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中国油料作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (5): 750-.doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019026

• 栽培生理 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同播期夏大豆的产量、光合特性和气象因子效应研究

王乐政(1963-),男,高级农艺师,主要从事大豆及食用豆类栽培育种研究,E-mail:wanglezheng1964@126.com;§共同第一作者, #br# 华方静§(1986-),女,硕士,农艺师,主要从事大豆及食用豆类栽培育种研究,E-mail: sdgthfj@163.com #br# #br#   

  1. 德州市农业科学研究院,山东德州,253000
  • 出版日期:2019-10-28 发布日期:2019-12-20
  • 基金资助:
    山东省现代农业产业技术体系杂粮创新团队建设专项资金项目(SDAIT-5-01)

Effect of sowing date and climatic factor on yield and photosynthetic characteristics summer soybean

  1. Dezhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Dezhou 253015, China
  • Online:2019-10-28 Published:2019-12-20

摘要: 为探讨播期对黄淮海地区夏大豆产量的影响,以大豆品种齐黄34为材料,设置7个播期,比较了不同播期大豆产量性状的差异,并分析了降水和温度与夏大豆生育进程、光合性能指标、产量及产量构成因素的关系。结果表明:在黄淮海地区,夏大豆花后阶段降水和温度是决定产量高低的重要因子。适期早播可延长夏大豆的生育天数,增加花后积温,提高花后累积日温差,花后阶段获得充足降水,可使夏大豆后期衰老速度减慢,提高光合势, 增加干物质量,提高收获指数。降水和温度主要通过影响单株荚数、单株粒重、单株粒数和百粒重来影响产量,产量表现出随着播期推迟先增加后逐渐降低的趋势,适期早播有利于大豆增产。该研究可为黄淮海地区大豆播期的科学设置以及高产栽培提供依据。

关键词: 播期, 温度, 降水, 大豆, 光合性能, 产量

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to elucidate the effect of sowing date on yield of summer soybean. Tak? ing Qihuang 34 was used as experimental materials, the differences of yield and yield components were compared under 7 sowing dates, and the relationship between rainfall, temperature factors and development process, photosyn? thetic characteristics, yield and yield components of summer soybean were analyzed. The results showed that rain? fall and temperature factors after flowering were the key factors on affecting summer soybean yield. Compared to sowing late, sowing early at suitable time would prolong growth period, increase the accumulated temperature and cumulative temperature diurnal range, and obtain abundant rainfall after flowering, and then the senescence of plant would be delayed and photosynthetic potential, dry matter accumulation and harvest index all would be increased. The influence of rainfall and temperature on yield was mainly caused by the changes of pods number per plant, seeds weight per plant, seeds number per plant and100-seed weight. Along with the delayed sowing date, the yield firstly increased and then decreased gradually, sowing early at suitable time had great advantages in increasing mat? ter production for summer soybean. This study will provided references for scientifically choosing the sowing date and the high yield cultivation of summer soybean in Huang-Huai-Hai region.

Key words:  , sowing date;temperature;rainfall;soybean;photosynthetic characteristics;yield