, and food consumption and nutrition levels in the whole country have been significantly improved. However, the unbalanced production and consumption of certain agro-products have also led to serious problems such as an increase in chronic diseases, environmental pollution and risks within food supply chains, among which, the short domestic production and over-consumption of oilseeds and edible vegetable oils have been in a dilemma for more than ten years. Based on China’s natural resources and social-economic circumstances, the general road-map including enlarging production of rapeseed and peanut, promoting production of other special minor oilseeds and intensifying healthy consumption should be well followed in order to ensure the supply of oilseed products. It is proposed to increase the domestic vegetable oil production up to 20 million tons in the next decade, which would be the basic supply bottom line for domestic consumption. Meanwhile, further efforts should be made on improving the quality, production efficiency and market competitiveness and promoting healthy consumption of oilseed products.

  • Guang-wei WEI, Hui-yi YANG, Min WANG, Ting-hai SHEN, Xi YANG, Xiao-hui WANG, Ru-qi SU, Sheng FANG, Zi-ming WU
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2023, 45(4): 735-744. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022177

    To evaluate the productivity, adaptability and stability of lignans content of black sesame cultivars under different ecological conditions, a multi-site multi-year experiment was conducted on 42 black sesame cultivars in 3 pilot sites with different soil fertility in Jiangxi Province. The content of sesamin and sesamolin in different black sesame cultivars was systematically analyzed by combined analysis variance and GGE (genotype + genotypes and environment interactions) biplot and other methods. The results showed that the average content of sesamin was the highest at Poyang site (1.92 mg/g) and the lowest at Jinxian site (1.73 mg/g). The average content of sesamolin at Agricultural University (Nongda) site was the highest (2.88 mg/g), while the average content of sesamolin in Jinxian was the lowest (1.86 mg/g).The results of combined variance analysis showed that the contents of sesamin and sesamolin in different black sesame cultivars were significantly different, and were significantly affected by the environment (E) and the interaction between genotype and environment (G×E). The results of GGE biplot analysis showed that G1 and G15 were stable cultivars with high sesamin content, and G10 had the highest sesamin content in multiple environments, showing strong adaptability and high promotion value. G2, G3 and G40 are stable cultivars with high sesamolin content. G2 sesamolin content had the best adaptability at Poyang and Agricultural University, and the best adaptability at Jinxian was G11. Compared with low sesamin and sesamolin, the oil content of high sesamin and sesamolin types increased significantly, and showed a very significant positive correlation with oil content, so that the synchronous improvement of sesamin, sesamolin and oil content could be achieved.

  • Ling DOU, Qing-nan HAO, zhong-lu YANG, Shui-lian CHEN, Xian-zhi WANG, Zhi-hui SHAN, Xin-an ZHOU
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2023, 45(4): 704-710. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022137

    Soybean pod shattering is one of the important factors influencing soybean yield loss. In this study, gene distribution of pdh1 in 105 varieties from multiple variety tests in Yangtze River regions was studied. Results showed that 56 of all tested varieties contained pdh1 gene, and pdh1 was concentrated in summer type soybean. The number of varieties containing pdh1 accounted for 91.4% of the total summer soybeans. Its distribution has obvious regional characteristics. About 82.3% soybean varieties with pdh1 were bred from Huang-Huai-Hai regions and Northeast China (including Liaoning, Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, Shandong), while only 11.6% varieties containing pdh1 were from South China (including Fujian, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan and Zhejiang). Thus the pdh1 gene had been effectively used in breeding for Northeast China and Huang-Huai-Hai regions, and also could be a marker for pod-shattering resistance selection. But it were poorly used in South China due to the high temperature and humidity in fields. It was suggested that molecular marker assisted selection might be helpful to improve the breeding efficiency regionally on pod shattering resistance.

  • Guang-hui LI, Xin GUO, Yan-bin SUN, Wei-nan ZHANG, Hui-ling ZHAO, Hong-jun ZHAO, Xing-jun WANG, Chun FU, Chuan-zhi ZHAO
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2023, 45(4): 803-809. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022139

    As nutritions for human health, anthocyanins and other flavonoids are important molecules that mediate plant adaptation to environmental stress. The objective of this study was to investigate oxidation resistance and salt tolerance of 3 peanut cultivars with pink (YZ9102), red (JHR1), and black (JHB1) testa colors. A pot experiment was conducted under controlled conditions. 7-day old seedlings were subjected to Hoagland solution (CK) and 150 mmol/L NaCl (SS) for 10 days. The changes in growth, flavonoid content, and antioxidant enzyme activities were analyzed. Results showed that salt stress caused a decrease in plant height, leaves area and biomass in the 3 cultivars. JHR1 and JHB1 exhibited higher salt tolerance than YZ9102. The antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) of JHR1 and JHB1 were markedly increased by salt stress compared to YZ9102. The flavonoid contents exhibited the same trends in the 3 cultivars under salt stress. The relative malonaldehyde (MDA) content was lower in JHR1 and JHB1 than in YZ9102. Correlation analysis showed that the relative flavonoid content and MDA content were significantly (P< 0.05) related to salt tolerance. The flavonoid content was highly correlated (P< 0.01) with the SOD activity, MDA content, plant height and leaf area. In conclusion, the roots of JHR1 and JHB1 accumulated more flavonoids than YZ9102 under salt stress and showed higher antioxidant capacity and less inhibition of growth under salt stress. The results might provide information for screening salt resistant peanut cultivars.

  • Guo-yu HU, Ying-ping XIA, Xiang-bei DU, Jin-hua CHEN, Jie-kun LI, Da-gang WANG, Qian WU, Wei-hu WANG, Yong YANG, Zhing-ping HUANG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2023, 45(4): 793-802. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022145

    The limiting factors of summer soybean yield in Anhui Province were elucidated to provide a theoretical reference for increasing soybean yield in this area. The summer soybean yield and the effects of climate and disease on yield formation were studied by analyzing the disease occurrence and the data of yield and meteorology of the variety comparative tests of summer soybean in Anhui Province from 2016 to 2021. The results showed that the average annual yields of the tests were between 2180.6-2826.4 kg/hm2, which were higher than the average yields of soybean production in Anhui Province in recent years (1500 kg/hm2). The average temperatures for late July (flowering period) in high-yield years were lower than that in low-yield years, and there was no high-temperature weather with the daily maximum temperature exceeding 35℃, nor daily average temperature exceeding 30℃. The average rainfall in mid-July and late July in high-yield years were more than that in low-yield years, and the probabilities of autumn drought were early September > late August > mid-August. Due to the influences of climate, diseases and pests, 11.1% of the tests did not obtain valid data, and the yield of the lowest yield experimental sites in different years decreased by 13.6%-36.3% compared with the average annual test yield. Changeable transitional climate and high disease frequency are the main reasons affecting soybean yield in Anhui Province. The high temperature in late July and the autumn drought in early September are important limiting factors for soybean yield. The high temperature during the flowering period of soybean may be one of the inducing factors for the occurrence of "Zhengqing" of soybean in this area. In order to increase soybean yield in Anhui Province, comprehensive consideration should be given to improving the stress tolerance of varieties, optimizing planting techniques and improving water conservancy facilities.

  • Juan ZHENG, Huang HUANG, Yi-tao LIAO, Lei WANG, Jia-cheng YUAN, Jian-xin LIN, Qing-xi LIAO
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2024, 46(2): 245-259. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022299

    Rapeseed is an essential oil crop in China. Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi provinces in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River are the main planting areas, which account for more than 42% of the total planted area of rapeseed in China. The area has more than 3467 ha of winter fallow field, with massive potential for utilization. The total mechanization rate of rapeseed tillage, seeding and harvesting in the 3 provinces is higher than national average. Still, the uneven development, insufficient utilization of idle fields in winter, low levels of mechanization and intelligence, are technical bottlenecks for improving whole mechanization. This paper analyzes the basic situation and existing problems of the rapeseed industry in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, combing tillage, seeding, harvesting key aspects of mechanization and intelligent technology, and gives the technical routes of the whole process of rapeseed production that could be promoted. Meanwhile, a comparative analysis of the technical characteristics and difficulties in promoting the application of the "tillage, seeding and harvesting" aspects of rapeseed production was carried out. Development trend of rapeseed production technology mode is semi-mechanized, mechanized to intelligent in the winter fallow fields. The technical development paths of each link are discribed as "anti-blocking, anti-sticky, anti-tangle, and high-speed, efficient, low consumption" mechanized tillage. Integrated tillage and seeding technology to complete multiple working procedures simultaneously. High efficiency, low consumption and low loss of rapeseed mechanized harvesting technology should be combined with harvesting and two-stage harvesting synergistic development. The mechanization technology of feeding, vegetable and fertilizer and the critical technology of intelligent rapeseed production should also be developed and applied simultaneously. To achieve high yield, several suggestions for promoting full mechanization technology model for rapeseed in the mid-winter fields of the Yangtze River are proposed.

  • Gu-cheng LI, Qiu-chun NIU, Bo-feng LENG, Yi-fei DING, Ting TONG, Li-xia FAN
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2024, 46(2): 228-235. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2023248

    Currently, the self-sufficiency rate of domestic vegetable oil is still low. As an important oil crop in China, rapeseed contributes to nearly 50% of the oil production of domestic oil crops, and it plays a vital role in ensuring national edible oil supply security. Since the "No. 1 central document" for 2012 first proposed the comprehensive deployment of agricultural science and technology strategy, the rapeseed industry has made great progress with scientific and technological support. The "No. 1 central document" for 2023 clearly proposes to further promote the soybean and oilseed production capacity improvement project, take coordinated steps to support the rapeseed industry, promote rice-oil rotation, and vigorously develop winter idle fields. This paper systematically figured the development status of rapeseed industry from 2012 to 2022, summarized the scientific and technological progress within this sector, and analysed the current challenges and prospects. Finally, policy suggestions were put forward to support the sustainable development of rapeseed industry in China.

  • He-ping WAN, Yi Yu, Jing-dong CHEN, Jing-chun-zi LU, Jing-hong RAN, Xi-gang DAI, Jing WEN, Ting-dong FU, Jing-xiong SHEN, Chang-li ZENG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2023, 45(4): 776-784. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022150

    An accurate and efficient identification system of salinity and alkali resistance is very important for the evaluation of salinity and alkali resistance of rapeseed germplasm resources.In order to establish an evaluation system for salinity and alkali tolerance of rapeseed and screen the tolerant germplasm, 87 rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) varieties/lines (inbred lines) from major rapeseed producing areas in China were used as test materials, and a hydroponic system was used to simulate stress. The results showed that the number of fully expanded green leaves of rapeseed plants under saline-alkali stress could be used as a reliable indicator for effectively distinguishing different types of rapeseeds, while the fresh weight of aboveground parts could be used as auxiliary indicators. By grading the number of fully expanded green leaves, the 87 rapeseed resources measured were divided into 4 salt-and-alkali-tolerant grades from 0 to III. Among them, 7 salt-alkali-tolerant rapeseed resources with resistance grade III were obtained. The results provided methods and resources for salinity-tolerant breeding of rapeseed.

  • Ning-bo ZENG, Shi-hui ZHANG, Lu-lin DONG, Hui-lin FU, Qing MU, Lin LI, Deng-wang LIU
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2023, 45(4): 817-825. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022171

    To explore the effects of lime application on peanut soil enzyme activity of red soil barren desert soil, and optimize the growth conditions of peanut, three peanut varieties representing different grain types (large-grain variety Xianghua 2008, medium-grain variety Xianghua 55 and small-grain variety Lanshan-Xiaozi) were used as experimental materials in soil column cultivation experiment, and two treatments were set up: calcium coated (lime) and calcium free (control). Five soil enzyme activities were measured and analyzed in 0-20 cm surface and rhizosphere soil of peanut during the main growth period. The results showed that, with the development of peanut growth period, soil enzyme activity increased first and then decreased gradually, and the peak value appeared in the vigorous growth period, that is, flowering-pegging stage or pod-bearing stage; The application of lime had significant effects on the enzyme activities of topsoil and rhizosphere soil during the whole growth period of different peanut varieties, and the variation range of enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil was greater than that in topsoil soil; The catalase activity of topsoil and rhizosphere soil of different peanut varieties increased after calcium application, indicating that calcium application could enhance the antioxidant capacity of peanut; For large and medium grain peanut varieties, calcium application increased the activities of soil protease and soil urease, but decreased the activities of soil sucrase and soil acid phosphatase; Meanwhile, the activities of soil sucrase and soil acid phosphatase increased significantly after calcium fertilizer was applied to small grain peanut, although the average increase of protease and urease activities was lower than that of the control group, the activities of protease and urease in the later growth stage were higher than these of the control and large and medium peanut varieties; Calcium application could promote the transformation from vegetative growth to reproductive growth of peanut plant, reduce the height of main stem and lateral branch length, and increase the number of well-filled pods, well-filled pods weight and productivity per plant of each grain type. With the same amount of calcium application, the productivity of large and medium seeded peanuts increased less, indicating that large and medium seeded peanuts need more calcium than small seeded peanuts. Therefore, the application of lime calcium fertilizer to peanut in red soil dryland of South China has a great regulation effect on different soil enzyme activities and yield of peanut, which might lay a foundation for high-yield cultivation, variety breeding and planting layout of peanut.

  • Rui ZENG, Li MA, Jun-yan WU, Gang YANG, Na ZHANG, Jia XU, Ming-chuan ZHU, Min MA, Xiao-lei TAO, Xue-cai LI, Li-jun LIU, Wan-cang SUN
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2023, 45(4): 766-775. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022164

    In order to study the relationship between the beginning of withered leaf stage and cold resistance of winter Brassica rapa under low temperature, two varieties of winter Brassica rapa cultivars Longyou 7 (strong cold-resistance) and Longyou 99 (weak cold-resistance) were investigated. Plant phenotype, cell activity, active oxygen metabolism and expression of related genes regulated by reactive oxygen species were comprehensively analyzed under low temperature stress (5 to 19℃ at 5-leaf stage, -8 to 0℃ at 7-leaf stage, -14 to -4℃ at 7-leaf stage). Results showed that after low temperature stress before winter, Longyou 7 entered the withered leaf stage earlier, while Longyou 99 entered the stage later. The number of cell death in leaves increased gradually during low temperature stress, and the number from Longyou 7 was significantly more than that from Longyou 99. Before stress, contents of H2O2 and O2?- in leaves of Longyou 7 were significantly lower than those of Longyou 99, while the activities of SOD, POD and CAT were significantly higher. As the leaves began to yellowing on Longyou 7, the leaf contents of H2O2 and O2?- increased rapidly, and became significantly higher than those of Longyou 99. Activities of SOD, POD and CAT became significantly lower. qRT-PCR results showed that earlier withered leaf stage resulted in lower expression of antioxidant enzyme gene and higher expression of NADPH oxidase gene. It was inferred that the early or late beginning of leaf withering stage for winter B. rapa, was related to content of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2?-), and also to antioxidant enzymes activity, e.g. expression of genes related to active oxygen metabolism. The above results were expected to provide theoretical support for regulation mechanism of leaves withering and the relationship between withered leaf and cold resistance of winter B. rapa under low temperature stress.

  • Man-yu YUAN, Yi-jun WU, Wen-ting ZHOU, Yan-xia CONG, Yu-tang QI, Wei-nong ZHANG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2024, 46(2): 430-436. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022293

    The changes of acid value, peroxide value, phosphorus content, phytosterols, tocopherols and diglycerides of rapeseed oil, as well as the composition and content of phospholipids in degummed oil feet (oil sediment) were investigated under different degumming conditions using rapeseed crude oil as raw material. There were significant differences in degumming capabilities among water degumming and enzymatic degumming, enzymatic degumming showed more competence than water degumming, meanwhile, phospholipase A1 enzymatic degumming was more thorough compared with that of phospholipase C. The peroxide value and acid value of rapeseed oil showed a decreasing trend after degumming, additionally, the acid value of phospholipase A1 decreased the least. The content of tocopherols and phytosterols in degummed oil decreased slightly, with a maximum decrease of about 5%. Diacylglycerols content in phospholipase C enzymatic degumming increased significantly, meanwhile, the ratio of 1,3-diacylglycerols to 1,2-diacylglycerols in degummed oil decreased, with the ratio ranging from (2.2-3.0):1. There were significant differences in the composition and content of phospholipids in degummed oil feet after different degumming processes, which phospholipase A1 enzymatic degumming oil feet owned the highest content of lysophospholipids, and phospholipase C enzymatic degumming oil feet had the highest content of phosphatidylinositol.

  • Ka ZHANG, Hao-jie LI, Jin-fang ZHANG, Cheng CUI, Liang CHAI, Ben-chuan ZHENG, Jun JIANG, Cheng DAI, Jin-xing TU, Liang-cai JIANG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2023, 45(6): 1095-1102. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2023212

    Brassica napus (oilseed rape) is the primary source of vegetable edible oil in China, playing an important role in ensuring and stabitity the safety of national edible oil supply. The growth and development of oilseed rape are frequently attacked by various pathogens, among which Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is generally considered one of the most economically damaging, widely studied and highly concerned diseases. This article refers to relevant research results, elaborates on the pathological cycle and pathogenic mechanism of S. sclerotiorum, summarizes the progress of resistant germplasms, defense-ralated genes and mechanisms in oilseed rape. Additionary, this review introduces the newly reporeted pathogenicity factors such as SsCP1; it contains breakthroughs in the creation of resistant germplasm inherited from Brassica species; multiple studies that found the co-localization of genetic loci controlling flowering time and resistance to S. sclerotiorum in oilseed rape; and the research reveals the molecular mechanism mediated by the WRKY28-WRKY33 module finely regulates defense strength of oilseed rape after being infected with S. sclerotiorum. This review also looks forward to future research on oilseed rape resistance against S. Sclerotiorum, with a focus on exploring resistant germplasm. It aims to provide a reference for the comprehensive control of S. sclerotiorum in China.

  • Wan-wan FAN, Shao-jian LI, Su-ling SANG, Hai-yan ZHANG, Meng GAO, Zhen-yu WANG
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES. 2024, 46(2): 377-384. https://doi.org/10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2022289

    To identify the pathogens responsible for peanut pod rot in Henan Province, 92 samples of peanut pod rot were collected from various geographic regions and subjected to tissue isolation techniques. Pathogens were identified based on their morphological and molecular biological, and verified using Koch's rules. The results revealed that Fusarium, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Sclerotium rolfsii and Neocosmospora vasinfecta were the pathogenic fungi causing peanut pod rot in Henan Province, with Fusarium as the dominant genus. The main Fusarium species identified in this study were F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. proliferatum and F. chlamydosporum, with F. oxysporum and F. solani being the predominant species. This study further confirms that peanut pod rot is caused by multiple pathogens, providing a foundation for controlling this disease in Henan Province.