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中国油料作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (4): 559-.doi: 10.7505/j.issn.1007-9084.2019.04.010

• 栽培生理 • 上一篇    下一篇

H2O2浸种对晚直播油菜生长及产量的影响

张顺凯(1992-)女,河南省周口市人,硕士研究生,主要从事作物逆境生理研究,E-mail:1726196226@qq.com   

  1. 南京农业大学农学院/ 农业农村部作物生理生态与生产管理重点实验室/ 江苏省现代作物生产协同创新中心,江苏南京, 210095
  • 出版日期:2019-08-28 发布日期:2019-10-18
  • 通讯作者: 江海东(1968-)男,江苏省江阴市人,副教授,博士,主要从事作物生理生态研究,E-mail:hdjiang@njau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    农业部公益性行业科研专项(201403039)

Effects of seeds soaking with hydrogen peroxide on growth and yield of rapeseed at different sowing dates

  1. Nanjing Agricultural University/ Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology Ecology and Production Management, Ministry of Agriculture/ Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production, Nanjing 210095, China
  • Online:2019-08-28 Published:2019-10-18

摘要:

H2O2浸种能够促进低温胁迫下油菜种子的物质代谢,为适应直播油菜不同播期生产需求,研究H2O2浸种对不同播期油菜生长发育的影响,提高晚直播油菜产量。2017年以南农油4号为材料,设置播期(早播10月5日,晚播10月25日)和0.05%的H2O2浸种两个因素,采用露天盆栽试验观察油菜在越冬期的光合特性及全生育期生长发育动态。结果表明:(1)晚播使油菜苗期延长而蕾薹期缩短,初花前可利用积温从1349.5℃·d减少至1095.5℃·d,导致油菜营养生长期干物质积累减少,而生殖生长期活动积温升高,相比早播的1042.5℃·d升高为1119.5℃·d。由于晚播生育期缩短,活动积温减少,干物质积累降低,最终显著减产8.3%。(2)H2O2浸种处理对早播油菜萌发出苗及地上部生物量无显著影响,但显著抑制了地下部生物量及光合能力,降低了越冬期干物质积累,继而影响后期产量形
成,最终造成油菜显著减产,降幅为10.9%。(3)H2O2浸种处理促进了晚播油菜萌发出苗,增大叶面积,促进了油菜干物质积累使产量显著升高,增幅为15.7%。因此在油菜晚直播条件下,可通过H2O2浸种处理以提高产量。

关键词: H2O2浸种, 播期, 油菜, 积温, 物候期, 生长发育

Abstract:

 To improve the yield of rapeseed under different sowing dates by direct sowing, the effects of hydro? gen peroxide (H2O2) seed soaking were studied especially on late-direct seeding. In 2017, an open-air experiment was carried out using rapeseed cultivar Nannongyou 4. Seeds soaked with H2O2 (0.05%) was sown in 2 sowing dates (early sowing on October 5, 2017, late sowing on October 25, 2017 ) to observe the photosynthetic characteristics and the growth and development dynamics of rapeseed during the wintering period. The results showed that: (1) late sowing prolonged the seedling stage and shortened the bud-bolting stage, reduced the available accumulated tem? perature before flowering from 1349.5°C·d to 1095.5°C·d, and reduced the accumulation of dry matter during vege? tative growth period of rape; late sowing increased the accumulated temperature of reproductive growth period, which was 1119.5 d higher than that of early sowing at 1042.5°C·d. As the growth period of late sowing was short? ened, the accumulated temperature of activity was reduced, and the accumulation of dry matter was reduced, result? ing in a significant yield reduction of 8.3%. (2) Soaking with H2O2 had no significant effect on germinating seedlings and aboveground biomass of early-sowing rapeseed, but significantly inhibited underground biomass and photosyn? thetic capacity, reduced dry matter accumulation during overwintering period, and then affected yield formation in later period, resulting in significant yield reduction of rapeseed, with a decrease of 10.9%. (3) Soaking with H2O2 promoted the germination of late-sown rapeseed seedlings, increased leaf area, and promoted the accumulation of
dry matter in rapeseed, which increased the yield by 15.7%. Therefore, under the condition of late direct seeding,the yield of rapeseed could be increased by soaking seeds with H2O2.

Key words: soaking seeds with H2O2, sowing date, rape, accumulated temperature, phenological phase, growth and development