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中国油料作物学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (4): 622-.doi: 10.7505/j.issn.1007-9084.2019.04.017

• 土肥植保 • 上一篇    下一篇

磷对花生根系形态特征的影响

  

  1. 1. 烟台市农业科学研究院,山东烟台,265500;
    2. 潍坊市食品药品检验检测中心,山东潍坊,261100;
    3. 山东省花生研究所,山东青岛,266100
  • 出版日期:2019-08-28 发布日期:2019-10-18
  • 通讯作者: 王鹏,E-mail:254130733@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31571617);山东省重大农业创新工程项目(2018YFJH0601);山东省农科院农业科技创新工程项目
    (CXGC2018E21,CXGC2018B05)

Effect of phosphorus (P) on root morphology characteristics of peanut

  1. 1. Shandong Peanut Research Institute, Qingdao 266100, China; 
    2. Yantai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yan? tai 265500, China; 
    3. Weifang Inspection and Detection Center of Food and Drug, Weifang 261100, China
  • Online:2019-08-28 Published:2019-10-18

摘要:

为探讨花生合理施磷量,采用大田无底圆桶的桶栽试验,研究不同磷水平对花育22号(大花生)和花育20 号(小花生)根系形态和产量的影响。2015和2016两年结果表明,磷对花生植株根系长度影响显著,在磷肥用量0~ 135kg/hm2范围内,根系总长度随施磷量的增加而增加;磷肥用量为180kg/hm2时,根系总长度不再增加或增加甚少; 根系总表面积也基本随施磷量的增加而增加,施磷处理的根系总表面积比对照(不施磷)增加20.0%以上;根系总体积两品种两年大多数处理高于对照。将根系按照根的粗细划分为细、中、粗三类,发现施磷可显著增加细根长、细根表面积和体积,而粗度中等和较粗的根增加量较小,甚至出现负值。两品种施磷处理的主茎高、侧枝长、分枝数、单株结果数和百果重提高1.3%~20.6%,其增加的幅度远低于磷对根系形态的促进效应。在0~90kg/hm2范围内,施 磷增产效果显著,超过90kg/hm2后产量增加较少,甚至略有下降。小花生产量对磷肥的响应比大花生敏感。花生产量与根系长度相关性可达显著或极显著水平,而根系表面积和体积与产量的关系因品种而不同。形态上细分根的类型将可能更有利于花生高产栽培。

关键词: 磷肥, 花生, 品种类型, 根系特征, 产量

Abstract:

For high yield peanut, phosphorus (P) fertilizer effects on root morphology characteristics were inves? tigated on 2 peanut varieties in 2015 and 2016. Field experiments with no-bottom barrels were carried out with 5 P2O5 levels: 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 kg/hm2. The results showed that P application had significant effects on root total length. Among 0 to 135 kg/hm2, root total length increased with the increased P level. Root total length did not in? crease or slight increasedat 180 kg/hm2. Root surface area increased 20% than that of control (CK). Root total vol? umes also increased. Considering the diameter of root, P applicationsignificantly improved the length, surface area and volume of thin roots, but had less or negative increment in medium and thick roots. Considering the yield relat? ed traits, main stem height, lateral branch length, branch numbers, single plant pods and weight per 100 pods of the 2 varieties increased 1.3% to 20.6%. The promoting effect of phosphorus on agronomic traits was much lower than that on roots. Between application of 0 to 90 kg/hm2, yield increased significantly with P-level, but increased few or decreased when application greater than 90 kg/hm2. The yield of small-seed variety was more sensitive to phosphate than that of large-seed variety. Peanut yield showed significant or highly significantmost cases. The different varieties showed different correlations between yield and root surface area / root volume. In summary, studies in root diameters and their morphology characteristics could be more beneficial to high-yield peanut cultivation.

Key words: phosphorus fertilizer, peanut, variety type, root characteristics, yield