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中国油料作物学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (6): 1077-1086.doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020352

• 栽培生理 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同熟期类型大豆品种在玉豆间作模式下农艺性状和产量的比较研究

梁建秋(), 于晓波, 何泽民, 安建刚, 王嘉, 曾召琼, 杨文英, 吴海英(), 张明荣()   

  1. 南充市农业科学院,四川 南充,637000
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-09 出版日期:2021-12-22 发布日期:2021-12-23
  • 通讯作者: 吴海英,张明荣 E-mail:liangjianqiu142@163.com;470797370@qq.com;zhangminron@126.com
  • 作者简介:梁建秋(1983- ),女,四川南部人,副研究员,硕士,主要从事大豆遗传育种工作,E-mail: liangjianqiu142@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0101500);四川省大豆育种攻关项目(2021YFYZ0018);国家现代农业产业技术体系(CARS-04-CES25);现代农业产业技术体系四川豆类杂粮创新团队(SCCXTD-2021-20);南充市科技计划项目(21YFZJ0039)

Comparative study on the agronomic traits and yield of soybean varieties with different maturity in maize-soybean intercropping system

Jian-qiu LIANG(), Xiao-bo YU, Ze-min HE, Jian-gang AN, Jia WANG, Zhao-qiong ZENG, Wen-ying YANG, Hai-ying WU(), Ming-rong ZHANG()   

  1. Nanchong Institute of Agriculture Science, Nanchong 637000, China
  • Received:2020-12-09 Online:2021-12-22 Published:2021-12-23
  • Contact: Hai-ying WU,Ming-rong ZHANG E-mail:liangjianqiu142@163.com;470797370@qq.com;zhangminron@126.com

摘要:

为筛选适宜间作的大豆品种,以早、中、晚熟三种类型共16个大豆品种(系)为试验材料,在玉米大豆间作和大豆净作(为对照)模式下比较研究其农艺性状和产量构成因素。结果表明,各熟期类型品种在间作条件下的株高、平均节间长、倒伏率均显著高于净作对照,且早熟品种的株高、底荚高、主茎节数、平均节间长以及倒伏率显著低于中、晚熟品种。早、中熟品种在间作下的有效分枝数与对照差异不显著,而晚熟品种显著高于对照。各熟期类型品种在间作模式下的产量都显著低于相应的对照,早熟类型品种的单株有效荚、单株粒数、百粒重、单株产量以及公顷单产均极显著低于中、晚熟类型品种,而这些性状在中、晚熟品种间差异不显著。早、中熟品种在间作下的单株有效荚率均显著高于对照,晚熟品种的单株有效荚率显著高于中熟品种,中熟品种显著高于早熟品种。然而各品种类型间作下的完整粒率与净作对照无显著差异,中、晚熟品种的完整粒率显著高于早熟品种。通过相关性分析,间作下倒伏率与株高、主茎节数、平均节间长呈极显著正相关;单株有效荚率、单株粒重、完整粒率、产量均与生育期呈极显著正相关;玉豆共生期占全生育期比重与有效荚率、完整粒率、产量呈极显著负相关。上述结果表明,在玉米大豆间作模式下,中、晚熟大豆品种相比早熟品种有较长的光补偿时期,能获得较高的产量,是适宜与玉米间作种植的大豆品种类型。

关键词: 大豆, 熟期类型, 间作, 农艺性状, 倒伏, 产量

Abstract:

In order to provide theoretical basis for selecting soybean varieties suitable for intercropping, sixteen soybean varieties including early maturity (EM), medium maturity (MM) and late maturity type (LM) were used as experimental materials to compare the agronomic traits and yield components in “maize-soybean” relay strip intercropping with the control of sole cropping of soybean. The results showed that the plant height, average internode length and lodging rate of three types of soybean varieties in intercropping were significantly higher than those of control. The plant height, bottom pod height, node number, average internode length and lodging rate of EM were significantly lower than those of MM and LM. The number of effective branches of LM in intercropping was significantly higher than those of control, whereas EM and MM were not significant. The yields of three types in intercropping were significantly lower than those of control. The pod number per plant, seed number per plant, 100-seed weight and yield of EM were significantly lower than those of MM and LM, but the differences between MM and LM were not significant. In addition, the available pods rate of MM and LM in interplanting were significantly higher than those of control, the available pods rate of LM were significantly higher than those of MM and EM, meanwhile available pods rate of MM are significantly higher than EM. The full grain rate was no significant difference between intercropping and control, but the full grain rate of MM and LM were significantly higher than those of EM. Through correlation analysis, the lodging rate in intercropping condition was significantly positively related to high plant, nod number and average internode length; maturity was significantly positively related to the available pods rate, the yield per plant, full grain rate and yield. The SPMS/M (symbiotic phase of maize and soybean/maturity) was significantly negative related to the available pods rate, full grain rate and yield. These results concluded that the MM and LM soybean varieties have a longer period of light compensation and could obtain higher yields in intercroping than EM varieties, which are suitable soybean varieties for maize-soybean intercropping.

Key words: soybean, maturity type, intercroping, agronomic traits, lodging, yield

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