欢迎访问《中国油料作物学报》,

中国油料作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (3): 435-.doi: 10.7505/j.issn.1007-9084.2019.03.016

• 土肥植保 • 上一篇    下一篇

覆膜与钾肥互作对油葵产量和钾肥利用效率的影响

张平良(1981-),男,硕士,副研究员,长期从事旱作农田土壤养分管理研究,E-mail:zhangpl2007@163.com #br#   

  1. 1.甘肃省农业科学院旱地农业研究所,甘肃兰州,730070;
    2.甘肃省农业科学院,甘肃兰州,730070;
    3.中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,北京,100081;
    4.庆阳市种子管理站,甘肃西峰,745000
  • 出版日期:2019-06-28 发布日期:2019-09-02
  • 通讯作者: 郭天文(1963-),男,研究员,从事植物营养与土壤肥料研究,E-mail:guotw@gsagr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划中低产田改良项目(2012BAD05B03);国际植物营养研究所(IPNI)中国项目;国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0200403);甘肃省农科院中青年基金(2016GAAS31);甘肃省农业科学院科技创新专项(2017GAAS28)

Effect of plastic mulching and potassium rate on yield, potassium use efficiency of oil sunflower



  1. 1. Dryland Agriculture Institute, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730070, China; 
    2. Gansu
    Academy ofAgricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730070, China;
    3. Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional
    Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China;
    4. Seed Management Department of Qing Yang City, Xifeng 745000, China
  • Online:2019-06-28 Published:2019-09-02

摘要: 为了获得半干旱区油葵高产高效的最佳栽培措施,2015-2017年以油用向日葵(陇葵杂3号)为材料,研究3个覆膜栽培条件及4个钾肥水平条件下的油葵产量和钾肥利用效率。3个栽培模式分别为露地、全膜双垄沟播、全膜双垄沟播+补灌。4个钾肥水平分别为0、48、84和120kg/hm2。调查籽粒产量和干物质积累,计算钾肥吸收利用,结果表明:覆膜与钾肥互作显著影响籽粒产量、干物质积累和钾肥利用效率,且两者互作效应显著;栽培方式对上述三者的影响均表现为全膜双垄沟播+补灌>全膜双垄沟播>露地,且差异显著;与露地相比,全膜双垄沟播+补灌和全膜双垄沟播处理油葵籽粒产量、钾肥利用效率分别显著提高了170.1%和103.9%、184.3%和143.7%。各施钾处理籽粒产量和器官干物质积累量均显著高于不施钾,表现为K120>K84>K48>K0,施钾处理间除120与K84外,籽粒产量和干物质积累量差异显著。钾肥偏生产力随施钾量的增加而下降,钾肥农学效率和钾肥利用效率则先升高后降低,以84kg/hm2时钾肥农学效率和钾肥利用效率最大。油葵产量与钾肥农学效率和利用效率协同提高。综上认为,在本试验条件下,全膜双垄沟播栽培和施钾量为84kg/hm2是半干旱区油葵适宜种植模式,且补灌效果明显。 

关键词: 油葵, 覆膜栽培, 施钾量, 全膜双垄沟播, 产量, 钾肥利用效率

Abstract:

To find the optional cultivation measure for synergistic improvement of yield and potassium use efficiency, oil sunflower field experiments were carried out from 2015 to 2017 under 3 plastic mulching cultivation modes in semi-arid area in Gansu Province. Oil sunflower cultivar Longkuiza 3 was used. The 3 modes included open field (Z1), full plastic-film double-furrow sowing (Z2), and full plastic-film double-furrow sowing with supplemental irrigation (Z3). The 4 potassium rates were 0 (K0), 48 (K48), 84 (K84) and 120 kg/hm2 (K120). Results showed that plastic mulch cultivation and potassium rate had significant effects on yield, dry matter accumulation and potassium use efficiency. The interaction between modes and potassium rates was significant. The effects on grain yield, dry matter accumulation and potassium utilization efficiency were in the order of Z3>Z2>Z1 with significant differences. Compared to Z1 mode, Z3 modes increased yield and potassium utilization efficiency 170.1% and 103.9% respectively; and B modes increased yield and potassium utilization efficiency 184.3% and 143.7%. Yield and dry matter accumulation were both increased under potassium rates in the order of K120>K84>K48>K0. The significant differences were found between the potassium rates except between K120 and K84. With the increase of potassium rates, potassium partial factor productivity was decreased, while potassium agronomic efficiency and utilization efficiency were improved. The latter two traits reached the peaks under 84 kg/hm2. It indicated that synergistic improvement could be acheived on oil sunflower yield and both potassium agronomic efficiency and utilization efficiency. In summary, in this experimental field condition, the C mode (full plastic-film double-furrow sowing with supplemental irrigation) and 84 kg/hm2 potassium rate were the optimal, and the effect of supplementary irrigation was obvious.

Key words:  oil sunflower, plastic mulching cultivation, potassium rate, full plastic-film double-furrow sowing cultivation, yield, potassium use efficiency