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中国油料作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (2): 211-.doi: 10.7505/j.issn.1007-9084.2019.02.008

• 栽培生理 • 上一篇    下一篇

氮肥用量和基追肥比例对密植秋芝麻产量和冠层结构的影响

汪瑞清(1981- ),男,副研究员,博士,主要从事芝麻高产栽培生理与技术研究,E-mail:andywang111@163.com   

  1. 江西省农业科学院土壤肥料与资源环境研究所/农业部长江中下游作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室,江西南昌,330200
  • 出版日期:2019-04-28 发布日期:2019-07-04
  • 通讯作者: 魏林根,研究员,E-mail:lgw0021@163.com;肖运萍,研究员,E-mail:xyp-801@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家现代产业技术体系建设(CRAS-14);江西省科技支撑计划(2011BBF60036)



Effects of nitrogen application rate and basal dressing ratio on yield and canopy structure of high density autumn sesame

  1. Soil Fertilizer and Resource Environment Institute, Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System for the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanchang 330200, China
  • Online:2019-04-28 Published:2019-07-04

摘要:

为了探索红壤旱地密植秋芝麻的节氮高产栽培技术,以品种金黄麻为材料,采用裂区设计,2016和2017年在江西省进贤县研究氮肥用量 [即N1(105kg/hm2)和N2(75kg/hm2)] 和基追肥比例 [即Z1 (7:3)、Z2 (6:4)、Z3 (5:5)、Z4 (4:6)、Z5 (3:7)] 对芝麻产量和冠层结构的影响。结果表明,在N1条件下,2016年Z3的单株蒴果数较Z2显著增加25.36%,Z4的每蒴粒数和Z2的千粒重较Z1的分别显著增加19.96%和13.62%;不同的是,2017年Z2的每蒴粒数较Z3显著增加22.84%,对单株蒴果数和千粒重无显著影响。在N2条件下,2016年Z3的千粒重较Z4显著增加6.42%,其它处理间的单株蒴果数、每蒴粒数、千粒重都无差异;N2的平均产量(879.0kg/hm2)较N1显著增加22.3%;但是2017年N1的平均产量(1 080.7kg/hm2)较N2只增加8.1%。相同的是,两年的结果都表现为Z2处理平均产量最高。芝麻产量表现为随着基肥的比例减少而先增后减。不同时期N1的光能截获率和叶面积指数都显著高于N2,且随生长发育而先增后减。不同位置的芝麻冠层光能截获率和叶面积指数都有显著差异,且随着测定位置的不断升高而降低。因此,氮肥用量为75kg/hm2和基追肥比例为6:4,有利于协调密植秋芝麻的群体冠层结构,保持秋芝麻的高产。 

关键词: 芝麻, 氮肥用量, 基追肥比例, 产量, 冠层结构

Abstract:

For high yield of autumn sesame under high density in red soil in Jiangxi Province, black sesame cv Jinhuangma was used to study the effect of 2 nitrogen rates (N1 105 kg/hm2 and N2 75 kg/hm2) and 5 basal dressing ratios [Z1 (7:3), Z2 (6:4), Z3 (5:5), Z4 (4:6) and Z5 (3:7)] on yield and canopy structure in 2016-2017. Results showed that under N1 condition, capsule numbers per plant of Z3 increased 25.36% (P<0.05) compared with that of Z2 in 2016. Seeds per capsule of Z4 and 1 000-grain weight of Z2 increased 19.96% (P<0.05) and 13.62% (P<0.05) compared with those of Z1 respectively, but capsule numbers per plant of Z2 increased 22.84% (P<0.05) compared with that of Z3 in 2017, which had no significant effect on capsule numbers and 1 000-grain weight. Under N2 condition, 1 000-grain weight of Z3 increased 6.42% (P<0.05) compared with that of Z4 in 2016. There were no significant differences in the capsule numbers, seeds per capsule and 1 000-grain weight of the other treatments. In 2016, the yield of N2 (879.0 kg/hm2) increased 22.3% (P<0.05) higer than that of N1 (718.5 kg/hm2). However, the yield of N1(1 080.7 kg/hm2) increased 8.1% (P>0.05) higher than that of N2 in 2017. The two years’ results showed that yield of Z2 was the highest. The interception rate and leaf area index of N1 in different periods were significantly higher than those of N2. The interception rate and leaf area index of sesame canopy at different locations had significant difference, and decreased with increasing location. It suggested that N 75kg/hm2 with basal dressing ratio of 6:4 could maintain high yield and ideal canopy structure for high density autumn sesame. 

Key words: sesame, nitrogen application rate, basal topdressing ratio, yield, canopy structure