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中国油料作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (4): 614-.doi: 10.7505/j.issn.1007-9084.2019.04.016

• 土肥植保 • 上一篇    下一篇

生育后期干旱胁迫与施氮量对花生产量及氮素吸收利用的影响

张智猛(1963-),男,博士,研究员,主要从事作物栽培生理生态研究,E-mail:qinhdao@126.com   

  1. 1. 山东省花生研究所,山东青岛,266100;
    2. 沈阳农业大学,辽宁沈阳,110000;
    3. 新疆农业大学,新疆乌鲁木齐,830056
  • 出版日期:2019-08-28 发布日期:2019-10-18
  • 通讯作者: 丁红(1983-),女,博士,副研究员,主要从事土壤与植物营养研究,E-mail:dingpeanut@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0201000);山东省自然科学基金(ZR2017YL023);山东省农业科学院创新工程(CXGC2018B05);山东
    省现代农业产业技术体系花生创新团队(SDAIT-04-06);国家自然科学基金(31771732)

Drought effects at late growth stage and nitrogen application rate on yield and N utilization of peanut

  1. 1. Shandong Peanut Research Institute, Qingdao 266100, China; 
    2. Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110000, China; 
    3. Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830056, China
  • Online:2019-08-28 Published:2019-10-18

摘要:

为明确生育后期水分胁迫下施氮对花生产量、氮素吸收及氮肥利用效率的影响,以花育25号为材料,采用双因素试验设计,通过防雨棚土柱试验研究了不同水氮处理对花生氮素吸收、分配、产量及氮肥利用率的影响。在荚果充实期设置水分条件分别为充足灌水(W0)、轻度干旱胁迫(W1)和中度干旱胁迫(W2),设置5个施氮(N)水平,即0kg·hm-2 (N0)、45kg·hm-2 (N1)、90kg·hm-2 (N2)、135kg·hm-2 (N3)和180kg·hm-2 (N4)。结果表明,W1N2处理下花生经济产量、全株生物量、籽仁和全株氮素积累量均达最大值。与其它氮肥处理相比,同一水分条件下适量施氮(N2)处理增加花生产量,提高收获指数。花生各器官中来自于15N原子标记的肥料中的15N原子百分比随施氮量的增加而显著增加,但增加幅度不同。正常供水和轻度干旱胁迫条件下花生植株氮肥利用率随施氮量的增加先增加 后降低,而中度干旱胁迫下氮肥利用率随施氮量的增加而降低。本试验条件下,W1N2处理(轻度干旱胁迫和施氮 90 kg·hm-2)处理下花生干物质与氮素积累量适宜,氮素向生殖器官分配比例和氮肥利用率较高。

关键词: 花生, 荚果充实期, 干旱胁迫, 氮素积累, 产量, 氮肥利用率

Abstract:

 To clarify the effect of nitrogen (N) application on peanut yield, N uptake and N use efficiency under water stress at later growth stage (pod filling stage), peanut cv Huayu25 was planted in soil column which was pro? tected from rainfall by a mobile shelter. Soil water condition at pod filling stage and N application rate were used as 2 factors for experimental design. The soil water condition was performed in 3 levels: well-watered conditions (W0), mild drought (W1) and medium drought (W2) (the corresponding soil water contents were respectively 70%-75%, 55%-60% and 45%-50% of field moisture capacity). N application rates were set in 5 levels: 0 (N0), 45 kg·hm-2 (N1), 90 kg·hm-2 (N2), 135 kg·hm-2 (N3) and 180 kg·hm-2 (N4). Result showed that peanut economic yield, plant
biomass, and N accumulation in seed and total plant were the highest under W1N2 treatment. Compared with other N application rates, yield and harvest index were increased in N2 treatment under the same water treatment. The Ndff (percentage of N derived from15N fertilizer) in peanut organs were significantly increased with the increasing of N application rate, while the increasing range was different. The N use efficiency of peanut were increased initially and then decreased with the N application under well-water condition and mild drought stress. The N use efficiency decreased with the increase of N application under moderate drought stress. It was concluded that peanut dry matter and N accumulation under W1N2 treatment were optimal, and N distribution in reproductive organs and N use effi? ciency were the highest. The effect of water deficiency at pod filling stage on peanut yield could be compensated by
applying 90 kg·hm-2 nitrogen fertilizer (N2).

Key words:  , peanut;pod filling stage;drought stress;nitrogen accumulation;yield;nitrogen use efficiency