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中国油料作物学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (5): 803-.doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020263

• 遗传育种 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同花生荚果力学特性研究及优异品系筛选

许静(1988- ),女,助理研究员,博士,从事花生遗传育种研究,E-mail: xu_jing_cool@yeah.net   

  1. 1. 山东省花生研究所,山东 青岛,266100; 2. 临沂市农业科学院,山东 临沂,276012
  • 出版日期:2021-11-01 发布日期:2021-11-01
  • 通讯作者: 迟晓元(1979- ),女,研究员,博士,从事花生遗传育种研究,E-mail: chi000@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    泰山学者工程专项经费(tsnq201812121);2014年国家“万人计划”青年拔尖人才(W02070268);财政部和农业农村部:国家现代农业产业技术体系(CARS-13);青岛市科技惠民示范引导专项(20-3-4-26-nsh);山东省重大科技创新工程 (2019JZZY010702);广东省重点领域研发计划(2020B020219003);临沂市重点研发计划(2019YD009);山东省农业科学院创新工程(CXGC2021A09,CXGC2021A46)

Pods mechanical property of different peanuts and identification of elite varieties(lines)

  1. 1. Shandong Peanut Research Institute, Qingdao 266100, China; 2. Linyi Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Linyi 276012, China
  • Online:2021-11-01 Published:2021-11-01

摘要: 花生荚果的力学特性是花生机械化收获的重要参考因素,而果柄强度和破壳力是花生力学特性的主要指标。本研究以173份花生品种(系)为材料,测定其鲜荚果的果柄强度、荚果破壳力、结实范围、产量和品质等指标,以筛选适应机械化收获的优异品系。结果表明:173个花生品种(系)的果柄强度变异广泛(4.35~11.68N),平均秧-柄脱落力(8.34N)大于果-柄脱落力(7.03N),13个品系在果-柄脱落力和秧-柄脱落力之间达到显著或极显著水平;荚果侧压破壳力>正压>立压,3个方向的荚果破壳力两两之间均存在极显著差异;大花生品种(系)的荚果层高度显著高于小花生品种(系),荚果层厚度在大小花生之间无显著差异;相关分析表明花生荚果的果柄强度来源于果-柄之间的脱落力(r = 0.96,P<0.01);与对照相比,51份花生品种(系)在荚果和籽仁产量上均表现为增产;花生荚果力学特性的15个性状和产量、品质的9个性状分别综合成为5个和3个主成分因子,累计贡献率分别为66.73%和80.33%;多元回归分析表明果-柄脱落力、秧-柄脱落力、果柄脱落率、成熟荚果果柄强度、未熟荚果果柄强度是影响果柄强度的主要性状;最终筛选出19个果柄强度适中、增产的花生品种(系),为后续培育适应机械化收获的花生新品种提供优异的育种材料基础。

关键词: 花生, 果柄强度, 荚果破壳力, 结实范围, 主成分分析, 多元回归分析

Abstract: Mechanical properties of peanut pod are important reference factors for mechanized harvest, and peg strength and pod rupture force are the key indicators. A total of 173 peanut varieties (lines) were collected to evaluate their peg strength, pod rupture force, seed-setting range, peanut yield and quality with a numerical method. The results showed that there was a widely variation in peg strength (4.35-11.68N), the plant-petiole dropping force (8.34N) was higher than that of the pod-petiole (7.03N). 13 peanut lines reached significant or extremely significant levels between plant-petiole and pod-petiole. The significant differences on pod rupture force were detected among three directions. The pod rupture force was minimized when they were in vertical position and maximized when they were in lateral position. The pod layer height of large peanut varieties (lines) was significantly higher than that of small peanut varieties (lines), however, there was no significant difference in pod layer thickness between large and small peanut varieties (lines). The peg strength was from the dropping force of pod-petiole (r=0.82, p<0.01). 51 peanut varieties (lines) showed an increase in pod and seed kernel yield compared to the control. Five and three principal components were extracted by principal component analysis in the mechanical properties and yield and quality traits, and cumulative contribution rate reached 66.73% and 80.33% respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that pod-petiole dropping, plant-petiole dropping, the ratio of pod-petiole dropping, mature pods peg strength, immature pods peg strength were the main traits affecting peg strength. Finally, a total of 19 peanut varieties (lines) with excellent peg strength and increased production were obtained. This work becomes helpful in design of harvesting machineries, and provides elite lines in breeding for new peanut varieties.

Key words: peanut, peg strength, pod rupture force, seed-setting range, principal component analysis, regression analysis

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