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    28 August 2020, Volume 42 Issue 4 Previous Issue   
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    Research advances on plant BZR family genes in regulating abiotic stress response and development
    ZHOU Ye, ZHAO Xuan, WANG Lu, FENG Shan-shan, FANG Yu-jie, WANG You-ping
    2020, 42 (4):  499.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020163
    Abstract ( 209 )   PDF (1419KB) ( 269 )  
     Plants are often affected by various adverse environments during growth and development as a result
    of being sessile. Therefore, plants have developed sophisticated regulatory mechanisms to cope with the stresses.
    Brassinosteroid (BR) is a type of endogenous steroidal phytohormones, which regulate various biological processes
    throughout plant’s life-cycle. Brassinazole resistant (BZR) family is a plant-specific transcription factor family and
    plays essential roles in BR signaling pathway. In this paper, we summarized structure of BZR family proteins and
    their biological functions in BR signaling pathway especially in oil crops. The unsettled issues in BZR-associated
    research are discussed and prospected. It was to provide an overview of BR-mediated molecular regulatory net⁃
    works, and facilitate genetic improvement of oil crop stress resistance and yield.

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    Research progress of salt-tolerance genes in soybean
    FANG Yi-sheng, CAO Dong, YANG Hong-li, LIU Xiao-rong, ZHANG Heng-bin, CHEN Li-miao, ZHOU Xin-an
    2020, 42 (4):  512.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020167
    Abstract ( 206 )   PDF (587KB) ( 288 )  
    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merill] is important source of plant protein and oil. Salt stress causes
    yield loss which is a major abiotic stress to soybean. Identification of salt tolerant genes is important for breeding
    salt tolerant soybean varieties. This paper summarized salt-tolerance related quantitative trait loci and genes ob⁃
    tained through forward genetics, including GmCDF1 (Glyma. 08G102000, a major gene identified at germination
    stage), 2 QTLs identified at emergence stage (located on chromosome 6 and chromosome 14 respectively), major
    gene GmSALT3 (Glyma03g32900) and the QTL in G-linked group at seedling stage. Thus it was believed that no di⁃
    rect correlation between salt tolerances to soybean at different growth stages. The paper also summarized research
    progress of improving salt tolerance of soybean by reverse genetics, such as ion transport, transcriptional regulation
    and the development of improving salt-tolerance by transferring exogenous genes. It is expected to provide referenc⁃
    es for analyzing molecular mechanism of salt tolerance and for soybean breeding.

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    Reaserches on evaluation, physiological and molecular mechanism of rapeseed low-tempreature resistance
    LYU Yan, HUANG Yong, ZOU Xi-ling, LUO Dan, WANG Xiao-yan, BAO Wu-zhou, CHEN Jian-jun, MA Hai-qing, CHENG Yong
    2020, 42 (4):  527.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020151
    Abstract ( 191 )   PDF (493KB) ( 270 )  
     Rapeseed is the major oil crop with the largest planting area in China. However, its productivity and
    cultivation area are severely affected by low temperature (LT) stress. This review summarized research progresses on
    evaluation of LT tolerance, molecular mechanisms of LT responses in rapeseed, and breeding of novel rapeseed vari⁃
    ety with LT resistance. The application of genome wide association study (GWAS) and multi-omics in ongoing LTrelated
    research were highlighted, which had theoretical significance in exploring genetic resources for LT resis⁃
    tance, and elucidating regulation mechanism of LT response in rapeseed.

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    Research progress on salt stress effect on Brassica napus and QTL reaserch of salt tolerance related traits
    WAN He-ping, DAI Xi-gang, CHEN Jing-dong, JI Qiang-qiang, ZENG Chang-li
    2020, 42 (4):  536.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020165
    Abstract ( 166 )   PDF (8418KB) ( 71 )  
    The increasing problem of soil salinization has seriously threatened global agricultural development.
    Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oil crop. At present, a series of progress has been achieved in QTL re⁃
    search on salt tolerance related traits of rapeseed. In this article, progress on damage and mitigation mechanism of
    salt stress to rapeseed growth were reviewed, effects of salt stress on rapeseed at different development stages was re⁃
    viewed, and QTL researches on salt-tolerant related traits were summarized. Also, breeding achievement of salt-tol⁃
    erant rapeseed varieties in China was prospected. It was expected to provide reference for further research on salt
    tolerance mechanism in rapeseed and breeding new salt-tolerant varieties.

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    Identification of BnNAC transcription factors and responding to abiotic stresses in Brassica napus L.
    WANG Yong-feng, YANG Cui-ling, LENG Qiu-li, CHEN Hao, CHEN Yu-ping, WANG Dao-jie
    2020, 42 (4):  545.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020162
    Abstract ( 163 )   PDF (25479KB) ( 68 )  
    To clarify the function of NAC family transcription factors responding to abiotic stress in Brassica
    napus, 379 BnNAC transcription factors were identified by whole genome screen, and were subsequently divided in⁃
    to 17 subfamilies by phylogenetic analysis. Promoter cis-acting element analysis showed that BnNAC were involved
    in light response, drought response, cold response, meristem development, circadian control, as well as ABA, methyl
    jasmonate, gibberellin, auxin, salicylic acid response pathways. Gene expression level under different stress condi⁃
    tions showed that BnNAC family gene was regulated by high temperature, cold, salt, osmotic stress and ABA treat⁃
    ment. Overexpression of BnNAC253 gene in Arabidopsis decreased tolerance to salt stress, osmotic stress and ABA
    treatment.

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    Identification of co-expression networks responding to low-temperature stress by WGCNA in Brassica napus L.
    QIN Meng-fan, LI Hao-dong, ZUO Kai-feng, GUO Na, XU Yu, HUANG Zhen, XU Ai-xia
    2020, 42 (4):  554.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020152
    Abstract ( 230 )   PDF (28390KB) ( 109 )  
    To better understand the gene expressions under low lemperature, weighted gene co-expression net⁃
    work analysis (WGCNA) was used on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) co-expression patterns under cold stress. 36
    RNA-seq data generated from HX17 and HX58 (2 materials had different freezing responses) with different lowtemperature
    stresses were used as data resource. After filtering out the low-expression genes, the top 15 000 genes
    with the largest variation in expression level were screened for WGCNA. A total of 16 co-expression modules were
    identified. Combined with transcription factor prediction, cold-related gene prediction, gene ontology (GO) enrich⁃
    ment, and gene expression analysis, brown module was determined as the common module in response to freezing
    stress, pink module as the specific module of cold tolerance of HX17. Furthermore, the gene co-expression net⁃
    works were constructed, which could provide new insights and support for research in cold/frost tolerance mecha⁃
    nism of rapeseed.

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    Physiological response of 3 Brassica species to drought stress
    LI Su, WAN Lin, LI Xin-hao, MA Ni, LI Jun, ZHANG Chun-lei
    2020, 42 (4):  563.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019264
    Abstract ( 176 )   PDF (2123KB) ( 230 )  

     For better understand the differences of drought tolerance among Brassica species, 3 materials from
    Brassica napus (Q2), B. juncea (Xinyou 9) and B. rapa (L14) were used to investigated the physiological and bio⁃
    chemical changes. Photosynthesis parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and water content of their leaves
    under drought stress were measured by pot experiments. Results showed that with the aggravation of drought stress,
    drought resistance indexes of 3 materials were different. Total biomass, water loss rate of leaf, leaf relative water con⁃
    tent, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and gas exchange parameters had decreasing trend, among which photo⁃
    synthetic system of Xinyou 9 was the least affected, Q2 was the most severely damaged. All the root-shoot ratio and
    malondialdehyde content increased, and their superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities increased also. But
    the superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities increased the most, which were 2.92 and 4.14 times respectively
    than normal control. In addition, more differences were found in organic solutes accumulation. Proline was the most
    accumulated protein in Q2 and Xinyou 9, which increased to 12.37 and 6.60 times of the originals, while soluble
    protein in L14 increased to 6.55 times of the original. By subordinate function values analysis, capability of drought
    resistant was in the order of B. juncea Xinyou 9 > B. rapa L14 > B. napus Q2. In conclusion, 3 Brassica species as
    B. juncea, B napus and B. rapa could respond to drought by 4 main strategies: growth regulation, photosynthesis inhi⁃
    bition aadjustment, active oxygen metabolism system and osmotic adjustment.

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    Quality characteristics and drought tolerance evaluation of Brassica juncea in Yunnan Province
    YUAN Xiao-yan, FU Ming-lian, ZHANG Yun-yun, LI Gen-ze, WANG Jing-qiao, ZU Feng, LUO Yanqing, ZHAO Kai-qin, HE Xiao-ying
    2020, 42 (4):  573.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020060
    Abstract ( 135 )   PDF (3933KB) ( 136 )  
    To study the drought tolerance of Brassica juncea, quality of 150 local varieties of B. juncea was in⁃
    vestigated in Yunnan Province. The aboveground and underground parts of the plants were studied under drought
    stress with different degrees. Results showed that B. juncea was tolerant to drought, and had wide range of quality
    variations. The variation coefficient of oleic acid and erucic acid was more than 1, and the varieties tested were
    roughly grouped into 3 categories according to quality characteristics. The medium and severe drought could signifi⁃
    cantly affect growth of shoot and root system, especially the root system. Under medium drought, drought tolerance
    had significant positive correlations with oil content and extremely long fatty acids (erucic acid and arachidonic ac⁃
    id), but had significant negative correlation with 5 long-chain fatty acids (stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, lin⁃
    oleic acid and linolenic acid). Under severe drought condition, drought tolerance had no relevance with quality
    traits. Meanwhile, drought resistance of the same variety was different under different degree of drought. Oil content
    had extremely significant positive correlation with long chain fatty acids. The oil content was negatively correlated
    with the content of long chain fatty acids and protein. The very long chain fatty acids had a significant negative cor⁃
    relation with long chain fatty acids. Eight varieties with strong comprehensive drought resistance were screened out.

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    Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation under drought in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
    WANG Jian-ping, ZHANG Shu-fen, ZHU Jia-cheng, HE Jun-ping, CAO Jin-hua, WEN Yan-cheng, HU Kun, ZHAO Lei, WANG Dong-guo, CAI Dong-fang
    2020, 42 (4):  585.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020171
    Abstract ( 150 )   PDF (6114KB) ( 222 )  
    To achieve consistent high yield of rapeseed, DNA methylation level of Brassica napus under
    drought stress was studied by a couple of drought-resistant (T78) and drought-sensitive (T88) rapeseed lines. Their
    whole genome DNA methylation in both leaves and roots under drought and recovery was investigated by AFSM (am⁃
    plified-fragment single nucleotide polymorphism and methylation) sequencing technology. Results showed that a to⁃
    tal of 22 157 methylation sites (mainly represented by 5mCCGG) were identified and mainly located in the coding re⁃
    gion of genes followed by promoter regions. Drought stress induced change of DNA methylation level in the whole
    genome. The levels were different between 2 lines, and among different tissues. Under drought stress, the methyla⁃
    tion level increased significantly in leaves, but not obvious in roots. In contrast, rehydration treatment significantly
    decreased the genome-wide methylation level in leaves, and caused divergent methylation level in roots between 2
    lines. Those genes with differentially methylated sites were mainly involved in photosynthesis, cell composition in⁃
    cluding thylakoid, ribosome, plastid and nuclear membrane, and transport and transporter activity.

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    Effects of waterlogging at seedling stage on yield and agronomy efficency of direct-sown winter rapeseed and its response to nitrogen application
    LIU Qiu-xia, REN Tao, HAN Shang, LI Xiao-kun, CONG Ri-huan, WU Ji, LU Jian-wei
    2020, 42 (4):  594.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020074
    Abstract ( 139 )   PDF (909KB) ( 165 )  
     It is important to reduce oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) yield loss subjected to waterlogging in the
    Yangtze River Basin under simplified fertilization background. How to alleviate the waterlogging loss by way of ni⁃
    trogen (N) fertilizer application was studied. Three factors, including different N rates (0, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300
    kg N/hm2), N sources (controlled release urea and common urea) and water managements (waterlogging at seedling
    stage and normal drainage), were set in a field experiment. Yield and agronomy efficiency of oilseed rape at varying
    N rates were investigated, to identify effects of waterlogging at seedling on oilseed rape with different N fertilizer
    rates and their responses with controlled release urea one-off application (CRU1) and common urea split applica⁃
    tion (U4), respectively. Results showed that oilseed rape yield increased with the increase rate of N fertilizer applica⁃
    tion, plateaued at 240 kg N/hm2. Yield of CRU1 were higher than that of U4 at 60-180 kg N/hm2, but similar at 240-
    300 kg N/hm2. N fertilizer application increased plant population density at harvest (PPDh), pod number per plant
    and seed number per plant, which resulted greater oilseed rape yield. Waterlogging at seedling stage decreased oil⁃
    seed rape yield by 1.1%-41.9%. The yield loss increased as N rates added, then decreased as CRU1 and U4 added
    to 120 and 180 kg N/hm2, respectively. The largest yield loss of CRU1 and U4 were 29.8% and 41.9%, respectively.
    In case of waterlogging, PPDh decreased significantly (with decrease of 29.4-45.0%), but pod number per plant in⁃
    creased at the N rate of 0-60 kg N/hm2. When N rate was at 120-180 kg N/hm2, both PPDh and pod number per
    plant decreased by 19.5-33.7% and 1.4-17.7% once subjected to waterlogging, respectively. While as N rate was
    more than180 kg N/hm2, both the PPDh and pod number per plant decrease was reduced (with the decrease of 5-
    30.9% and 3.6-9.5%, respectively). Yield losses induced by waterlogging of CRU1 were larger than that of U4 at
    same N rate. Waterlogging at seedling stage decreased N agronomy efficiency by 8.4-51.9%. Generally, the agrono⁃
    my efficiency decrease with sufficient N supply (240-300 kg N/hm2) was less than that of insufficient N supply treat⁃
    ments (120-180 kg N/hm2), and CRU1 (with the average agronomy efficiency decrease of 36.5%) had greater agrono⁃
    my efficiency decrease relative to U4 treatments (with the average agronomy efficiency decrease of 17.3%)). In a
    word, waterlogging at seedling stage had greater impact on direct-sown winter oilseed rape yield with CRU1 applica⁃
    tion relative to U4. In the area with low indigenous N supply capacity, available N topdressing with appropriate rate
    after waterlogging can alleviate the yield loss and ensure the high production of oilseed rape.

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    Genes differentially expression in rapeseed hybrid Ningza 21 and its parents at seedling stage under salt tolerance
    GUO Yue, YU Yan-fang, LONG Wei-hua, DU Jian-chang, LIU Jing, FU Li, PU Hui-ming, ZHANG Jie-fu, GAO Jian-qin, YUAN Na, HU Qiong, HU Mao-long
    2020, 42 (4):  603.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020159
    Abstract ( 156 )   PDF (6007KB) ( 128 )  
    To understand rapeseed(Brassica napus L.)heterosis on salt tolerance, hybrid cultivar Ningza 21
    was used to investigate genes differentially expression compared with its parental lines. Through the next-genera⁃
    tion high-throughput transcriptome sequencing technology with no salt treatments as negative control, 1078 differ⁃
    entially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained, which were recognized to be closely related to heterosis of salt toler⁃
    ance in oilseed rape at early seedling stage. These DEGs were annotated by released salt stress related QTLs, and
    expression of some DEGs were verified by qPCR, indicating the reliability of these DEGs. Additionally, the hybrid
    had more up-regulation candidate DEGs in shoot than those in root, and the expression pattern of DEGs was much
    closer to that of the maternal line than the paternal line in hybrid Ningza 21. More DEGs in hybrid similar to female
    similar to male parent were much related to redox and other regulatory functions. It was predicted that SNP loci were
    specific for heterosis of salt tolerance. All the results were expected to be helpful for salt tolerance improvement of
    hybrid rapeseed.

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    Effect of cadmium stress on plant growth and gene expression in Brassica napus seedlings
    ZHANG Da-wei, DU Yun-yan§, WU Jin-feng, ZHOU Ding-gang, LIU Li-li, LIU Zhong-song, YAN Ming-li
    2020, 42 (4):  613.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020100
    Abstract ( 150 )   PDF (5049KB) ( 196 )  
    In order to reveal the effects of Cd stress on the growth of B. napus seedlings, phenotype, physiologi⁃
    cal responses, and gene expression of B. napus under different concentration of Cd treatment were investigated
    through pot experiment. Our results showed that B. napus seedlings had a certain degree of tolerance to low concen⁃
    tration of Cd treatment since no significant difference in phenotype was observed between plants under 5 mg/kg and
    control. However, higher concentration of Cd treatment (30 and 50 mg/kg) could suppress the growth of B. napus
    seedlings, as the plant height, fresh weight, leaf area and chlorophyll content of B. nupus under higher concentration
    of Cd decreased significantly as compared with control, while soluble protein content and activities of two antioxi⁃
    dant enzymes(SOD and POD)increased significantly. The Cd content in both roots and leaves of oilseed rape in⁃
    creased sharply with the increased of Cd concentration. Meanwhile, Cd treatment also affected the accumulation of
    other metals in plants, such as Mn, Mg, Zn and Cu. Comparative transcriptome analysis of B. napus under different
    concentration of Cd treatments found that these differentially expressed genes were mainly concentrated in the anti⁃
    oxidant activity, photosystem, ATPase activity, cell wall organization or biogenesis and so on. Analysis of the expres⁃
    sion patterns of HMA gene family showed that HMA3 was up-regulated,HMA2 and HMA4 were down regulated in

    roots of B. napus under Cd treatments when compared with control. These differentially expressed genes might have

    contributed to Cd tolerance of B. napus.

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    Screening and differential expression of drought related genes in carbohydrate metabolism pathway basen transcriptome sequencing in wild soybean
    ZHANG Xiao-fang, QIAO Xiao, ZU Tian-jiao, ZHANG Kai, HAN Jin-ling, QIAO Ya-ke, LI Gui-lan
    2020, 42 (4):  623.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019296
    Abstract ( 144 )   PDF (12479KB) ( 64 )  
    Compared with soybean, wild soybean had wider genetic diversity, it was important to screen the
    drought-resistant genes by analyzing the gene expression patterns at the meta-omics level. High-throughput se⁃
    quencing technique was applied to RNA sequences at different time treated with PEG6000 in wild soybean grown to
    30d, and 1796 carbohydrate metabolism pathway related sequences were obtained. Starch and sucrose metabolic
    pathways had the most differentially expressed genes, followed by galactose metabolic pathway. The differentially
    expressed genes were most expressed at 12 h of drought stress. A protein interaction network was constructed for the
    above 109 differentially expressed genes. Eight key genes were obtained by taking >10 node degree in 109 DEGs. It
    provides a theoretical basis for further research on carbohydrate metabolism related genes in wild soybean under
    drought stress.

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    Soybean response to drought stress under different grafting patterns
    LI Sheng-you, SUN Xu-gang, WANG Chang-ling, CAO Yong-qiang, WANG Wen-bin, SONG Shu-hong
    2020, 42 (4):  632.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020064
    Abstract ( 116 )   PDF (1540KB) ( 116 )  
    To understand the interaction of root and shoot and their response to drought, root-shoot interaction
    in soybean is studied for water stress resistance. Response of PSII properties and biomass production to water stress
    in leaves under different root-shoot interactions, grafted plants between drought-tolerant cultivar Liaodou 14 and
    drought-sensitive cultivar Liaodou 21 were grown in pots. Physiological traits and dry mass of each tissue were mea⁃
    sured at 13 d after drought treatment (50% of soil water in field) during podding stage. Under water stress, self-graft⁃
    ed Liaodou 21 showed significant decrease in SPAD value, leaf area, photochemical quantum yield of PSII system (Y
    (II)), quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation (Y(NPQ)), maximal rate of electron transfer (ETRmax), minimal
    saturated light intensity (Ik). But a significant increase was found in the non-regulatory energy heat dissipation (Y
    (NO)) of self-grafted Liaodou 21. As scions, Liaodou 14 always had higher SPAD value, Y (II), Y (NPQ), ETRmax and
    Ik, which resulted in greater biomass, when compared to Liaodou 21 scions. In addition, grafting Liaodou 21 scion
    onto Liaodou 14 rootstocks had higher root activity, which could significantly increase leaf area, Y (II), Y (NPQ),
    ETRmax and Ik under water stress, and resulted greater pod mass. These results indicated that PSII performance and
    biomass production were mainly determined by leaves features in shoot, but also affected by physiological activity of
    roots especially under drought.

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    Effects of exogenous melatonin on photosynthetic fluorescence and antioxidant system of soybean V1 seedlings under low temperature
    LI He, JIANG Xin-yue, CHEN Zhong-cheng, CHEN Ru-nan, WANG Hua-mei, CAO Liang, JIN Xi-jun, REN Chun-yuan, WANG Meng-xue, ZHANG Ming-cong, YU Gao-bo, ZHANG Yu-xian
    2020, 42 (4):  640.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020147
    Abstract ( 119 )   PDF (3895KB) ( 166 )  
    In order to alleviate chilling injury of soybean seedling in northeast spring soybean production area,
    effect of exogenous melatonin (MT) on chilling tolerance of soybean under low temperature stress was studied. The
    object was to find out appropriate MT concentration to improve chilling tolerance of soybean. Cultivar Suinong 26
    was used and planted in pots. At V1 stage (one leaf stage of soybean), leaves were sprayed with different concentra⁃
    tions of MT (0, 50, 100, 200 μmol·L-1) for 3 days, then moved to artificialclimate box for 5 days under low tempera⁃
    ture (4℃). The effects of MT on photosynthetic characteristics, active oxygen metabolism and osmoregulation of soy⁃
    beans under 4℃ showed that different concentrations of MT enhanced the photosynthesis. Pn, Gs, Tr and photosyn⁃
    thetic pigment increased significantly. Chl a/b decreased significantly with the MT concentrations. The activity of
    SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase), CAT (catalase), APX (ascorbate peroxidase), Pro (proline) content
    and root-shoot ratio in leaves exposed to MT increased significantly, reaching a significant difference at concentra⁃
    tion of 100 μmol·L-1. While MDA (malondialdehyde) content and the relative conductivity of leaves decreased sig⁃
    nificantly. The results indicated that exogenous melatonin could alleviate stress injury and improve cold tolerance ofsoybean seedlings at V1 stage by increasing photosynthetic rate, antioxidant enzyme activity, and reducing mem⁃
    brane lipid peroxidation and regulating osmotic substances.

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    Physiological and biochemical indexes in different peanut seedlings with low-temperature tolerance
    CHEN Xiao-shu, ZHAO Yue, JIANG Chun-ji, LIU Hai-long, LYU Yong-chao, NING Qia, ZHANG He, WANG Shao-lun, GAO Hua-yuan
    2020, 42 (4):  649.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020160
    Abstract ( 144 )   PDF (562KB) ( 168 )  
    To screening and identify peanut tolerance to low temperature, and to establish a comprehensive
    mathematical evaluation model of peanut, low temperature stress on 11 peanut cultivars were carried out at 5℃ for
    72 hours. 15 physiological and biochemical indexes were tested, including chlorophyll SPAD value, chlorophyll fluo⁃
    rescence parameters, photosynthetic gas exchange parameters, relative conductivity, SOD activity, POD activity,

    CAT activity, MDA content and soluble protein content in peanut seedlings at 0 h and 72 h. The chilling tolerant co⁃

    and evaluation accuracy of the equation was higher than 99.00%. The screened 7 indexes (Pn, ФPSⅡ, Fv/Fm, 1-
    qP, SP, POD and CAT) were found closely relate to the tolerance. Results indicated that the reaction center was
    more open and photosystem was more injured after low-temperature stress in tolerant type that could maintain high⁃
    er net photosynthetic rate, better removal of reactive oxygen species and free radicals from cells, with low peroxide
    damage on membrane lipids. The rapid identification and prediction of low-temperature tolerance of peanut cultivar
    could be carried out by measuring 7 indicators at the same low-temperature treatment. The tolerance cultivars were
    expected to provide a basis for peanut breeding tolerant to low temperature in Northeast China.

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    Response characteristics of MYB28 in Brassica napus to Plasmodiophora brassicae and salicylic acid
    CHI Peng, ZENG Ling-yi, LIU Fan, CHEN Wang, REN Li, XU Li, FANG Xiao-ping
    2020, 42 (4):  658.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020118
    Abstract ( 155 )   PDF (35688KB) ( 71 )  
    MYB transcription factor is involved in plant growth and stress. To understand MYB28 family genes
    in rapeseed, expression of the genes after Plasmodiophora brassicae inoculation and salicylic acid(SA)treatment
    was studied using susceptible Brassica napus(L.)cv Zhongshuang 11. Expression patterns in different tissues
    showed that BnaMYB28 expression levels were higher in stems and seeds than those in roots and leaves. Bna⁃
    MYB28 had different responses after P. brassicae inoculation and SA treatment. Among the members, BnaMYB28-1
    and BnaMYB28-3 were induced by SA treatment, while BnaMYB28-2 was suppressed. After P. brassicae inocula⁃
    tion, BnaMYB28-1 was significantly induced throughout the infection period, althought it was significantly inhibit⁃
    ed by adding SA. Expression of BnaMYB28-3 was significantly increased at 7 and 28 d after inoculation. It had no
    change during the key cortical infection period(14 d after inoculation), but was increased significantly under com⁃
    bination treatments of pathogen inoculation and SA. It was indicated that, under different treatments, exogenous SA
    could positively regulate BnaMYB28-1 and BnaMYB28-3. And BnaMYB28-3 gene might be involved in interac⁃
    tion between B. napus and P. brassicae through the SA mediated process.

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    Root colonization of Ralstonia solanacearum in different crops and crop rotation systems for plant disease control
    LI Xin-shen, SHAO Hua, CHEN Jian, WEI Lin-gen, HUANG Rui-rong, HUA Ju-ling
    2020, 42 (4):  667.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020077
    Abstract ( 115 )   PDF (815KB) ( 190 )  
     Bacterial wilt is one of the serious diseases of sesame and peanut. In order to explore a reasonable
    crop rotation model for plant disease control, six crops were inoculated with a rifampicin-resistant strain(JXS02-L)
    of Ralstonia solanacearum by the method of soil inoculation, including sesame, peanut, sweet potato, soybean, corn,
    and shallot. Based on the dynamic changes of R. solanacearum in rhizosphere soils and roots of six crops, the occur⁃
    rence of bacterial wilt on sesame and peanut were analyzed under different rotation patterns. Results showed that
    the population of R. solanacearum were lower than its initial inoculum in rhizosphere soils of six crops at three
    weeks after sowing, in particular, the population of the pathogen decreased mostly in rhizosphere soils of shallot and
    only reached 0.64 ×102 CFU·g-1. The population of R.solanacearum in rhizosphere soils of sesame, peanut and sweet
    potato had increased to the initial inoculation bacteria level (3.20 × 106 to 4.93 × 106 CFU·g-1) at 6 weeks after sow⁃
    ing. From 6 to 12 weeks, the population of R.solanacearum continued to increase in rhizosphere soils of sesame, pea⁃
    nut and sweet potato, and that in rhizosphere soils of soybean and corn continued to decrease. At 12 weeks after sow⁃
    ing, the population of R. solanacearum in rhizosphere soils of soybean and corn were less than 10-4 compared with
    that in rhizosphere soils of sesame, peanut and sweet potato. However, the pathogen was not detected in rhizosphere
    soils of shallot from 6 weeks to 12 weeks. On the other hand, the population of R. solanacearum increased continu⁃
    ously in the roots of sesame, peanut and sweet potato, while that in the roots of soybean and corn increased at first
    and then decreased. At 12 weeks after sowing, the population of R. solanacearum in the roots of soybean and corn
    were less than 10-5 compared with that in rhizosphere soils of sesame, peanut and sweet potato. Moreover, the patho⁃
    gen was still not detected in the roots of shallot after sowing. The effects of different rotation patterns on the occur⁃
    rence of bacterial wilt disease of sesame and peanut indicated that disease indexes of sesame bacterial wilt for sesa⁃
    me-soybean-shallot-sesame rotations and sesame-soybean-corn-sesame rotations were significantly lower than
    that for sesame-peanut-soybean-sesame rotations and sesame-peanut-sweet potato-sesame rotations, and its dis⁃
    ease indexes decreased by 19.95% and 12.87% respectively. In addition, the diseased plant rate of peanut bacterial
    wilt for peanut-soybean-corn-peanut rotations was significantly lower than that for peanut-sesame-sweet potatopeanut
    rotations, and its diseased plant rate decreased by 11.63%. In summary, the results made great contribution
    in understanding the ecological diversity of bacterial wilt, and further in preventing and controlling of bacterial wilt.

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    Isolation and identification of Bacillus sinensis ZHX-10 and analysison its biological control activities against Sclerotium rolfsii
    ZHANG Xia, XU Man-lin, GUO Zhi-qing, YU Jing, WU Ju-xiang, YU Jian-lei, LIU Tong-jin, LI Xin-guo, CHI Yu-cheng, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (4):  674.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019207
    Abstract ( 136 )   PDF (7744KB) ( 39 )  
    In order to screen biocontrol strains for southern stem rot, a bacteria ZHX-10 was isolated from pea⁃
    nut field with serious soil-borne diseases by dilution plate method. The strain ZHX-10 was identified based on mor⁃
    phological characteristics, physiological, biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA and gyrB sequence analysis. The
    inhibitory effects of bacterial suspension, volatile gas, fermentation broth from strain ZHX-10 against Sclerotium
    rolfsii Sacc. were preliminarily determined. The results showed that ZHX-10 was Bacillus siamensis, and its suspen⁃
    sion, volatile gas and fermentation broth could effectively inhibit the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.. At the same
    time, it was found that the volatile gas produced by ZHX-10 suspension could effectively reduce the incidence of
    Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. on peanut leaves. It indicated that strain ZHX-10 had high research value and potentials for
    biological control of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.

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    Evaluation of resistance of different peanut varieties to peanut pod rot
    YU Jing, LI Ying, XU Man-lin, ZHANG Xia, GUO Zhi-qing, WU Ju-xiang, CHI Yu-cheng
    2020, 42 (4):  681.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020015
    Abstract ( 138 )   PDF (953KB) ( 146 )  
    he resistance evaluation to peanut pod rot of 76 peanut varieties(lines)was carried out in natural
    disease field, with the aim to provide theoretical basis for disease resistance breeding and field disease control. The
    results showed that there were significant differences in the resistance of different peanut varieties to peanut pod rot.
    Among the 76 peanut varieties tested, there were no immune varieties to peanut pod rot, 2 high resistant varieties, 7
    resistant varieties, 12 medium resistant varieties, 21 susceptible varieties and 33 high susceptible varieties. The re⁃
    sults of cluster analysis showed that the resistance of 9 species in branch I(especially Huanyu 9115)was desirable
    and could be further utilized. The correlation between peanut resistance to pod rot and pod fresh weight was ana⁃
    lyzed and no correlation was found.

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    Excavation of sunflower rust-related microRNAs and target gene prediction
    GONG Jing, LU Yan, SONG Yang, JING Lan
    2020, 42 (4):  687.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020043
    Abstract ( 134 )   PDF (1959KB) ( 211 )  
    Previously 10 differentially expressed new microRNAs (miRNAs) on sunflower rust resistance were
    predicted and screened by high-throughput sequencing technique and bioinformatics analysis. This paper continius⁃
    ly foucused on their expressions by qRT-PCR. Results showed that expression levels of Han-miR21, Han-miR25,
    and Han-miR42 in leaves inoculated Puccinia helianthi race 300 (resistant group B) were up-regulated compared
    with healthy leaves treated with water (control group A) and the expression levels of Han-miR11, Han-miR34,
    Han-miR43, Han-miR47, Han-miR67 showed down-regulated. Expression levels of Han-miR25 and Han-miR42
    in leaves inoculated Puccinia helianthi race 737 (susceptible group C) were up-regulated, and expression levels of
    Han-miR11, Han-miR21, Han-miR34, Han-miR43, Han-miR47, and Han-miR67 were down-regulated. Results
    of real-time PCR were consistent with 80% of the previous high-throughput sequencing results. By software miRan⁃
    da prediction, a total of 117 target genes were predicted, of which 86 had bioinformatic functional annotations. By
    miRbase database, these 10 new predicted miRNAs revealed high similarity (62-100%) to miRNAs in Arabidopsis,
    tobacco, rice and other crops, among which Han-miR42 and Han-miR67 were involved in disease stress response.
    Expression of 1 target genes of Han-miR21 (which was up-regulated in resisitant group) was down-regulated.
    While expression of 3 target genes of Han-miR43 (which was down-regulated in resistant group) were up-regulat⁃
    ed. These contrary expressions were obviously in accordance with the regulation of miRNA and its target genes.

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    Control index and monitoring of Leguminivora glycinivorella using sexual attractant trapping in feild
    LI Xuan, CUI Juan, QIN Hao-dong, XU Wei, SHI Shu-sen
    2020, 42 (4):  701.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020063
    Abstract ( 123 )   PDF (1513KB) ( 172 )  
    The aim was to determine the natural population dynamics of soybean pod borers (SPB) Legumenivo⁃
    ra glycinivorella (Matsumura) adult in field, and to establishe control index for SPB adult monitoring based on sexu⁃
    al trap. In this study, sex attractant trapping method was used to systematically monitor the population dynamics of
    SPB in field, and combined with the investigation of eggs number in field pods. The regression analysis method was
    used to fit the relationship between occurrence of SPB adults and quantity of soybean pod eggs, and then the quanti⁃
    ty index of adults was determined by egg quantity index. Results showed that the occurrence period of SPB adults in
    Changchun, Jilin was mainly concentrated in the early and middle of August, and the number of occurrences varied
    from year to year. There is a significant correlation between the number of adult insects and the amount of eggs per
    hundred pods. The regression equation is y = 0.946lnx + 0.303, (R2 = 0.939, p = 0.001). Based on this, a method for
    determining adult control index based on monitoring the number of SPB in field was established. It provided a theo⁃
    retical basis for predicting and early warning technology of SPB.

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    Damage of action threshold of Holotrichia diomphalia 3rd instar larvae in spring sowing soybean field in Northeast China
    ZHONG Tao, FAN Wei-yan, XU Guo-qing, ZHAO Tong-hua
    2020, 42 (4):  708.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019304
    Abstract ( 135 )   PDF (598KB) ( 161 )  
    To establish appropriate control index for Holotrichia diomphalia Bates in the context of a continual
    global warming trend and guidelines based on“Dual Reduction”in chemical fertilizers and pesticides, mortality
    rates and yield of spring soybean in Northeast China were investigated by artificial inoculation with different density
    of Holotrichia diomphalia 3rd instar larvae. The results showed that yield had negative correlation with larvae density
    (y =﹣0.0135x﹢0.4232,32>x≥1,r =﹣0.990 ), yield loss rate had positive correlation with larvae density (y=
    3.0051x﹢2.6781,x≥1,r=0.991). The yield and yield loss rate were significantly different when larvae density was
    greater than or equal to 4. According to the rule that the direct benefit was above the cost of control, we determined
    that the damage of action threshold of H. diomphalia 3rd instar larvae was 2.33 heads per square meter in Northeast
    spring soybean yield. The mortality rates caused by H. diomphalia 3rd instar larvae were significant different with dif⁃
    ferent population density at different survey periods. The mortality rate ranged from 48.18% to 57.87% at the seed⁃
    lings stage ( V1 ) when the population density was 1 - 5 heads per square meter, and it ranged from 65.67% to
    75.05% until the primary flowering stage ( R1 ). The mortality rate in V1 stage was significantly greater than that in
    V1 to RI stage. Therefore, the control of grubs would be best performed at seedling stage.

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