Table of Content

    28 April 2020, Volume 42 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
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    A review on progress and prospects of peanut industry in China
    LIAO Bo-shou
    2020, 42 (2):  161.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020115
    Abstract ( 577 )   PDF (447KB) ( 467 )  
    During the past decade, the production and utilization of peanut steadily increased in China. Thepeanut and peanut oil production were 17.33 and 2.94 million tons in 2018 respectively, both reaching the highestrecords. Among the major domestic oilseed crops, peanut ranks the first for production, crop value, yield, oil yield,planting benefits and even competitiveness in international markets. In addition to summarizing the overall produc⁃tion and utilization, the function of peanut in ensuring food security and the role of technology innovation on promot⁃ing peanut industry were also assessed. The key constraints, potential, future objectives and strategies for peanut in⁃dustry development were discussed and proposed.

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    High quality development in direction and countermeasures of specialized oil industry in China
    ZHANG Wen-li
    2020, 42 (2):  167.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020001
    Abstract ( 563 )   PDF (1033KB) ( 237 )  
     This paper systematically explored current development of specialized oil industry in China, and an⁃alyzes the shortcoming of the industry from perspective of production efficiency, risk resistance, processing develop⁃ment and trade structure. Based on the situation, prospect and restrictive factors of industrial development, the ori⁃entation and path of high-quality industrial development are defined. The countermeasures to promote high-qualityof Chinese specialized oil industry included transforming production pattern, developing intensive processing,strengthening publicity of science popularity, and implementing foreign cooperation.

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    Improved substrate suitable for rapeseed blanket seedlingⅠAddition of conventional nursery substrate fine soil
    ZHANG Ting-yu, ZHU Qing-yang, LENG Suo-hu, WANG Sheng, ZUO Qing-song, YANG Guang, YAO Yao
    2020, 42 (2):  175.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020033
    Abstract ( 321 )   PDF (1569KB) ( 138 )  
    To optimize nursery substrate soil for rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) blanket seedling, different finesoil addition ratios in conventional seedling substrate were set and studied. Cultivar Ningza 1818 was used as mate⁃rial. By measuring agronomic traits and dry matter accumulation of various organs of rape seedlings at different peri⁃ods, appropriate soil mixing ratio in conventional seedling substrate for blanket seedling growth was explored. Re⁃sults showed that when 50% or 30% of sieved fine soil were added to the conventional seedling substrate, root neckthickness, dry weight, cotyledon size and growth rate were the best. Moreover, both survival rate and plant heightwere 10% higher than those of other treatments. Accounting for quality of rapeseed blanket seedling and economicbenefits, the most suitable mixture by 30% fine soil in the conventional substrate was the best seedling substrate forrapeseed blanket seedling.

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    Rapeseed blanket seedling conventional substrate improvementⅡAmmonium dihydrogen phosphate application
    ZHOU Xiang-yu, FENG Qian-nan, LENG Suo-hu, ZHOU Yue-tong, ZUO Qing-song, YANG Guang, SUN Ye
    2020, 42 (2):  183.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020038
    Abstract ( 286 )   PDF (632KB) ( 127 )  
    Reasonable application of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate [(NH4)2HPO4] in substrate was expectedto provide nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer for rapeseed blanket seedling growing. To optimize the application, wemeasured biomass, survival rate, leaf area, green leaves, seedling height, root collar length and root collar diameter.Results suggested that the application of (NH4)2HPO4 could significantly increase survival rate, seedling biomass,leaf area, green leaves rate, root collar diameter. It aslo reduced death rate during seedling growth. Regression analy⁃sis between the application amount and shoot dry weight, root dry weight and leaf area showed that the optimal appli⁃cation amount of (NH4)2HPO4 was about 6 g per plate by using standard rice nursery plate.

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    Improved substrate for rapeseed blanket seedling Ⅲ Application and concentration of uniconazole
    LIU Xue-hui, FENG Qian-nan, LENG Suo-hu, ZUO Qing-song, YANG Guang, LU Jun-yao, LU Yi-zhi
    2020, 42 (2):  188.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020039
    Abstract ( 274 )   PDF (1122KB) ( 153 )  
    To obtain strong blanket seedling by optimal uniconazole treatment, double-low rapeseed (Brassicanapus) cultivar Ningza 1838 was used to analyze the effect of different uniconazole by 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 μg/L insubstrate during growth process. The objective was to explore the best nursery substrate of blanket seedling suitablefor mechanical transplantation and light-and-optimized cultivation. Results showed that afterapplication of unicon⁃azole in substrate, plant height decreased, root collar length shortened, and root collar became thicker. By regressionequation, when mixed with 33.7 μg/L uniconazole in substrate, seedling elongation was inhibited, dry matter accu⁃mulation was increased. It had less effect on surviving seedling numbers. Compared with contrast, it significantly in⁃creased leaf numbers, promoted thick roots and necks, and led to strong seedlings, which was suitable for mecha⁃nized transplanting.
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    Improved substrate suitable for rapeseed blanket seedling Ⅳ Appropriate application of ammonium sulfate in conventional seedling substrate
    FENG Qian-nan, LIU Xue-hui, LENG Suo-hu, ZUO Qing-song, YANG Guang, ZHENG Jing-dong, YANG Cheng-cheng
    2020, 42 (2):  194.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020040
    Abstract ( 282 )   PDF (1020KB) ( 127 )  
     To optimize cultivation method for high-quality rapeseed blanket seedling and to improve seedlingraising system, Brassica napus cultivar Ningza 1838 (double-low variety) was nursed in traditional rice seedling trays for rapeseed blanket seedling. Mixture of ammonium sulfate in substrate with different amounts was used to an⁃alyze regulation effect of ammonium sulfate on the seedlings. Agronomic characteristics and dry organ weight weremeasured for seedlings from different growth period. Results showed that optimum dosage range of ammonium sul⁃fate was 4.37-4.62 g per plate. Under the dosage, survival plant numbers, leaf numbers, spread leaves and greenleaf area were significantly increased. Dry matter accumulation was increased most, which was the most conduciveto the recovery of green seedlings after transplanting from the blanket seedlings.
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    Effects of seed dressing with different dosage of seed treatment agent on growth of rapeseed blanket seedling
    WANG Jun, ZHU Qing-yang, LENG Suo-hu, HU Yi-fan, ZUO Qing-song, YANG Guang, DONG Zhen-jie
    2020, 42 (2):  201.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020034
    Abstract ( 306 )   PDF (785KB) ( 130 )  
    In order to cultivate high-quality rapeseed blanket seedlings suitable for mechanized transplanting,effect of seed dressing on growth characteristics of rapeseed blanket seedlings were investigated. The seed dressingwas designed with different dosage of seed treatment agent. The agent in each litre contained 5 g of uniconazole, 142 mg of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate, 294 mg of magnesium sulfate, 0.6 mg of boric acid, 0.6 mg of zinc sulfate, 0.6 mg of manganese sulfate, which were balanced by water. Brassica napus L. cv Ningza 1818 (double-low hybrid variety) and Yangyou 9 (conventional variety) were used as materials. The agent dosage of seed treatment was set as 0, 0.5,1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 4 mL, 8 treatments in total, to analyze morphological and physiological effects. The indicators included seedling emergence rate, survival rate, seedling height, cotyledon size, first leaf size, root neck length, root neck diameter and dry weight. Results showed that suitable dosage of the agent improved emergence rate and seed⁃ling survival rate. Excessively high dosage significantly reduced emergence rate and seedling survival rate. Different dosage of seed treatment agent significantly reduced seedling height and length of root neck, while increased diame⁃ter of root neck. Dry weight increased initially and then decreased with the increase of the dosage. Based on compre⁃hensive indicators, seed dressing with 2 mL or 2.5 mL agent per 100 g of seeds was found to be the best dosage for seed treatment.

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    Suitable sowing date of rapeseed blanket seedlings
    ZHANG Yu, ZHANG Han-xiao, LENG Suo-hu, NI Jia-lin, ZUO Qing-song, YANG guang, FANG Ye-qi
    2020, 42 (2):  210.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020036
    Abstract ( 264 )   PDF (1023KB) ( 127 )  
    To explore the effects of different sowing dates on growth of rapeseed blanket seedlings, and to opti⁃mize appropriate sowing date, cultivar Ningza 1818 was used as material, and 5 treatments B1 to B5 were set up.The 5 sowing dates were Sept. 5 (B1), Sept. 15 (B2), Sept. 25 (B3), Oct. 5 (B4), and Oct. 15 (B5) respectively. Seed emergence, plant growth morphology indicators and dry matter accumulation were analyzed. Results showed that with the delayed sowing dates, emergence was delayed, emergence rate decreased; and survival seedlings, seedling
    height, seedling fullness, and dry matter accumulation were all decreased. Among them, B2 and B3 had faster emer⁃gence and higher survival seedling number, green leaf number, and leaf area, suitable seedling height and seedling fullness, which met the requirements of blanket seedlings mechanical transplanting. Therefore, the optimum sowing date for rapeseed blanket seedlings in Yangzhou would be September 15 to 25. The effective accumulated tempera⁃ture required for rapeseed blanket seedlings from sowing to emergence was calculated from the logistic fit curve to be 99.5℃. According to the regression coefficient, the effective accumulated temperature required for each leaf of the rapeseed blanket seedlings was 117.1℃. In summary, the number of days from sowing to transplanting could be calculated based on the leaf age required during transplanting and the local historical accumulated temperature, so as to determine a reasonable sowing date.

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    Effect of seeding amount on rapeseed blanket seedling growth
    ZHU Qing-yang, ZHOU Xiang-yu, LENG Suo-hu, LU Jun-yao, ZUO Qing-song, YANG Guang
    2020, 42 (2):  216.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020042
    Abstract ( 276 )   PDF (633KB) ( 79 )  
    Effect of seeding amount on growth of rapeseed blanket seedling was investigated. By measuring emergence number, survival seedling numbers, shoot biomass, growth of leaf and root collar were studied under dif⁃ferent seeding amount with 2 varieties. Results showed that under higher seeding rate, emergence rate, survival seedling rate, shoot dry weight, cotyledon growth, first leaf, and root collar diameter were decreased, while seedling height and root collar were increased. But to make up for individual growth weakness, denser seedlings by some ex⁃tent led to higher total dry weight of shoots. Regression analysis between plate seeding rate and survival seedling numbers found that the optimal plate seeding rate was 700 to 750 grains according to transplanting demand in pro⁃duction

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    Optimum transplanting density of rapeseed blanket seedlings
    CAO Jin-hua, FENG Yun-yan, LENG Suo-hu, ZUO Qing-song, YANG Guang, YOU Jing-jing, YANG Ying
    2020, 42 (2):  223.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020035
    Abstract ( 325 )   PDF (607KB) ( 186 )  
    To explore a suitable transplanting density of transplanting rapeseed from blanket seedlings, effects of transplanting density on yield, quality and dry matter accumulation of rapeseed (Brassica napus L. ) were studied in field. Cultivar Ningza 1818 was the material. Results showed that relationship between rapeseed yield and trans⁃planting density could be described with a quadratic parabola. With increasing density, rapeseed yield and dry mat⁃ter accumulation after anthesis increased first and then decreased. With transplanting density of 225 000/hm2 plants, the yield of one-plants-a-hole (CK) was the highest among all treatments, which was 3806.81 kg/hm2. Yield of two-plants-a-hole (M4) was lower than CK with no significant difference. But yield of M4 was significantly high⁃er than those of the others. With increasing density, pod number per plant and seed number per pod decreased and pods population was the opposite. Significant positive correlation was found between yield per plant and dry matter accumulation at mature stage and the stage of bud to initial flower. With increasing density, seed oil content in⁃creased slightly, glucosinolate and erucic acid contents decreased. According to the standard of maximum yield de⁃creasing within 1%, the suitable transplanting density range was 227 500 to 283 900 plants per hectare. When trans⁃planting, two-plants-a-hole or one-plant-a-hole could be used more flexible, more simple with higher yield and ef⁃ficiency.

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    Functional and evolutional analysis of BnaA06.mTERF1 gene in Brassica napus L.
    LI Shuang, YE Jiang§, ZHAN Jie-peng, ZHU Yao-yao, WEI Wen-liang, SHI Jia-qin, WANG Xin-fa
    2020, 42 (2):  230.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019314
    Abstract ( 376 )   PDF (15717KB) ( 117 )  
    In higher plants, mitochondrial transcription termination factors (mTERF) influence mitochondria orchloroplast gene expression, plant responses to stress and so on. In order to study the function of mitochondrial tran⁃scription termination factor 1 (mTERF1) in Brassica napus (rapeseed), mTERF1 was cloned from Zhongshuang 11on A06 linkage group BnaA06.mTERF1, which encoded 285 amino acids and 5 mTERF functional domains. Thirtyseven mTERF family proteins were screened by bioinformatics method. Their phylogenetic tree, gene structure and chromosome location were further analyzed. In addition, the plant functional expression vector of BnaA06.mTERF1 was constructed and transformed into Arabidopsis mutant soldat10. The phenotype of the mutant recovered to wild type (Ler), indicating a conserved function of BnaA06.mTERF1 in rapeseed and Arabidopsis. This paper filled the gap in study of mitochondrial transcription termination factors in rapeseed and laid a foundation for further identifi⁃ cation on molecular functions of mitochondrial transcription termination factors.

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    Harvest index and correlation analysis for Brassica napus new dwarf line DW871 in 2 environments
    LI Pan, LI Chao, ZHANG Rui-mao, LUO Jing, ZHANG Xian-qiang
    2020, 42 (2):  240.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019223
    Abstract ( 299 )   PDF (944KB) ( 134 )  
     To break the bottleneck and improve rapeseed harvest index, DW871 (a new Brassica napus dwarf line) was studied under 2 conditions. Variation was analyzed on related characteristics investigated at Sinan and Huaxi sites. Relationship between yield harvest index and agronomic characteristics by correlation analysis and path analysis showed that DW871 plant height, length of main inflorescence, silique number in main inflorescence, branch silique number, silique number per plant and average yield index were significantly higher in Sinan. But the secondary effective branch number, silique length and plant biomass in Sinan were significantly lower. Under Sinan environment, higher harvest index came from higher relative humidity and temperature, which resulted in low biolog⁃ cal yield, more pods and higher plant yield, and all these contributed to greater yield. Silique per plant and plant biomass were negatively correlated with harvest index. In Huaxi environment, silique per plant had significantly pos⁃ itive correlation to harvest index, with no significant correlation between plant biomass. In both environments, 1000- seed weight and plant yield were positively correlated with harvest index. In high temperature and humidity environ⁃ment, comprehensive analysis showed that, to improve the harvest index, it was necessary to combine silique length,

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    Germplasm innovation and quality analysis of edible peanut with high oleate content
    SHI Su-hua, SUN Jin-bo, YANG Li, LI Feng-li, LI Chang-sheng, LI Guang-hui, WANG Xing- jun, XIA Han, ZHAO Shu-zhen
    2020, 42 (2):  249.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019244
    Abstract ( 343 )   PDF (418KB) ( 248 )  
    With increased content of oleic acid, palmitic acid content reduced significantly, which would be beneficial to human health. High oleic acid can significantly prolong the shelf life of peanut products. In this study, to develop edible peanut varieties with high oleic acid, cross was made using elite peanut cultivar Huayu 23 as the female parent and high oleate peanut DF12 as the male parent. F1 and the selfed offspring were examined using marker-assisted selection method. Their agronomic traits, pod appearance and kernel nutritional quality of new germplasm with high oleic acid were analyzed. We obtained a new high oleic acid peanut with 49.95% oil content, 81.3% oleic acid, 26.1% protein and 6.01% total soluble sugar. These nutritional qualities and pod appearance of this line met the requirements of edible peanut and this study provided materials for high oleate edible peanuts breeding in the future.
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    Comparison of photosynthetic characteristics and cluster analysis in Glycine soja and strains from Glycine soja × Glycine max cross
    SUO Rong-zhen, WANG Ming-jiu, ZHAO Tian-qi, WANG-na , LIU Xue-jiao, LIU Jia-wei
    2020, 42 (2):  255.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019115
    Abstract ( 315 )   PDF (878KB) ( 133 )  
     The objective of this study is to compare the photosynthetic characteristics of Glycine soja and variet⁃ies (strains) from Glycine soja × Glycine max cross under field conditions, to provide a theoretical basis for evaluat⁃ing breeding potential, and to provide high-efficiency parents for photosynthetic physiological breeding. All testedmaterials were planted in Chajintai Ranch in Tongliao City in 2017. Photosynthetic parameters of 15 tested materi⁃als were determined under natural conditions, and one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis, principal componentanalysis, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis were performed. The results showed that the photosynthetic pa⁃rameters of Glycine soja and varieties (strains) from Glycine soja × Glycine max cross showed significant differences.Pn was significantly positively correlated with CE, WUE and Tr, and significantly negatively correlated with Ci and SPAD. Five parameters for dividing photosynthetic capacity were selected, including Pn, CE, Tr, Ci and WUE. Clus⁃
    ter analysis of Glycine soja and varieties (strains) from Glycine soja × Glycine max cross with 5 photosynthetic param⁃ eters were divided into 3 categories, and 3 discriminant models with high discriminative ability were established. By evaluated the photosynthetic characteristics, 10 varieties (strains) with high net photosynthetic rate and low intercel⁃ lular CO2 concentration, higher transpiration rate, high carboxylation efficiency were selected, including 600, 9010,9004, 0004, 9006, 0005, 9002, 9008, F-wild soybean hybrid S002 and 9014. These varieties (strains) also per⁃
    formed well in yield and biomass.

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    Rapid detection of lipoxygenase free in fresh soybean cotyledon
    WANG Lei, WANG Hui-zhong, OU Ran, LI Yuan-yuan, ZHANG Da-yong, LIN Chun, WANG Shao-dong
    2020, 42 (2):  264.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019147
    Abstract ( 269 )   PDF (6261KB) ( 130 )  
    Lipoxygenase is the main cause of the unpleasant flavor of soybeans, it is necessary to remove thecomponent in soybean food processing. A new soybean variety with complete deletion of lipoxygenase can solve theproblem of smell-off processing. The key of soybean breeding is to establish a method for screening lipoxygenase de⁃letion in F2 generation. In this study, the existing screening methods of ISDS-PAGE electrophoresis were improved,and the sampling of fresh cotyledons after seedling was changed from pre-sowing sampling to fresh cotyledon sam⁃pling, it was found that the best method was to sample 20 mg fresh cotyledon in the early stage of true leaf develop⁃ment. The new improved method not only clearly identified the deletion of three isoenzymes of Lox-1,2,3, but alsoensured the normal growth and development of individuals with target traits, and provided technical support for soy⁃bean lipoxygenase deletion breeding.

    基金项目:国家重点研发计划“七大作物育种专项”( 2017YFD0101300)
    作者简介:王磊(1993-),男,硕士研究生,研究方向大豆遗传育种,E-mail: wanglei_as727@ sina.com;§共同第一作者:王惠中(1993- ),男,硕士
    研究生,研究方向大豆分子育种,E-mail: a379200327aa@ aliyun.com * 通讯作者:王绍东(1966-),男,研究员,博士,主要从事大豆品质遗传改良育种研究,E-mail: wsdhlj@ neau.edu.cn;
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    3D quantification on regulatory effects of uniconazole on soybean growth under flooding stress based on Planteye F500
    ZUO Guan-qiang, WANG Shi-ya, WANG Xin-xin, LIANG Xi-long, YU Ming-long, WU Qiong, FENG Nai-jie, ZHENG Dian-feng
    2020, 42 (2):  271.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019148
    Abstract ( 316 )   PDF (10288KB) ( 82 )  
    A quantitative study was conducted by using multispectral 3D scanner PlantEye F500 to understand the effect of uniconazole on soybean flooding stress. Established correlations between phenotypic parameters and morphological and physiological indicators helped to promote the development of phenomics. The tested soybean material in this study was Kenfeng 14. Results indicated that flooding stress decreased soybean height, digital bio⁃ mass, leaf inclination, 3D leaf area, projected leaf area and light penetration depth, and which were reduced by 20.51%, 45.25%, 15.60%, 31.22%, 18.67% and 26.59% compared to CK. Spraying uniconazole under flooding stress condition also decreased digital biomass, height, 3D leaf area, projected leaf area and light penetration depth, and which were declined by 22.50%, 19.25%, 5.94%,14.80% and 56.12% compared to flooding stress. Soybean 3D leaf area and projected leaf area were in positive correlation with actual leaf area. Through the correlation analysis
    of some physiological parameters, the value of SPAD showed a positive correlation with NDVI, and the negative cor⁃ relation with hue and light penetration depth. The correlation analysis results provided the basis related to phenom⁃ics and crop cultivation.

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    Effects of calcium application on photosynthetic characteristics, sugar metabolism in late growth stage and yield of peanut under inter-cropping and shading
    LIN Song-ming, MENG Wei-wei, NAN Zhen-wu, XU Jie, ZHANG Zheng, LI Lin, GUO Feng, LI Xin-guo, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (2):  277.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019213
    Abstract ( 303 )   PDF (967KB) ( 157 )  
    In 2016-2017, Huayu 25 was used as the material, which were treated by applying calcium and no calcium fertilizer, to study the effects of calcium fertilizer on the plant characteristics, photosynthetic characteris⁃ tics, sugar metabolizing enzyme activity and yield of single-cropping, inter-cropping middle and side row peanut. The results showed that, application of calcium fertilizer reduced the height of main stem and the length of lateral
    branches, increased the number of branches and nodes of main stem, increased the chlorophyll content, photosyn⁃ thetic rate, sucrose content and sucrose metabolism related enzyme activity of leaves.The average yield of peanut pod increased 397.2 kg/hm2, a 19.9% yeild growth in mono-cultural and inter-cropping. Under the same calcium application level, the closer to corn rows, the greater the effect of peanut shading. The effect included that the main stem height and lateral branch length were larger, and the activities of sucrose synthase (SS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) were lower than those of peanut under single cropping condition. Compared with single cropping without calcium application, the calcium application significantly increased the chlorophyll content of inter-crop⁃ping peanuts, but the photosynthetic characteristics, sucrose content, SS and SPS enzyme activities did not decrease significantly, which alleviated the yield reduction of inter-cropping peanuts.The resalts of this experiment indicated that the spatting of 300 kg of calcium fertilizer per hectare could partially alleviate the adverse effects of inter-crop⁃ ping on peanut.

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    Effect of colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on phosphorus utilization of macadamia seedlings under water stress
    YUE Hai, HE Shuang-lin, Geng Jian-jian, TAO Liang, NI Shu-bang, HE Xi-yong
    2020, 42 (2):  285.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019200
    Abstract ( 280 )   PDF (769KB) ( 138 )  
    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on drought tolerance in macadamia seedlings with cluster rootss, were studied based on seasonal drought and congenital low phosphorus soil in Yunnan tropical regions, providing a theoretical basis for domestication and cultivation of alien species. An experiment of potted macadamia seedlings with inoculated Native-AMF and Glomus mosseae under well-watered or water stress
    condition was conducted to determine the growth, AMF colonization, acid phosphatase activity, secretion of citric and phosphorus utilization, etc. The colonization rate of N-AM treatment on seedlings with cluster roots and without cluster roots were significantly higher than that of under G-AM treatment, and it would reach the maximum under well-watered condition. Compared with control, the plant with AMF had higher dry biomass in shoots and roots in both treatments, and it would perform best in well-watered condition. There was a significant positive correlation be⁃ tween AMF colonization rate and number of cluster roots. The water stress significantly inhibited the production of cluster roots, but the inoculation promoted cluster roots number. Macadamia seedlings had high total phosphorus content in roots, stems and leaves after inoculated with AMF, which enhanced the root ability to activate, absorb and transform phosphorus. The phosphorus content in three treatments turned out to be CK < G-AM < N-AM under both water conditions. Although both AM and cluster roots had effect on phosphorus absorption of macadamia seed⁃lings, AM seemed more helpful to roots for phosphorus absorption, even if there was a water stress. The two AMF
    could establish symbiotic relationship with macadamia seedlings. It`s found that the treatment with N-AM showed significant advantages that treatment with G-AM, possibly due to its strong inoculation ability in macadamia roots, or AMF’s positive feedback on the exotic species of macadamia.

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    Identification of quarantine fungus Diaporthe helianthi from soybean seeds imported from the United States
    LI Xue-lian, DUAN Wei-jun
    2020, 42 (2):  292.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019238
    Abstract ( 268 )   PDF (10678KB) ( 38 )  
    Diaporthe helianthi is an aggressive pathogen causing sunflower stem canker disease, which has been listed as a quarantine fungus in China. The fungal strain 8616S3 isolated from the sunflower seeds mixed in soybean seeds imported from the United States produced pycnidia containing β-conidia on PDA medium. Its rDNA ITS sequences were most similar to several sequences of D. helianthi deposited in GenBank with more than 99% identity. The morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the fungal strain as D. helianthi. The pathogenicity test showed that it could infect sunflower stem by forming typical symptoms of sunflower stem can⁃ker. This is the first interception report of D. helianthi from the United States in China.

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    Event detection and analysis of imported genetically modified soybean
    PAN Guang, YANG Fan, ZHANG Gui-ming, LIU Xin-jiao, LU Xiao-yu, XIANG Cai-yu, LING Xing-yuan
    2020, 42 (2):  298.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019093
    Abstract ( 281 )   PDF (382KB) ( 175 )  
     41 batches of soybean imported from the United States, Brazil, Canada and Argentina were tested with the event-specific detection method for 17 genetically modified (GM) soybean events. The analyzed results showed that: out of 17 GM soybean events, only 7 approved ones were detected in all 41 batches of imported soy⁃beans, namely MON89788, GTS40-3-2, MON87701, MON87708, A2704-12, A5547-127 and FG72, with detec⁃ tion rates of 90.24%, 87.80%, 43.90%, 41.46%, 36.59%, 17.07% and 2.44% respectively. In different batches of samples, different kind of GM soybean event were detected, among which, in samples of 6 batches, only 1 event was detected, but in samples of all batches, 2 to 5 kinds of GM soybean events could be detected. In samples from differ⁃ ent countries, the detected events were also different, including 7 from detected in American soybean, and 6, 5 and 3 from Brazil’s, Canada’s and Argentina’s soybean respectively. Even though different GM soybean events and contents were detected in samples from different countries, GTS-40-3-2 and MON89788 could be detected in soy⁃ beans from all 4 countries with high contents. These results could be useful for China to detect and identify import⁃ ed GM soybeans, and improve supervision of imported GM soybean.

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    Mechanism of stratification of high oleate peanut oil at low temperatures
    HUAI Dong-xin, XUE Xiao-meng, LYU Xin, LI Jian-guo, YAN Li-ying, CHEN Yu-ning, WANG Xin, KANG Yan-ping, WANG Zhi-hui, HUANG Yi, WEI Fang, CHEN Hong, LEI Yong, LIAO Bo-shou
    2020, 42 (2):  306.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019168
    Abstract ( 743 )   PDF (7549KB) ( 61 )  
     Due to high nutritive value and prolonged storage life, the high oleate peanut oil has been increas⁃ ingly interested by customers. At low temperatures (4-6 ℃), the normal peanut oil is solidified, but the high oleate peanut oil is divided into two layers: the top layer is liquid and the bottom layer is solid. To investigate the reasons, the fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions of top and bottom layers were analyzed, respectively. The con⁃ tent of saturated fatty acid (SFA) in the bottom layer was significantly higher than that in the top layer, especially for
    very long chain saturated fatty acid (VLCSFA), which in the bottom layer was 3.8 folds as much as that in the toplayer. The TAGs containing two SFAs (S2U) were significantly enriched in the bottom layer. Furthermore, the S2U with VLCSFA in the bottom layer was 4.1 folds more than that in the top layer. Therefore, the solidification and pre⁃ cipitation of S2U with VLCSFA at low temperatures is the main reason for stratification of high oleate peanut oil.

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    Research progress on application of microbial fermentation in improving feed quality of rapeseed cake and meal
    WANG Meng, XI Zhao, WAN Chu-yun, CHEN Wen-chao, WAN Xia, HUANG Feng-hong
    2020, 42 (2):  313.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019194
    Abstract ( 286 )   PDF (518KB) ( 234 )  

    To meet the requirment for seriously shortage of high-quality feed materials during increasingly tense international import trade, unconventional feed resources became increasingly important. Rapeseed paste(cake and meal)are by-products on rapeseed processing, which is the largest oil crop in China. Low feeding value seriously restricted efficient application in feed industry. Thus microbial fermentation technology was used to im⁃

    prove flavor and nutritional value of rapeseed cake and meal, and to increase the production performance of live⁃stock and poultry. In this paper, mechanism and factors of improving feeding value by microbial fermentation were reviewed, and this review also included the application of fermented rapeseed cake and meal in livestock and poul⁃ try production in recent years. Existing problems of fermented rapeseed cake and meal were discussed. The pros⁃pected advancement of fermented rapeseed cake and meal were forecasted.

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