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中国油料作物学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (6): 996-1005.doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020362

• 遗传育种 • 上一篇    下一篇

东北大豆种质群体在佳木斯的表型鉴定及利用探析

王继亮1(), 宗春美2,3(), 王德亮1, 王燕平2, 蒋红鑫1, 杨丹霞1, 傅蒙蒙3, 王磊3,2, 任海祥2, 赵团结3, 杜维广2(), 盖钧镒3()   

  1. 1.黑龙江省农垦科学院作物开发研究所,黑龙江 佳木斯,154007
    2.黑龙江省农业科学院牡丹江分院/牡丹江大豆研发中心/国家大豆改良中心牡丹江试验站,黑龙江 牡丹江,157041
    3.南京农业大学大豆研究所/农业农村部大豆生物学与遗传育种重点实验室/国家大豆改良中心/作物遗传与种质创新国家重点实验室,江苏 南京,210095
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-21 出版日期:2021-12-22 发布日期:2021-12-23
  • 通讯作者: 杜维广,盖钧镒 E-mail:wangjiliang1977@163.com;zongcm@126.com;weiguangdu@126.com;sri@ njau.edu.cn;weiguangdu@126.com
  • 作者简介:王继亮(1977- ),男,山西省晋中人,硕士,副研究员,研究方向:大豆遗传育种,E-mail: wangjiliang1977@163.com;|宗春美(1982- ),男,吉林敦化人,博士研究生,副研究员,研究方向:大豆种质资源及遗传育种,E-mail: zongcm@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    作物遗传与种质创新国家重点实验室开放课题(ZW201815);黑龙江省科学基金项目(SS2021C002);黑龙江省农业科学院自然基金培育项目(2018JJPY008);黑龙江省农业科学院杰出青年基金(2020JCQN005);黑龙江省农业科学院“农业科技创新跨越工程”(HNK2019CX01-7);黑龙江省“百千万”工程科技重大专项(SC2019ZX16B0039);科技支撑黑河市绿色农业发展合作项目(KJTG-2019-02HH-04)

Identification, evaluation and improvement utilization of northeast China Soybean Germplasm Population in Jiamusi

Ji-liang WANG1(), Chun-mei ZONG2,3(), De-liang WANG1, Yan-ping WANG2, Hong-xin JIANG1, Dan-xia YANG1, Meng-meng FU3, Lei WANG3,2, Hai-xiang REN2, Tuan-jie ZHAO3, Wei-guang DU2(), Jun-yi GAI3()   

  1. 1.Institute of Crop Development of Heilongjiang Province Agricultural Reclamation, Jiamusi 154007, China
    2.Mudanjiang Branch of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Mudanjiang Experiment Station of the National Center for Soybean Improvement, Mudanjiang 157041, China
    3.Soybean Research Institute of Nanjing Agricultural University/Key Laboratory for Soybean Biology, Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/National Center for Soybean Improvement/National Key Laboratory for Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing 210095, China
  • Received:2020-12-21 Online:2021-12-22 Published:2021-12-23
  • Contact: Wei-guang DU,Jun-yi GAI E-mail:wangjiliang1977@163.com;zongcm@126.com;weiguangdu@126.com;sri@ njau.edu.cn;weiguangdu@126.com

摘要:

为精准鉴定东北大豆种质群体的表型性状,观察该群体在佳木斯的表现,研究其在佳木斯生态区的潜在育种价值,本研究选取东北地区地方品种和育成品种组成东北大豆种质群体共361份,采用重复内分组的设计方法,于2012-2014年在佳木斯进行主要农艺性状的精准表型鉴定。结果表明:1)东北大豆种质群体调查的性状均值为全生育期113.5d(92.5~136.0 d)、蛋白质含量39.8%(35.6%~45.0%)、脂肪含量21.5%(17.5%~24.2%)、蛋脂总量61.3%(57.4%~64.3%)、百粒重21.1g(8.2~32.0g)、株高101.2cm(54.9~142.6cm)、主茎18.6节(12.4~24.6节)、分枝2.5个(0.2-7.4个)、倒伏2.1级(1.0-4.0级)。2)按国际熟期组划分标准,佳木斯所处熟期组为MG0和MGI,属于这两个熟期组的品种,各性状的均值与群体总均值相近。MG000-00的生育天数集中在95~110 d,比当地无霜期早约15~25 d;脂肪含量和蛋脂总量分别较MG0-I高约1和1.5个百分点,株高和节数则分别低约10~40 cm、2~8节。MGII的生育天数长达150 d,不能稳定正常成熟;与当地品种相比较蛋白质和蛋脂总量均低约2%、脂肪低约0.5%,株高和节数分别高约10cm、2节;倒伏程度则高达3级。MGIII在佳木斯不能正常成熟,生长量和倒伏度增加。3)根据各农艺、品质性状在佳木斯表现的遗传进度估计,虽然脂肪和蛋白质含量相对较低,但均有一定的改良潜力。佳木斯地区利用东北大豆资源育成了许多适于东北北部的优异品种,体现了东北种质的重要作用。根据当地品种的表现,从东北大豆种质群体中筛选出了用以改良不同性状的优异亲本,供育种者参考。

关键词: 东北大豆种质群体, 熟期组, 农艺品质性状, 遗传变异, 育种潜势

Abstract:

In order to accurately identify the phenotypic traits of the Northeast soybean germplasm population in Jiamusi, observe the performance of this population and study its potential breeding significance in Jiamusi. Using the Northeast China Soybean Germplasm Population composed of 361 local varieties and bred varieties in the Northeast region of China, the repeated inner grouping design experiment method was used to conduct accurate phenotypic identification of main agronomic traits in Jiamusi from 2012 to 2014. The results showed: 1) The average performance of the soybean germplasm population in Northeast China was 113.5 days (92.5-136.0 days), protein content 39.8% (35.6%-45.0%), oil content 21.5% (17.5%-24.2%), total protein-oil was 61.3% (57.4%-64.3%), the 100-seed weight was 21.1g (8.2-32.0g), the plant height was about 101.2cm (54.9-142.6cm), the nodes No. of main stem was 18.6 (12.4-24.6), and the branches was 2.5 (0.2-7.4), lodging 2.1 (1.0-4.0). 2) The local suitable maturity groups were MG0 and MGI, and the average value of each trait of these two maturity varieties was similar to the total average value of the population. The growth days of MG000-00 are concentrated at 95-110 days, which is about 15-25 days earlier than the local frost-free period; the oil content and total protein-oil was about 1 and 1.5 percentage points higher than MG0-I, respectively; the plant height and node number were about 10-40 cm and 2-8 nodes lower respectively. The growth days of MGII were as long as 150 days, and it can’t be stable and mature. Compared with local varieties, the protein and the total protein-oil were about 2% lower, and the oil is about 0.5% lower. The plant height and the number of nodes were about 10 cm and 2 nodes higher respectively; The degree of lodging is as high as level 3. MGIII could not mature normally in Jiamusi, and its growth and lodging degree increased. 3) According to the estimation of the genetic progress of various agronomic and quality traits in Jiamusi, although the oil and protein content is relatively lower, but they have certain potential to be improved. The Jiamusi region has bred many excellent varieties suitable for the northern part of the Northeast by using the soybean resources of the Northeast China, which reflects the important role of the Northeast germplasm. According to the performance of local varieties, excellent parents for improving different shapes were selected from the Northeast soybean germplasm population for reference by breeders.

Key words: northeast China soybean germplasm population, maturity group, agronomic and seed quality traits, genetic variation, breeding potential

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