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中国油料作物学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (5): 851-.doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020277

• 栽培生理 • 上一篇    下一篇

播期对饲用油菜鲜草产量和品质的调控研究

张垚(1997- ),男,山西省朔州人,硕士研究生,研究方向为油菜抗逆性栽培,E-mail: 931767845@qq.com   

  1. 1. 天津农学院农学与资源环境学院,天津,300384; 2. 华中农业大学作物遗传改良国家重点实验室,湖北 武汉,430070; 3. 天津市优质农产品开发示范中心,天津 宁河,301500; 4. 天津市种植业发展服务中心,天津,300061
  • 出版日期:2021-11-01 发布日期:2021-11-01
  • 通讯作者: 葛均筑(1982- ),男,山东省莒县人,讲师,博士/硕士生导师,研究方向为作物丰产抗逆栽培生理,E-mail: gjz0121@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFD0200808);天津市种业科技重大专项(18ZXZYNC00100);天津市教委科研计划项目(自然科学)(2019KJ039);天津市研究生科研创新项目(2020YJSS128)

Effects of sowing date on forage yield and quality of forage rape

  1. 1. College of Agronomy & Resources and Environment, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, China; 2. National Key Lab of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; 3. Tianjin High Quality Agricultural Products Development Demonstration Center, Tianjin 300061, China; 4. Tianjin Planting Industry Development Service Center, Tianjin 301500, China
  • Online:2021-11-01 Published:2021-11-01

摘要: 为确定华北平原饲用油菜高产优质的适宜播期,选用甘蓝型油菜品种4个,设置4个播期,研究不同播期下温度对饲用油菜鲜草产量和饲用品质的调控效应。结果表明,随播期推迟,饲用油菜生育期内日均温与有效积温升高,花前生育期天数缩短但花后生育期延长,总生育期天数缩短2~7 d。饲用油菜鲜草产量随播期推迟呈降低趋势,3月28日前播种超过35 t/hm2;品种间华油杂62鲜草产量显著高于其它品种(P<0.01)。饲用油菜鲜草产量和饲用品质与纤维含量显著负相关,中性洗涤纤维含量与苗期的有效积温量极显著负相关,与营养生长和花后有效积温量显著正相关。因此,在华北平原春播饲用油菜可选用华油杂62,播期以3月8日-3月18日为最佳,鲜草产量稳定在50 t/hm2以上,具有较高的粗蛋白、淀粉、水溶性碳水化合物和总可消化养分含量,可实现华北平原饲用油菜的高产优质生产。

关键词: 饲用油菜, 甘蓝型油菜, 温度, 播期, 鲜草产量, 饲用品质

Abstract: To optimize sowing date for high yield and quality forage rape in North China Plain, 4 Brassica napus varieties and 4 sowing dates were used to study the temperature effects. Results showed that by delayed sowing date, both average temperature and effective accumulative temperature were increased during forage rape growth, and the initial flowering days became earlier with prolonged blooming periods and shortened growth periods (by 2-7 d). The forage yield was more than 35 t/hm2 under early sowing date (before March 28), and was decreased by delayed sowing. Forage yields were significant different between varieties, and Huayouza 62 was the highest (p<0.01). Significantly negative correlation was found between forage yield, forage quality and fiber content. The effective accumulative temperature during seeding period played significantly negative role on neutral detergent fiber. Vegetative and post-flowering growth periods played significantly positive roles on neutral detergnnt fiber. Therefore, high yield and high quality rape production in North China Plain should be obtained by using Huayouza 62 and sowing between March 8 to 18. The forage yield could reach 50 t/hm2 with high crude protein, starch, carbohydrate and total digestible nutrient.

Key words: forage rape (Brassica napus L.), temperature, sowing date, forage yield, forage quality

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