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    Research progress on the main nutritional components and physiological functions of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.
    Ting-ting GUO, Chu-yun WAN, Feng-hong HUANG, Chun-lei WEI, Zheng-hua HU
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 1174-1180.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020145
    Abstract312)   HTML16)    PDF (479KB)(194)      

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L., TN), is a perennial herb of Cyperus Linn. It has the advantages of wide adaptability, short growth period, large biomass and high oil content. Stems and leaves of TN can be used as silage, and tubers of TN can be eaten raw or cooked. Noteworthily, TN can be used for oil production, and the cake can be further applied for feed. Therefore, as a new crop, TN integrates food, oil and fodder as a whole and has high economic value and development potential. In order to deeply understand TN and promote its high-value utilization, the research progress of the main nutrients such as oil, protein and polysaccharide in TN were summarizd. The physiological functions of TN in reducing blood lipid, lowering blood glucose, antioxidantion and protecting liver were expounded in detail. Moreover, the market scale and scientific research prospect were forecasted.

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    Effects of COVID-19 on China's rape industry and strategies
    ZHANG Qing, LENG Bo-feng, CHEN Xue-ting, CHEN Zhuo-er, WEI Meng-sheng, FENG Zhong-chao, LI Xian-rong
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (4): 551-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020332
    Abstract287)      PDF (1101KB)(267)      

    To effectively cope with the shock of COVID-19 and its subsequent impact, and to promote stable and healthy development of rape industry, this paper systematically analyzed the impact of COVID-19 on China's rape industry. It includes perspectives of farmer's life, rape production and rapeseed processing enterprises, based on micro survey data provided by the National Rapeseed Industrial Technology System. The results showed that in terms of farmers' life, only 0.98% of the respondents were in a shortage of edible vegetable oil and 76.06% of them reflected no impact or a little impact on total household income. However, rural tourism decreased by 10.24 percentage points, and honey collecting behavior of bee farmers decreased by 4.6 points. On field production, 85.47% of the respondents reported "no change" and "small reduction" in field management workload, 90.38% reflected "no impact" and "a littlel impact" on rapeseed production employment, 79.06% considered "overall stability" in the price of agricultural materials, and 98.48% believed that it had a little impact on final output. However, the pest reporting rate increased by 4.99 points than last season. On rapeseed processing, it varied from region to region on the rapeseed processing enterprises' resumption rate, starting-up rate, specific difficulties faced by enterprises and government policies. Based on these results, future strategies should be taken to ensure improving development of rape industry. The strategies should include perfect construction of China's oil reserve system, more attention to diversification of imports, more innovation and technology promotion, optimization on marketing system and construction of information platform, and a“package”subsidy plan for the industry.

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    Progress in research on mechanism of resistance to Aspergillus flavus L. infection and aflatoxin production in peanut
    CUI Meng-jie, CHAI Peng-pei, GUO Jun-jia, HUANG Bing-yan, DONG Wen-zhao, HAN Suo-yi, ZHANG Xin-you
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (4): 562-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020236
    Abstract225)      PDF (1323KB)(242)      
    Aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus L. is an important factor which poses a serious threat to production and food safety in peanut. Contamination resistance of Aspergillus flavus can be divided into two categories: infection of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination. Resistance mechanisms are usually classified into morphological, physiological, and molecular resistance mechanism. The main factors that determine the resistance of peanut seed coat to infection are the thickness of wax layer, the arrangement density of palisade cells and the existence of seed coat cracks and so on. The contents of tannic acid, trypsin inhibitor and resveratrol were related to the resistance of peanut seeds to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin production. The pathogenesis-related genes, transcription factor genes, lipoxygenase genes, and other resistance genes are involved in the process of peanut resistance to Aspergillus flavus. In the future, it is possible to explore the mechanism of resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin production of peanut seeds based on genome-wide association studies and various omics techniques.
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    Breeding and genetic background of the high-oleic peanut variety Yuhua 37
    QIN Li, LIU Hua§, ZHANG Xin-you, DU Pei, DAI Xiao-dong, SUN Zi-qi, QI Fei-yan, DONG Wen-zhao, GU Jian-zhong, HUANG Bing-yan, HAN Suo-yi, ZHANG Zhong-xin, XU Jing, GAO Wei
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (4): 608-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020144
    Abstract221)      PDF (1322KB)(194)      

    Yuhua 37, a high oleic acid peanut variety with high yield, appreciable resistance to major diseases and wide adaptability, was bred by hybridization and pedigree selection. The female parent Haihua 1 was a widely grown variety and the male parent Kaixuan 016 was the high-oleic trait donor line. The near-infrared quality analyzer and molecular marker-assisted selection approach were applied in the selection of single plants in the segregating generations. In 2012 and 2013, the variety was tested in the Henan Peanut Regional Trial for High-quality Spanish-type varieties. The average yield was 4583.55 kg/hm2 with an increase of 2.68% over the control variety Yuanza 9102 across 9 test locations in two years. In 2014, it was included in the Henan Provincial Peanut Production Test for Spanish-type variety, an average pod yield of 5084.40 kg/hm2 with an increase of 10.84% over the control Yuanza 9102 was recorded across 6 test locations. This cultivar is a small-seeded Spanish-type variety with growth duration of about 116 days when planted in the summer season in Henan province. Yuhua 37 was approved to be released by Henan province in 2015. Its genetic background and the mutation types of the two major genes controlling oleic acid content were further analyzed, which may provide some enlightenment in future development of high-oleic peanut varieties.

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    A preliminary study on the coupling effect of aflatoxin green control and super-nodulation
    Yang ZHOU, Xiao-feng YUE, Xiao-qian TANG, Hong-lin YAN, Qi ZHANG, Pei-wu LI
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 947-960.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021300
    Abstract221)   HTML41)    PDF (7632KB)(185)      

    Peanut and soybean are important oilseeds and cash crops in China, however they are also vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination, which seriously threatens food safety and restricts industrial development. The prevention and control of aflatoxin occurrence in food is currently an intense research challenge globally. We first put forward the research idea of coupling the aflatoxin green control with the promotion of root nodule nitrogen fixation, based on the research idea, the microbial agent ARC-BBBE was invented. In this study, the effect of on-the-field application of microbial agent ARC-BBBE in the control of Aspergillus flavus and its toxin on peanut was reported. The research was carried out by investigating the effects of ARC-BBBE on biological and economic traits of peanut, and identifying the effects of ARC-BBBE on nodulation and nitrogen fixation of peanut and soybean, to provide theoretical basis and scientific guidance for controlling aflatoxin contamination and reducing the fertilizer and pesticide use from the source in the field. In field control trials, ARC-BBBE was applied to the soil at a dosage of 30 kg/hm2 with base fertilizer during planting in the peanut-producing provinces of China for 2 consecutive years. At the same time, peanut and soybean pot experiments were also conducted. The level of aflatoxin in the soil was investigated by the spread plate method. And the aflatoxin content in peanut samples was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Measurement of the nitrogen fixation activity of root nodules was performed using acetylene reduction assay. Finally, the number and weight of root nodules were calculated using a 5-point sampling survey. Results showed that ARC-BBBE significantly reduced the abundance of aflatoxin-producing fungi in soil and the level of aflatoxin in peanut, with an average reduction of 66.5% in the abundance of toxin-producing fungi and decrease of 83.5% in aflatoxin content. The application of ARC-BBBE resulted in a general super nodulation phenomenon in peanut roots, and its nitrogenase activity was also verified in this work. The average number of nodules increased more than 10 folds (50 folds in poor soil areas), the nodule weight increased more than 8.8 folds, and the nodule nitrogenase activity per gram increased more than 5 folds. The fruit filling rate and yield were significantly increased and the leaf color was dense green. In addition, the results of peanut pot experiment in greenhouse showed that the number of nodules was 2.2 folds higher, nitrogen fixing enzyme activity was 4 folds higher and chlorophyll content was 21.3% higher in the ARC-BBBE treated group compared to the control group. The results of soybean potted planting experiment in greenhouse revealed that ARC-BBBE also promoted nodulation and nitrogen fixation in soybean, with a 13.5-fold increase in the number of nodules and a 19.8-fold increase in nodule weight in the ARC-BBBE-treated group compared to the control group. At 26 days after sowing, the root nodules in the treatment group had nitrogen fixation activity while those in the control group had no activity, and biological indices such as root length, root weight, fresh weight and chlorophyll level were significantly enhanced in the treatment group. The effect of ARC-BBBE on the control of Aspergillus flavus and its toxin in peanut is extremely obvious. ARC-BBBE does not only effectively inhibit peanut aflatoxin-producing fungi and reduce the risk of aflatoxin contamination from the source of production, but also significantly improves the amount of peanut root nodules and nitrogen-fixing enzyme activity, which is of remarkable growth-promoting, yield-increasing, disease-control, safety-preserving properties, and economic, social and ecological benefits. Thus, it is of great significance in minimizing the application of pesticides and fertilizers, protecting farmland ecology, and promoting the high-quality environment-friendly development of the peanut industry, which is prospective for application in the production of peanut, soybean and other leguminous crops in the future.

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    Thaumatin-like protein kinase BnTLK1 from Brassica napus related to fungal disease resistance
    ZHONG Xue, LI Xiang, ZUO Rong, LIU Jie, LIU Sheng-yi, BAI Ze-tao, TONG Chao-bo
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (5): 743-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020090
    Abstract170)      PDF (10055KB)(145)      
    As the fifth family of pathogenesis-related proteins, TLP (thaumatin-like protein) plays an important defensive role in the interaction between plant and pathogen. In some species, the C-terminal of TLP fused kinase domain, but the fusion gene function required to be discussed. In Brassica napus, we identified and cloned a gene named BnTLK1, which contained a TLP domain at N termini and serine/ threonine-rich receptor-like kinase domain at C termini. Sequence characterization showed that BnTLK1 had typical transmembrane structure and formed two independent units at 3D structure level. The expression of BnTLK1 was low in different tissues, high expressed in the cultivar 'ZY821' of high resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and induced by S. sclerotiorum based on public transcriptome data analysis. To investigate the effect of BnTLK1 on S. sclerotiorum and other fungus, BnTLK1 were expressed in prokaryotic system and get the soluble protein BnTLK1 after overnight induction at 0.4 mmol/L IPTG and 17℃. Bacteriostatic experiment further confirmed BnTLK1 could indeed inhibit the mycelium growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea.
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    Cloning and salt resistance analysis of soybean GmPUB32 gene
    CHANG Xing-chao, WANG Xue-song, ZHANG Yan-zheng, JING Ya, CHEN Long, ZHAO Jia-liang, FANG Qing-wei, SONG Chun-xiao, LI Yong-guang, LI Wen-bin
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (4): 638-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020071
    Abstract152)      PDF (4544KB)(173)      

    Ubiquitination system is involved in many biological processes, including cell differentiation, hormone response, biological and abiotic stress response, by mediating the post-translational modification of proteins.The ubiquitination ligase containing U-box gene is one of the important enzymes in the Ubiquitination system. In this study, soybean U-box family gene Glyma. 13G115900 (GmPUB32) was cloned from soybean variety Kengfeng 16. Sequence analysis showed that GmPUB32 gene has an open reading frame with a length of 513 bp, encoding 170 amino acid with a RING/ U-box conserved domain between its 83-131 amino acids. The results of subcellular localization analysis showed that GmPUB32 protein was located in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. The expression of GmPUB32 gene in soybean root, stem, leaf and pod was detected on different levels, and it is the highest in root. Fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression of GmPUB32 was significantly down-regulated under salt stress. Salt stress tolerance of T3 generation of Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing GmPUB32 were analyzed, and the results showed that the germination rate, cotyledon afforestation rate and survival rate were significantly lower than that of the wild type under salt stress, in addition, growth rate of transgenic hairy root overexpressing GmPUB32 also significantly was suppressed compared with the wild type. Therefore, GmPUB32 may play a role in response to salt stress process as a negative regulatory factors.

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    Identification of Aux/IAA gene family and the regulation to apical bud development in soybean
    LIU Ting-ting, LI Yan-yan, NING Xiao-shuang, LIU Zhi-hua, JIANG Zhen-feng, LI Wen-bin
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (4): 648-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020070
    Abstract146)      PDF (2426KB)(180)      

    The Aux IAA gene family plays an important role in the development of plant shoots. In order to explore the regulatory role of Aux/IAA gene family in the development process of soybean shoots, the protein sequences of Aux/IAA gene family of Arabidopsis thaliana were used in current study as a reference to identify the Aux/IAA family genes in soybean genome. There were 63 Aux/IAA gene members in soybean genome. Then the full-length amino acid sequences of Aux/IAA family genes identified from Arabidopsis thaliana and chickpea and soybean were compared to construct an evolutionary tree. The results showed that the genetic relationship between Aux/IAA family members was significantly different, and the frequency of homologous recombination during the process of plant evolution was different. The genes were identified which expressed differentially between 594 (DN) and Charleston (CH) and between the high pool (WH) and short pool(WS) of their RIL population and the high pool (JH) and short pool (JS) of their F2 population. A total of 17 Aux/IAA genes are differential expression. There were 15 genes expressed differentially in the CHvsDN group, 2 in the JHvsJS group, and only 1 in the WHvsWS group. Furthermore,Glyma.10G180100 was differentially expressed in the JHvsJS group and the WHvsWS group. These results give a deep understanding about the Aux/IAA gene family in soybean and provide a theoretical basis for regulating the development of soybean shoots.

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    Construction and phenotypic analysis of EMS-treated mutant library in spring Brassica napus L.
    FAN Shi-hang, SUN Xing-chao§, LIU Jing-lin, ZHANG Liang, DENG Lin-bin, LIU Jing
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (5): 762-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020339
    Abstract145)      PDF (74002KB)(168)      
    Creation of spring rapeseed mutant library is expected to be used in variety improvement and functional genomic research. Spring Brassica napus does not need a long vernalization process for flowering and has a short growth period, which makes it very promising for the creation of mutant banks in rapeseed. In this study, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) was used to mutate the seeds of spring rapeseed 862 to construct an EMS mutant library. By comparing the effects of 8 different concentrations of EMS (0-1.4%) on seeds germination rate, 0.8% EMS, which resulted in 37.2% germination rate, was used as the application concentration. Through field screening and phenotypic statistics, the morphological characteristics of 1823 individual plants in M2 generation were identified. The total mutation frequency was 3.91%. The mutant phenotypes mainly include leaf color, leaf shape, plant height, plant type, silique length, seed size, seed coat color, and seed oil content. The construction of this mutant library provided a variety of phenotypic germplasm resources for functional genomics research and molecular breeding in rapeseed.
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    Breeding of elite restorer lines based on 3 Pol CMS lines in spring Brassica napus L.
    Xu-tao ZHAO, Hai-dong LIU, Kai-xiang LI, Liang XU, De-zhi DU
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 961-970.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020274
    Abstract145)   HTML23)    PDF (1514KB)(115)      

    To find out elite restorer lines during high yield hybrid breeding, 3 Polima cytoplasmic male sterile (Pol CMS) lines of spring Brassica napus L. were used to formulate stronger hybrid combination in spring rapeseed area. SLAF-seq was used to develop SNP markers for the 3 sterile lines and also 118 restorer lines. All 121 materials were clustered based on SNP markers. According to clustering results and their flowering times, 40 restorer lines were selected from each categories to the 3 sterile lines respectively. Under the adopted NCⅡ design, 120 hybrid combinations were prepareed and analysed on their combining ability, heterosis and correlation of parental genetic distance, combined cluster and high-yield combinations. Results showed that genetic clustering divided 121 B. napus resources into 5 categories. The 3 sterile lines were grouped into category V. General combining ability (GCA) of the 43 parents varied from -20.78 to 30.42. Three restorer lines (R83, R107 and R13) and one sterile line S3 (105A) had larger GCA. In the combinations, S3×R13, S1×R48, S3×R11, and S2×R89 had higher special combining abilities. The combination S3×R13 had the largest yield over-standard heterosis and over-parent heterosis (37.12% and 42.52% respectively). Genetic distance and individual yield were extremely positively correlated, with correlation coefficient of 0.390. Among the hybrid combinations, most of the restorers with top 20 yields were from Type I group, which had large genetic distance with the sterile lines. Meanwhile, some varieties popularized in spring rape areas, including restorer lines of Qingza 2, Qingza 7, Qingza 9 and Qingza 12 were all derived from hybrids of Type I and sterile line S3 (105A). Therefore, it was considered that sterile lines crossed Type Ⅰ restoring lines could be strong hybrid combination in spring B. napus.

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    Creation of Brassica napus dwarf material LSW2018
    Fang WANG, Rui-mao ZHANG, Sha HUANG, Rong TANG, Lu-lu WANG, Bin YANG, Zhuan-zhuan WANG, Yuan-yu YANG, Min WANG, De-gang ZHAO, Chao LI
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2022, 44 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021333
    Abstract144)   HTML188)    PDF (2406KB)(157)      

    In this study, a hybrid combination was contructed with F1 of Deyou 5, a Brassica napus variety, as female parent and a new line 273R as male parent. In the F2 generation, 6 mutant plants with obvious shorter plant types at seedling stage were selected. After 5 generations of purification, we bred a stable new germplasm, LSW2018. The germplasm shows dwarf marker characters at seedling stage, with shrunken, thicker and darker leaves, shorter petiole. The growth is lightly weak but stable, plant height is significantly shorter than that of the normal variety. From the budding stage to maturity, LSW2018 gradually turned into a normal shape, with shorter internodes and thicker stalks, stronger lodging resistance, and lower branching positions. The flowering habit, branching angle, inflorescence characteristics, primary and secondary branches, grains, and other characteristics of LSW2018 are not significantly different from those of the homologous normal high-stalk line HSW2018, but the plant height and branch height are extremely different. The average transplanting plant height of LSW2018 is 136.24 cm and the direct seeding is 110.4 cm. In short, LSW2018 is considered to be a new short-stem Brassica napus germplasm suitable for mechanized and light-simplified planting, which might have high utilization value and broad application prospects.

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    Characteristics of dry matter and nutrient accumulation in various organs of early maturing winter rape
    HU Yu-qian, ZHOU Xuan, ZI Tao, XIONG Ting-hao, SONG Hai-xing, ZHANG Zhen-hua
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (4): 690-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020003
    Abstract144)      PDF (3259KB)(162)      
    To provide reference for optimal fertilization scheme on high yield early maturing winter rape (Brassica napus L.), experiments were carried out to compare differences of dry matter accumulation and nutrient absorption among various organs of early maturing cultivars (EMC) suitable for rice-rice-rape tri-ripening with conventional maturity cultivars (CMC). From 2018 to 2019, EMCs (Xiangyou 420, Xiangyou 103) and CMCs (Xiangyou 1035, Xiangzayou 710×1035) were planted for field plot experiments. Samples were collected from plants 45 days after sowing at an interval of 15-20 days. Dynamic changes of dry matter accumulation and nutrient accumulation of N, P and K in each organ were detected. Result showed that dry matter and nutrient accumulation peaks of EMC were mainly distributed in flowering-silique filling stages, and the maximum net increment period appeared later than that of CMC (seedling-flowering stages). The maximum accumulation of leaf dry matter and nutrients occurred in seedling stage for both cultivars, but net increment of leaf dry matter and nutrients of EMC were about 7 percentage points lower than that of CMC at this stage, and net increment of N, P and K were about 19, 25 and 18 percentage points lower on average. The maximum dry matter net increment of stem for both cultivars was in flowering stage, while net increment of EMC (silique filling stage) was later than CMC (bolting stage) in the second high stage. Little difference between the two cultivars for nutrient accumulation in stem was found. The largest dry matter net increment in root was at flowering stage of EMC, and at seedling or flowering stage for CMC. The root nutrients accumulation in EMC was significantly later than that in CMC, which mainly showed that the nitrogen net increment of both cultivars was the largest in seedling stage, but the proportion of EMC (41.8%-55.2%) was lower than that of CMC (57.0%-63.0%). Phosphorus and potassium net increment of EMC were the largest in bolting or flowering stage (different between the two cultivars), while that of CMC were the largest in seedling stage. The dry matter accumulation trends of reproductive organs had little difference, and the net increment was the largest in silique filling stage for both. The nitrogen net increment in reproductive organs of EMC was less different in flowering and silique filling stage, while that of CMC was mainly in flowering stage (62.0%-71.7%). The largest net phosphorus increment of EMC was mainly in silique filling stage (61.0%-73.8%), while that of CMC had little difference between flowering and silique filling stage. The accumulation trend of potassium was similar to that of phosphorus, but the difference between two cultivars was relatively smaller than that of phosphorus. Results indicated that the reproductive organs nutrient accumulation of EMC was later than CMC, and the lag of nitrogen and phosphorus were more obvious than those of potassium. In conclusion, dry matter and nutrient accumulation peaks of EMC organs were delayed compared to CMC. Therefore, the fertilization measures of base fertilizer + topdressing or controlled-release fertilizers could be adopted in EMC planting, and the ratio of topdressing fertilizer (or controlled-release fertilizer) in the later stage could be appropriately increased.
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    Genetic analysis of peanut quality traits based on a diallel cross design
    QI Fei-yan, SUN Zi-qi, HUANG Bing-yan, QIN Li, SHI Lei, LIU Hua, WANG Xiao, TIAN Meng-di, ZHENG Zheng, DONG Wen-zhao, ZHANG Xin-you
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (4): 600-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020251
    Abstract141)      PDF (978KB)(155)      

    In order to improve the efficiency of selecting elite combinations, five parental lines were selected to make 20 cross combinations by Griffing complete diallel crossing design, and 10 quality traits including contents of oil, protein, sucrose and fatty acid compositions in peanut kernel were tested to assess the combining ability and genetic parameters. Analysis of combination ability showed that Yuhua 132(W191)with high general combination ability(GCA)was the optimal lines for selecting high oil, stearic acid, linoleic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid; Jihuatian 1(JT1)with high GCA was the optimal lines for selecting protein and sucrose; and WT08-0937(DF15)with high GCA was the optimal lines for selecting oleic acid and eicosenoic acid. Analysis of regression Wragainst Vr indicated that inheritance of 7 quality traits conformed to the additive-dominant mode, and the inheritance was mainly additive effect, while the dominant effect was small and partial dominant, which included oil, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid , linoleic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid. Principal component analysis(PCA)was carried out for 10 traits of all hybrids, and the cumulative contribution rate of the first two principal components(Dim1 and Dim2)reached 88.6%. The results of PCA revealed that the oil content was negatively correlated with protein and sucrose content, while the oil content was weakly correlated with unsaturated fatty acid content.This study provided a theoretical basis for parents and off-spring selection in peanut breeding.

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    Genetic analysis of direct and maternal effects of fat content in peanut seed
    HUANG Bing-yan, HU Jing-zhi§, ZHANG Xin-you, MIAO Li-juan, SHI Lei, LV Deng-yu, CHAI Peng-pei, FENG Su-ping, LIU Hua, HAN Suo-yi, WANG Xiao, QI Fei-yan, SUN Zi-qi, QIN Li, DONG Wen-zhao
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (4): 582-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020226
    Abstract140)      PDF (1886KB)(142)      

    Fat content is an important economic trait of peanut seed (Arachis hypogaea L.). The purpose of this study is to analyze the direct and maternal effects of fat content inheritance in peanut, so as to provide the strategy for the design of breeding program and developing related molecular markers in high fat content peanut breeding.Five peanut varieties of different plant types with different fat content, including Yuhua 9326, Yongcheng Xiaomake, Weihua 6, Zhanyou 62 and Quanhua 6, were selected as the parents for complete diallel cross. The fat content of seeds from the parents, F1 and F2 of 20 combinations were analyzed by Soxhlet residue method. The direct effect of embryo gene, maternal effect and their heritability were estimated using general genetic model. The results showed that when one of the parents had higher fat content and the other parent had more than medium fat content, the fat content of F1 would be higher. When the fat content of both parents was medium, or the fat content of one of the parents was lower, then the fat content of offspring was lower. The variance of direct additive effect was the largest, followed by maternal additive effect in the variation analysis. The variance of maternal dominant effect was small while no cytoplasmic effect was detected. Meanwhile, the heritability of seed direct effect was greater than that of maternal effect. The direct additive effect of parents with high fat content was positive, while that of parents with low fat content was negative. It is indicated that the inheritance of fat content was mainly controlled by the additive effect of seed embryo genes, followed by maternal additive effect and without cytoplasmic effect. Yuhua 9326 and Yongcheng Xiaomake with high fat content are superior donor parents for high fat content peanut breeding. It is essential to pay more attention to the genes expressed in pods when exploring the regulation genes for seed fat content.The accumulation effect of genes and the selection of promising haplotypes should be emphasized in the selection of hybrid progenies and the development of molecular markers.

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    Exploration of EMS mutagenesis system and mutants screening of peanut
    YUAN Cui-ling, LI Chun-juan§, YAN Cai-xia, ZHAO Xiao-bo, WANG Juan, ZHANG hao, SUN Quan-xi, SHAN Shi-hua
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (4): 627-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020079
    Abstract138)      PDF (4169KB)(176)      

    The creation of mutants is of great significance to genetic improvement and functional genomics of peanut. In order to obtain new peanut mutant germplasm, this study explored EMS mutagenesis conditions of peanut varieties with different genotypes. It was found that the appropriate mutagenic concentrations of Huayu 22, Huayu 71, Huayu 9301, Shitouqi and Fuhuasheng were 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively. The analysis of bud length, plant height, root length and root number in seedling stage under the optimum concentration showed that all the 5 cultivars were able to form seedlings normally, but all were seriously damaged. On the basis of the preliminary experiment, 5000 Huayu 22 seed swas treated by 0.4% EMS solution. Both M1 and M2 generation mutants showed diversified phenotypes. For example, plant height, plant type, pod, seed kernel, branching number and leaf shape were changed. The phenotypic variation rate was 12.9%. Our work provides abundant germplasm for peanut genetics research and breeding.

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    Effects of phytohormones on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of 4 Camellia plants
    LIU Lin-xiu, ZENG Hai-tao, XU Hao, YAO Xiao-hua
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (4): 700-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020156
    Abstract136)      PDF (1795KB)(158)      
    To improve the efficiency of crossbreeding, Camellia pollen was studied on the physiological characteristics in 4 different Camellia plants, which included Camellia chekiangoleosa, C. vietnamensis, C. japonica and C. meiocarppa. Number of stamens and pollen grains per flower were counted, pollen germination rates and pollen tube growth under different concentrations of 6-BA, GA3 or ABA were compared. Results showed that optimum hormones and concentrations for germination and pollen tube elongation of the 4 Camellia plants were different. The optimum hormones and concentrations for pollen germination of 4 species were 10 mg/L 6-BA, 0.5 mg/L 6-BA, 5 mg/L GA3 and 10 mg/L GA3, respectively. At the same time, the most suitable hormones and concentrations for pollen tube elongation were 75 mg/L GA3, 4 mg/L ABA, 125 mg/L GA3 and 10 mg/L GA3, respectively. The pollen germination rates of the 4 Camellia species in 3 periods were gradually rising, and the pollen activity were the highest at the late bloom stage. The pollen germination rates of C. chekiangoleosa were the highest at all of the 3 stages, which reached to about 70% at late bloom stage.
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    Toxicity and mechanism of different insecticides to Lipaphis erysimi and residue in mustard
    WANG Yu-fei, LI Hai-ping, MA Qiang, YANG Bo-hui
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (4): 716-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020065
    Abstract133)      PDF (1382KB)(147)      
    To effectively control turnip aphid by insecticide, toxicity of different types of insecticides to Lipaphis erysimi on mustard(Brassica juncea)was investigated. Leaf residues of 2 insecticides after seed dressing were measured. Results showed that the median lethal concentration(LC50)of organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides was greater than that of pyrethroid and nicotine insecticides. Among 12 tested insecticides, aphid showed the most sensitive to methomyl and daphene, with LC50 of 3.152 mg/L and 3.452 mg/L respectively. Aphid was most sensitive to cypermethrin in 5 tested pyrethroid insecticides, with LC50 of 10.741 mg/L, and least sensitive to fenvalerate with a LC50 of 30.938 mg/L. The LC50 of thiamethoxam and imidacloprid to aphid were 15.460 mg/L and 30.585 mg/L respectively. Acetylcholinesterase(AChE)activity of aphid could be inhibited by the tested organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides, Daphene showed the highest inhibitory effect with and the median inhibitory concentration(I50)of 1.97×10-5mol/L, and I50 of triazophos was the highest, which was 15.51×10-5 mol/L. The median inhibitory time(IT50)of daphene was 0.21 min, and IT50 of triazophos was 8.30 min. The activity of Na+-K+- ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase were inhibited by all the 5 pyrethroid insecticides. When the final concentration of pyrethroid insecticide was 1×10-4 mol/L, bifenthrin had the strongest inhibition on Na+-K+- ATPase, the inhibition rate was 31.65%. Deltamethrin had the strongest inhibition on Ca2 -Mg2+- ATPase, and the inhibition rate was 38.60%. The mitochondrial membrane fluidity of the aphid was affected by 5 pyrethroid insecticides, thereby further affecting the enzyme activity in insects, and the effect was positively related to the pyrethroid concentration. At the concentration of 1×10-4 mol/L, cypermethrin had the strongest effect on slowing down the mitochondrial membrane fluidity of the aphid, with polarization value 0.289; fenvalerate had the weakest effect, the polarization was 0.263. When mustard seeds were dressed with chlorpyrifos and thiamethoxam, a certain residual period was found which would further reduce the pest damage degree. The content of the 2 insecticides in seedling leaves reached the highest at 7 d after germination, and then decreased gradually over time to an undetectable level after the 5th week. In conclusion, appropriate doses of different types of pesticides have reasonable guiding for inhibiting aphid activity and reducing its population.
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    Effects of different dense planting methods on leaf function and yield of summer-sowing peanut
    ZHANG Jun, ZANG Xiu-wang, HAO Xi, LIU Juan, CUI Ya-nan, TANG Feng-shou, DONG Wen-zhao
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (4): 656-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020069
    Abstract132)      PDF (2154KB)(156)      

    To explore the the effects of proper planting density on the reproductive growth and yields of peanut population, Yuanza 6, Spanish type peanut with small pod was used as the material, the changes of leaf function, photosynthetic characteristics and yields of peanuts under various combinations in summer-planting peanut were studied. The results showed that the planting model of 2.25 × 105 hole / hm2 could reduce the net photosynthetic rate, antioxidant capacity and the photosynthetic effective radiation interception rate of the middle and lower part of the population, and increase the chlorophyll content, leaf area index and the photosynthetic effective radiation interception rate of the upper part of the population, and increase the full pod rate and kernel rate compared with that in 1.8 × 105 hole/ hm2. Yields of the planting model of 2.25 × 105 hole / hm2 was 12.44% higher than that in 1.8 × 105 hole / hm2, yields of double seed was 12.47% higher than that of single seed, and yields of equal row spacing planting and wide-narrow row planting were basically the same. Yuanza 6 is a close-planting variety, which can be planted directly in summer. The planting density of the variety is increased properly, yields can be increased effectively and the commercial quality of pods can be improved.

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    Identification of candidate gene controlling shade-tolerant by BSA-Seq in soybean
    Wei-ming ZENG, Yan-zhu SU, Zhen-guang LAI, Shou-zhen YANG, Huai-zhu CHEN, Yu-rong TAN, Zu-dong SUN, Jun-yi GAI
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (6): 1006-1015.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020358
    Abstract132)   HTML6)    PDF (1791KB)(189)      

    Intercropping patterns of soybean is an important model in southern China, the shading stress of high stalk crops is an important factor that affects the yield and quality of intercropped soybean. Therefore, it is particularly important to analyze the shade tolerance of soybean. In this study, a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) established from the shade-tolerant (Aijiaozao) and shade-sensitive (Chippewa), 30 shade-tolerant and shade-sensitive accessions were selected to construct two DNA hybrid pools, respectively. Progeny hybrid and parent pools were covered for an average depth of 60× and 30×. By calculating the SNP-index of two progeny pools, the differences of SNP-index between shade-tolerant and shade-sensitive chromosomal segments were compared. And the candidate genes of shade tolerance were predicted based on their functional annotations. The results showed that 11 963 077 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained from four samples. There were 408 genes were found that they were mainly located on chromosome1 (51 942-505 708 bp), chr. 4 (50 972 768-51 854 631 bp), chr. 9 (48 778 767-50 178 743 bp) and chr. 18 (40 858 027-43 909 456 bp). According to gene annotation and functional analysis, five candidate genes might be related to shade tolerance of soybean, including 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase 5-like, auxin-induced protein 5NG4-like, phytochrome-associated serine/threonine protein phosphatase-like, MYBJ6 and MYB128 were identified. They might play an important role in the process of soybean shade tolerance. The results will lay an important foundation for the molecular mechanism of soybean shade tolerance, and laid solid theoretical foundation for map-based cloning of shade-tolerant genes in soybean.

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    Genetic model analysis of peanut pod traits in nested-crossing population
    ZHANG Mao-ning, ZHANG Xin-you, SUN Zi-qi, HUANG Bing-yan, LIU Hua, XU Jing, ZHANG Zhong-xin, QI Fei-yan, DONG Wen-zhao
    CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES    2021, 43 (4): 573-.   DOI: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020247
    Abstract131)      PDF (3283KB)(166)      

    The genetic pattern of pod traits were analysed using the major gene plus polygene model in five combinations of F2 families of a nested crossing population in peanut to dissect the genetic variation in nested crossing population. Results revealed rich variations in the five pod traits in the nested combination. The ranges of pod length, pod width, and hundred-pod weight were(14.30-22.09)mm -(38.36-45.12)mm,(7.06-10.47)mm -(17.13-22.74)mm, and(62.41-94.38)g -(266.75-364.00)g, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between pod length and pod width, pod surface area, pod surface perimeter and hundred-pod weight, but little correlation with ratio of pod length to pod width; pod width was positively correlated with pod surface area, pod surface perimeter and hundred-pod weight, but negatively correlated with pod length to width ratio. The genetic models of different pod traits in different combinations were different, and the best genetic models were two major gene of additive - dominant model and two major gene of additive - dominant - epistatic model. The heritability of major genes was 22.79% - 91.62%, and the genetic effects of the major genes in different families differed to each other, which implied the effects of multiple alleles or non-alleles as well as the genetic background on the pod traits. The results provide material and genetic basis for the further QTL mapping of pod traits and peanut breeding of specific pod shapes.

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