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    28 December 2020, Volume 42 Issue 6 Previous Issue   
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    Great change of peanut planting technology: single seed sowing
    WAN Shu-bo, ZHANG Jia-lei, ZHANG Zhi-meng
    2020, 42 (6):  927.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020208
    Abstract ( 368 )   PDF (827KB) ( 437 )  
    In traditional peanut planting, two or more seeds were planted in one hole. Seedlings in the same
    hole competed for fertilizer, water resources, light and heat resources, which led to the different growth of seedlings
    and limited increase of pod yield. The peanut cultivation and physiological ecology innovation team of Shandong
    Academy of Agricultural Science has established peanut single seed sowing technology. It sowed one seed in a hole
    instead of two or more, and expanded plant spacing, alleviated the competition between adjacent plants, and made
    the individual uniform, orderly and robust, which could give full play to the potential of single plant production. The
    number of plants per unit area decreased, which made the group structure more reasonable, and increased the distri⁃
    bution rate of photosynthetic products to pods, thus increased production by increasing economic coefficient. This
    paper discussed the development process, breakthrough of the theory, technology and development prospect of pea⁃
    nut single seed sowing technology, and brought forward the technical bottleneck to limit large-scale promotion, in
    order to speed up the application of this technology.

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    Advances in plant architecture studies of peanut
    LI Guo-wei, QIN Sheng-hao, LIU Yi-yang, ZHANG Jia-lei, HAN Yan, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (6):  934.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020212
    Abstract ( 216 )   PDF (732KB) ( 261 )  
    Plant architecture plays an important role in the formation of crop yield. Peanuts blooms on the
    ground and bears fruit underground, the specific characteristics determine that the cultivars with more flowers at the
    base have higher single plant productivity. Due to differences of ecological environment and cultivation habits, pea⁃
    nut cultivars of three different growth habits including erect type, semi spreading type and spreading type, coexist in
    different countries and different ecology regions, and the yield of peanut varies greatly in different regions. In this
    paper, the progress of the main archievements on peanut plant architecture was summarized, and the relationship be⁃
    tween plant architecture and yield formation was reviewed. The characteristics of ideal plant architecture and ideas
    for peanut ideal architecture breeding were suggested.

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    Research progress of peanut pod development and its regulation mechanisms
    LIU Wen-wen, WANG Jian-guo, WAN Shu-bo, PENG Zhen-ying, LI Xin-guo
    2020, 42 (6):  940.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020234
    Abstract ( 199 )   PDF (1105KB) ( 263 )  
    Peanut is an important oil and cash crop, and plays an important role in adjusting the structure of
    agricultural planting industry. Pods are the harvesting organs of peanuts. Further research on the development and
    regulation of peanut pods can provide a theoretical basis for high-yield breeding. This article reviewed the development
    of peanut pod in recent years, including the effects of internal and external limiting factors on peanut pod
    development, the better understanding of their molecular regulatory mechanisms such as hormones, nutrients, genetics
    research, DNA and RNA, which would provide a good reference for the subsequent researches.

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    Calcium in peanut high-yield cultivation under stress resistance and efficiency cultivation with reduced fertilizer
    WANG Jian-guo, TANG Zhao-hui, YANG Sha, ZHANG Jia-lei, PENG Zhen-ying, MENG Jing-jing, LI Xin-guo, GUO Feng, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (6):  951.  doi: :10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020243
    Abstract ( 56 )   PDF (645KB) ( 114 )  
     Peanut was a calcium-prefering crop, with a great demand for calcium. Calcium was the third most
    important element after nitrogen and potassium for peanut. Increase the yield and fertilizer utilization rate by calci⁃
    um fertilizer application according to local condition was important cultivation method to enhance the plant's stress
    resistance and achieve synergistic effects of nitrogen reduction.This study described calcium demand characteristics
    in peanut, judgment criteria of calcium deficiency in plants and soil, and effect of calcium application on high-yield
    cultivation under stress resistance and efficiency cultivation under reduced fertilizer. The effects of calcium fertiliz⁃
    er application on growth and development, physiological metabolism and yield of peanut were discussed under acid
    soil, calcium deficiency soil, saline-alkali land and drought stress, respectively. The feasibility of reducing nitrogen
    fertilizer and increasing calcium fertilizer to achieve better synergistic effect was analyzed. It was suggested that the
    reduction of peanut fertilizer should start with maximizing peanut nitrogen fixation and soil potential, activating soil
    nutrients and improving soil fertilizer supply capacity. At the same time, both developing nitrogen and calcium con⁃
    trolled release fertilizer and promoting peanut whole process controlled precise fertilization technology could
    achieve one-time fertilization, with the whole process controlled and fertilizer utilization rate improved.
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    Progress on production and technology development of high-oleic acid peanut in China
    LIU Fang, ZHANG Zhe, WANG Ji-jun
    2020, 42 (6):  956.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020215
    Abstract ( 254 )   PDF (569KB) ( 220 )  
    Peanut is one of the main oil and cash crops in China. Realizing high-oleic acid in peanut planting
    and processing is the fundamental direction to promote peanut industry development and strengthen agricultural
    supply-side structural reform. In this paper, the characteristics of high-oleic acid peanut were summarized, the de⁃
    velopment of high-oleic acid peanut in China was briefly reviewed, the research progress of high-oleic acid peanut
    in variety breeding and cultivation technology was expounded, and the existing problems and development counter⁃
    measures in the production and research of high-oleic acid peanut were discussed.

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    Effects of single seed sowing on biological characteristics of peanut
    ZHANG Jia-lei, ZHANG Lei, LIN Ying-jie, LIU Ying, WANG Jian-guo, GUO Feng, TANG Zhao-hui, LI Xin-guo, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (6):  960.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020048
    Abstract ( 189 )   PDF (2671KB) ( 199 )  
    The objective of this study was to elucidate the biological basis of single seed sowing for increasing
    production. Selecting Huayu 25 as test material, three treatments as SS (Single seed sowing, hole spacing of 10 cm),
    DS (Double seed sowing, hole spacing of 20 cm) and TS (Three seed sowing, hole spacing of 20 cm) were set to re⁃
    search the differences of flowering dynamics, total flowers, number of needles and fruit, plant characteristics and dry
    matter weight of peanut in different sowing methods. The results showed that the primary flowering stage of SS treat⁃
    ment was 1-2 days earlier than that of DS and TS, and full flowering stage was 2-4 days earlier than that of DS and
    TS. The flowering number of single plant of SS was up to 11.0 per day, and at the early stage of the whole flowering
    period, the flowering number per day was large. The total flower number of a single plant of SS could reach 168.5,
    which was significantly higher than that of DS and TS. The number of pods per plant, especially the number of full
    pods per plant and the pod number per first pair lateral branch of SS were significantly higher than those in DS and
    TS, and the increase of full pod per unit area was the main reason for the increase of yield. The peanut of SS had the
    lowest main stem height and lateral branch length, and the plant of TS had the highest height, but the branch num⁃
    ber and main stem node number of SS were significantly higher than DS and TS, which was conducive to dwarf and
    strong plants. The dry weight of stem, leaf and pod per plant of SS was significantly higher than that of DS and TS,
    and the dry weight of stem, leaf and pod per unit area of SS was significantly higher than that of DS treatment. There⁃
    fore, the uniform distribution of single seed sowing plants could reduce the competition among plants and help to
    give full play to the production potential of single plant.

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    Effect of different density on canopy structure and pod yield of peanut under single seed precision sowing
    LIU Jun-hua, WU Zheng-feng, LI Lin, ZHENG Yong-mei, SUN Xue-wu, LI Qiu-zhi, ZHAO Hong-jun, SUN Xiu-shan, WANG Cai-bin, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (6):  970.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020218
    Abstract ( 161 )   PDF (1871KB) ( 192 )  
    To explore the effect of density on canopy structure and yield of single seed precision sowing pea⁃
    nut, two sowing models of single seed and double seeds per hole, three planting densities of 90 000 holes / hm2 (D1),
    120 000 holes / hm2 (D2) and 150 000 holes / hm2 (D3) were set with Huayu 22 in test fields. Canopy transmittance,
    canopy leaf area index, leaf dry weight and agronomic traits of peanut at different densities were investigated. The
    results showed that the light transmittance of the middle and lower parts of the canopy decreased with the increase
    of the density, and the single seed model was higher than that of the double seeds. Under D1 density, the leaf area
    index and dry weight of single seed sowing were lower than those of double seed sowing, but the middle and lower
    part of canopy were higher than that of double seed sowing. However, under the density of D2 and D3, the leaf area
    index and leaf dry weight of single and double seed sowing had no significant difference. With the increase of densi⁃
    ty, the main stem height, lateral branch length and the number of fruits per hectare increased significantly, while the
    number of fruit per hole decreased. The lateral branch number of single seed precision sowing was higher than that
    of double seed sowing. With the increase of density, the pod yield of peanut increased first and then decreased. The
    pod yield of 120 000 holes / hm2 was the highest, and the yield of single seed precision sowing was slightly higher
    than that of double seed sowing. In conclusion, rational close planting was an important measure for high yield of
    peanut. Compared with double seed sowing, single seed precision sowing peanut had higher light transmittance and
    leaf area index of the lower parts of the canopy, more lateral branches and higher fruit filling rate, which was crucial
    in high yield and high efficiency of peanut.

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    Effects of single-seed sowing on phenolic acid content and enzyme activity in rhizosphere soil of peanut
    LI Qing-kai, LIU Ping, ZHANG Jia-lei, GUO Feng, WANG Jian-guo, GENG Yun, YANG Sha, MENG Jing-jing, TANG Zhao-hui, LI Xin-guo, LI Lin, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (6):  978.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019205
    Abstract ( 162 )   PDF (1347KB) ( 179 )  
    In order to further explore the mechanism of single-seed sowing for improving yield in peanut (Ara⁃
    chis hypogaea L.), effects of single-seed sowing and double-seed sowing on phenolic acid content, soil enzyme ac⁃
    tivity of peanut rhizosphere soil at the flowering and pegging stage, the pod setting stage, and the pod filling stage
    were studied by using the method of field potted simulation experiment. The results showed caffeic acid in rhizo⁃
    sphere soil treated by single-seed sowing was less than that treated by double-seed sowing during the three sam⁃
    pling periods, but phthalic acid and vanillic acid of single-seed sowing were added at pod filling stage.The contents
    of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, benzoic acid and cinnamic acid in the rhizosphere soil of single-seed sowing
    were significantly lower than those in the double-seed sowing (P<0.05). Compared with double-seed sowing, singleseed
    sowing increased the urease, alkaline phosphatase and invertase activities in the rhizosphere soil of peanut, es⁃
    pecially at the flowering and pegging stage of peanut (P<0.05). Single-seed sowing increased the pod yield of per
    pot, the pod number per plant, the full pod rate, the kernel rate and the individual biomass production, but signifi⁃
    cantly decreased the pods of per kilogram (P<0.05). This study indicated that single-seed sowing can reduce the
    competition between peanut individuals in the underground by reducing the species and content of phenolic acids
    and increasing the enzyme activity in the peanut rhizosphere soil, further to increase the productivity potential for
    individual plant and achieve peanut yield increase.

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    Response of rhizosphere bacterial community structure associated with peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to high salinity and drought stress
    XU Yang, ZHANG Guan-chu, DING Hong, ZHANG Zhi-meng, CI Dun-wei, GUO Feng, DAI Liang-xiang
    2020, 42 (6):  985.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019312
    Abstract ( 161 )   PDF (2530KB) ( 195 )  
    To study the effect of high salinity and drought stress on bacterial community structure and diversity
    in peanut rhizosphere soil, pot experiment was conducted to set up the salt and drought treatment experiments in
    this study. The total DNA of the mature flowering rhizosphere soil was extracted and deep sequencing of V3-V4 re⁃
    gion of 16S rRNA gene was performed to characterize the bacterial community structure of drought-treated and salttreated
    peanuts. Taxonomic analysis showed that Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, norank_p__ Saccharibacte⁃
    ria, Cyanobacteria, Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Betaproteobacteria were the dominant class in the pea⁃
    nut rhizosphere. Comparisons of bacterial community structure of normally-grown peanuts revealed that the relative
    abundance of Alphaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria increased after stress treatments, among them Cyanobacteria
    was significant induced, suggesting that Cyanobacteria might have crucial implications for plant survival and stress
    tolerance. Many biotic and abiotic stresses altered rhizosphere soil microdomain structure and had an evident effect
    on the bacterial community diversity in peanut rhizosphere. Modifying microbial structure and soil microdomain en⁃
    vironment were effective ways to improve plant stress tolerance.

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    Effects of maize intercropping peanut on crop dry matter accumulation, nitrogen absorption and utilization
    LIU Ying, WANG Jian-guo, GUO Feng, TANG Zhao-hui, YANG Sha, GENG Yun, MENG Jing-jing, LI Xin-guo, ZHANG Jia-lei, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (6):  994.  doi: doi:10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019297
    Abstract ( 73 )   PDF (1287KB) ( 156 )  
    In order to clarify the nitrogen competitive absorption of maize on peanut belt and nitrogen absorp⁃
    tion difference between the border and inner row of intercropping peanut under maize intercropping peanut. 15N trac⁃
    er method was used to study the efficient nitrogen utilization mechanism of intercropping system and the actual use
    of fertilizer nitrogen by various organs. Three cropping patterns were set up as followings: peanut monoculture (P),
    maize-peanut intercropping (M//P) and maize monoculture (M), maize-peanut intercropping with maize to peanut
    line ratios of 2:4. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation and economic yield (pod) of the border and in⁃
    ner row of intercropping peanuts during the whole growth stage were significantly lower than those of sole peanut
    (P), and the border row was lower than the inner row. During the mature stage, the amount of dry matter of the pea⁃
    nut border row was significantly decreased by 43.97% compared with that of sole peanut (P), and that of the inner
    row of peanut decreased by 32.92%. During the mature stage, the amount of 15N absorption by the border and the in⁃
    ner row of peanuts decreased by 75.61% and 70.86%, the nitrogen accumulation decreased by 24.95% and 9.67%,
    and the total nitrogen accumulation decreased. The amount of 15N absorption by the maize belt from the peanut belt
    was 34.89 kg/hm2. Root interaction significantly reduced the amount of 15N absorption by peanuts. At the same time,
    the 15N soil residual rate of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers was significantly lower than that of sole cropping. The
    maize intercropping peanut system showed significant nitrogen absorption advantages, and the nitrogen fertilizer uti⁃
    lization rate of the entire intercropping system was increased by 14.20% compared with the sole cropping of pea⁃
    nuts, The positive side effect of maize strengthened the nitrogen fixation ability of peanuts, reducing the "N inhibi⁃
    tion" of peanuts. Maize intercropping peanut enhanceed the biological nitrogen fixation efficiency of peanut and im⁃
    proveed the nitrogen utilization efficiency of intercropping system through maize's competitive absorption of nitro⁃
    gen from peanut.

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    Effect of sweet potato and peanut rotation on physiological characteristics and yield and quality of peanut
    TANG Zhao-hui, GUO Feng, ZHANG Jia-lei, YANG Sha, WANG Jian-guo, MENG Jing-jing, GENG Yun, LI Xin-guo, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (6):  1002.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020220
    Abstract ( 362 )   PDF (1577KB) ( 222 )  
    In order to solve the problem of peanut continuous cropping obstacle, and clarify the alleviation ef⁃
    fect of sweet potato peanut rotation on peanut continuous cropping obstacle, the nutritional growth, physiological
    characteristics, yield and quality of peanut under two conditions of sweet potato peanut rotation (GHZ) and peanut
    continuous cropping (HHZ) were studied in peanut continuous cropping plot for many years. The results showed that
    GHZ treatment significantly promoted the growth of nutrition, increased the leaf area index, chlorophyll content and
    net photosynthetic rate of peanut, increased the photosynthetic capacity, nitrate reductase activity, root activity, dry
    matter accumulation, pod yield and kernel rate. In addition, compared with HHZ treatment, GHZ treatment signifi⁃
    cantly increased protein content, crude fat content and O/L ratio of peanut kernel, decreased soluble sugar content
    and improved peanut kernel quality. Sweet potato peanut rotation can alleviate the obstacle of peanut continuous
    cropping.

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    Effect of nitrogen reduction and calcium fertilizer application on photosynthetic characteristics, yield and fertilizer contribution rate in peanut
    ZHANG Guan-chu, DAI Liang-xiang, XU Yang, DING Hong, CI Dun-wei, QIN Fei-fei, GUO Feng, ZHANG Zhi-meng
    2020, 42 (6):  1010.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020210
    Abstract ( 186 )   PDF (2118KB) ( 248 )  
    Soil degradation and environmental pollution were caused by long-term and large-scale application
    of chemical fertilizers. In order to improve soil fertility and improve fertilizer utilization, the variety Longhua 5 as
    the test material, the experiment of reducing nitrogen and applying organic fertilizer was set to explore effect of dif⁃
    ferent fertilizer management on photosynthetic physiology and yield in Yinan County, Shandong Province in 2018
    and 2019. The result showed that the main stem height, leaf area index, net photosynthetic rate, hundred fruit
    weight, hundred kernel weight and yield of peanuts were reduced with 25% and 35% nitrogen reduction compared
    with conventional nitrogen application, but it had no significant effect on kernel rate. The main stem height was pro⁃
    moted and the leaf area index, SPAD, net photosynthetic rate and yield were significantly improved by the applica⁃
    tion of calcium fertilizer under the premise of quantitative nitrogen fertilizer. In the case of nitrogen and calcium op⁃
    erations, the net photosynthetic rate, leaf area index and the yield were the highest while 25% nitrogen reduction
    combined with 300 kg·hm-2 calcium fertilizer treatment. It was concluded that the production of 311.15 kg·hm-2 cal⁃
    cium fertilizer with 25% nitrogen reduction was the highest in 2018, and the production of 304.99 kg·hm-2 calcium
    fertilizer with 25% nitrogen reduction was the highest with mathematical modeling and analysis in 2019. Nitrogen

    and calcium operations increased peanut production, which could optimize fertilizer application and provided

    theo⁃retical support for balanced fertilization, high yield, and stable yield of peanut.


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    Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and superphosphate on yield and quality of peanut in saline and non-saline soil
    YANG Ji-shun, TANG Zhao-hui, XU Yang, LI Shang-xia, CUI Li, SI Tong, GUO Feng, CI Dun-wei
    2020, 42 (6):  1019.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020219
    Abstract ( 229 )   PDF (848KB) ( 183 )  
    The contradiction between the insufficient supply of calcium (Ca) and the high demand of peanut
    plants has become increasingly prominent, which has become one of the most important yield limiting factors of pea⁃
    nut. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can improve plant roots in soil environment, enhance the absorption of nu⁃
    trients and the resistance to stress. In this study, Huayu 22 and Huayu 25 were selected to set AMF and superphos⁃
    phate single and compound treated in saline and non-saline soil to study the effects of AMF and superphosphate on
    peanut growth, yield, and quality. The results showed that under the same compound fertilizer treatment, the peanut
    plant biomass was increased, the total pot number, full pot number, double kernel number, 100 pot weight and 100
    kernel weight per plant were increased, and the yield was thus increased. In saline soil, the compound effect of AMF
    and superphosphate > AMF >superphosphate; in non-saline soil, the compound effect of AMF and superphos⁃
    phate > superphosphate > AMF. AMF and superphosphate could significantly increase protein and oleic acid con⁃
    tent and ratio of oleic acid to linoleic acid, reduce linoleic acid content, but had no significant effect on fat content.
    This study provided a theoretical basis and technical support for the application of AMF and superphosphate in the
    efficient production of peanuts in different soil types.

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    Alleviating effect of partial rootzone drying on xerophytophysiological responses in peanut plants under drought stress
    QIN Fei-fei, CI Dun-wei
    2020, 42 (6):  1026.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020229
    Abstract ( 151 )   PDF (891KB) ( 136 )  
    A stimulus of partial rootzone drying (PRD) to plant roots can induce xerophytophysiological responses,
    and improve drought resistance and the defense ability under subsequent drought stress. Shelve (P1), double
    container (P2) and vanseline (P3) were set to separate the peanut roots into two rootzones before PRD treatment.
    Two rootzones were alternatively irrigated four times, one side of rootzone kept 40% of field capacity, the other normally
    irrigated with 75% of field capacity. Some physiological indexes of peanut xerophytic reaction induced by
    PRD were studied. The results showed that PRD treatments increased root/shoot ratio, accumulated cytosol solutes
    actively with ΔCFT value of P1, P2 and P3 treatments at 43.1, 65.1 and 49.6 osmol m-3 respectively. Water potential
    and osmotic potential reduced and turgor potenial increased significantly. O2·-content increased by 2-3 times and
    SOD activity increased significantly and remained high after rewatering. PRD shortened stomatal closing time of detached
    leaves with prolonged water evaporation time, improved leaf photosynthesis after rewatering, and Gdi-15
    gene expression in leaves and roots was induced by 2 to 7 times. Further experiment was designed to study the effect
    of pre-PRD treatment on subsequent drought stress, 3 treatments were normal irrigation with 75% of field capacity
    (Control), drought stress with 35% of field capacity (D) and subsequent drought stress with pre-PRD treatment (DP).
    Compared with D treatment, leaf relative water content in DP treatment increased from 51.68% to 61.07%. Proline
    accumulation in DP treatment reduced to 2104.50 μg∙g-1FW compared with 4328.72μg∙g-1FW in D treatment, pre-
    PRD priming decreased MDA and O2·-content, meanwhile POD activity decreased from 592.46 to 217.68U∙g-1FW.
    In conclusion, all three ways of PRD treatment induced xerophytophysiological regulation of which PRD treatment
    used by vanseline was the best. Pre-PRD treatment could acclimate the plants to drought, so that the plants showed
    rapid physiological defense and recovery ability when sensing drought stress again.

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    Mechanism of 5-aminolevulinic acid on salt tolerance in peanut
    YANG Sha, ZHAO Lu-ying, SONG Shan-shan, LI Xin-guo, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (6):  1035.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019225
    Abstract ( 180 )   PDF (2249KB) ( 186 )  
     Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oil and commercial crop worldwide. On the premise of
    not competing for land with grain, utilization of saline-alkali land by peanut should be expanded, and the adverse ef⁃
    fects of salt stress on peanut should be reduced. In this study, salt resistance mechanism of 5-aminolevulinic acid
    (ALA) was determined by exogenous spraying under salt treatment. In the experiment, 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl was used
    as salt stress treatment, and 6 concentration gradients of ALA as 0, 1, 10, 25, 50, 100 mg·L-1 were set. The results
    showed that under salt stress, the activities of active oxygen scavenging enzymes in peanut leaves were significantly
    increased after pretreatment with 10 mg·L-1 ALA, which could effectively remove active oxygen species in plants
    and thus alleviate the damage of reactive oxygen species to peanut. In addition, the chlorophyll content in peanut
    leaves increased, while malondialdehyde and proline content decreased. The expression of chlorophyll synthesis re⁃
    lated genes CHLH, HEMA1 and CHLD was up-regulated by fluorescence quantitative PCR, which was consistent
    with chlorophyll content. Under salt stress, exogenous ALA pretreatment could promote the expression of genes en⁃
    coding important synthetase in chlorophyll synthesis pathway, thus increasing chlorophyll content and photosynthet⁃
    ic capacity. It also could scavenge excessive active oxygen in cells, and activate Ca2+/CaM signal pathway, further to
    improve the antioxidant capacity of peanut plants and alleviate the damage of salt stress on peanut.

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    Peanut nitrogen nutrition inversion based on unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing
    LIANG Jin, LIU Shi -yuan, WANG Shuai-bin, HUANG Lu-ping, ZHANG Jia-lei, WU Qi-bao, GUO Feng, MENG Wei-wei, CHEN Ting-ting, QI Hai-xia, WANG Lei-di, ZHANG Zheng, WAN Shu-bo, ZHANG Lei
    2020, 42 (6):  1043.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019234
    Abstract ( 164 )   PDF (2324KB) ( 198 )  
    Nitrogen is one of the important factors affecting the growth and development of peanuts. At present,
    the traditional method of determining the nitrogen content of crops, Kjeldahl nitrogen determination method, is com⁃
    plicated and takes a long time. While unmanned aerial sensing has the characteristics of real-time, flexibility and
    low-cost. Therefore, in order to achieve rapid, non-destructive and accurate monitoring of peanut nitrogen content,
    the visible light camera carried by phantom 4 unmanned aerial vehicle was used to obtain visible light images of dif⁃
    ferent growth stages, and the neural network algorithm was used to establish the relationship model between digital
    image color information of leaves and the nitrogen content of leaves. The result showed that when the digital image
    index was used as the input vector of the network, the average absolute deviation of the constructed model was about
    1.5, and the combination of r, g, b(r=R/(R+G+B), g=G/(R+G+B), b=B/(R+G+B))and a, b, c (a=R+G, b=R+B, c=G+
    B) had the best fitting effect, and the average absolute deviation was about 0.2, which contained less error. Through
    comparison, both methods could accurately predict the value of nitrogen content in peanut leaves.

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    Variation of nutritional components in different developmental stages and different parts of seeds in peanut
    GUO Jian-bin, LI Wei-tao, DING Ying-bin, XU Si-liang, HUAI Dong-xin, LIU Nian, CHEN Wei-gang, HUANG Li, LUO Huai-yong, ZHOU Xiao-jing, LEI Yong, JIANG Hui-fang
    2020, 42 (6):  1051.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019289
    Abstract ( 226 )   PDF (1449KB) ( 243 )  
    In this study, the different oleic acid peanut varieties were used to analyze the accumulation of oil
    content, fatty acids ,and sucrose content during the seed development of peanut, the differences between apical and
    basal seeds, and different parts of seeds. The results showed that during the development of seeds, the oil content in⁃
    creased, the accumulation rate of oil content in high oil varieties was higher than that of low oil varieties, and the su⁃
    crose content decreased. The unsaturated fatty acids gradually increased, saturated fatty acids and very long-chain
    fatty acids gradually decreased, the linolenic acid gradually decreased to untraceable level, the decrease rate of pal⁃
    mitic acid, linoleic acid,linolenic acid and the increase rate of oleic acid in high oleic acid materials were higher
    than those in normal oleic acid materials. There was no significant difference in the fatty acids of the various materi⁃
    als between the apical and basal seeds, while the oil content of the basal seeds was higher than that of the apical
    seeds; The palmitic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, behenic acid and tetracosanoic acid content in embryos
    were significantly higher than those in cotyledons. The oil content, stearic acid andoleic acid content in embryos
    were lower than those in cotyledons. Linolenic acid were about 0.5% in embryo, but not detected in cotyledons. The
    results could guide the quality selection for the purpose of industrial oil and edible peanut variety.

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    Cloning and functional study of peanut plasma membrane H+-ATPase gene AhHA1
    TIAN Li-bin, KONG Wei-wei, HAN Yan, LIU Yi-yang, LI Guo-wei, CUI Feng, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (6):  1058.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020222
    Abstract ( 178 )   PDF (4180KB) ( 218 )  
     Plasma membrane H+-ATPase plays a crucial role in the transmembrane transport system. As the
    only proton pump which mediates ATP-dependent H+ extrusion to the extracellular space, thus generates electro⁃
    chemical proton gradients across the plant plasma membrane. It provides driving force for a large set of secondary
    transporters. In this study, a salt-induced plasma membrane H+-ATPase gene AhHA1 was identified. Homologous
    gene analysis, phylogenetic tree analysis, subcellular localization analysis and tissue specific analysis were carried
    brane H+-ATPase family, and provided candidate gene for improving the salt-tolerance ability of peanut.
    out. Blast analysis showed that the cultivar peanut genome encoded 24 AhHA1 homologs. The phylogenetic tree anal⁃
    ysis showed that the 24 AhHA1 homologs were divided into 5 subfamilies, and the highest homology was between
    peanut AhHA1 and Arabidopsis thaliana AHA4 and AHA11. Subcellular localization analysis showed that AhHA1 lo⁃
    cated on the plasma membrane (PM). Tissue specific expression pattern analysis showed that AhHA1 was highly ex⁃
    pressed in roots. To further understand the function of AhHA1 in salt resistance, AhHA1 gene was transformed into
    Arabidopsis thaliana, and its expression increased the salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis lines both in germina⁃
    tion stage and post-germination stage. The transgenic Arabidopsis lines also showed greater biomass than wild-type
    plants under salt stress condition. The results showed that AhHA1 could increase salt-tolerance ability of transgenic
    plants. This study increased our knowledge about the peanut salt-tolerance mechanism and peanut plasma mem⁃
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    Application of MITE molecular marker of AhFAD2B gene in breeding high oleate peanut
    XU Ping-li, TANG Gui-ying, LI Guo-wei, FU Chun, LU Cheng-kai, JIANG Yan-sheng, SONG Xiao-feng, SHAN Lei, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (6):  1069.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020195
    Abstract ( 182 )   PDF (1589KB) ( 299 )  
    High oleate peanut is more and more popular in food, oil processing, seed industry and so on be⁃
    cause of its high quality of oil components. However, the varieties with high oleate cultivated at recent years have
    narrow genetic diversity. It is necessary to develop novel molecular markers and breed high oleate varieties (lines)
    with excellent characteristics and wide adaptability, and to broad the genetic background resources of domestic pea⁃
    nut. In this study, with respect to the high oleic acid mutant with F458 background, resulting from the MITE inser⁃
    tion into peanut AhFAD2B gene, a MITE molecular marker was developed for assisted-selecting of F1 hybrids and
    the single plant in the offspring generation.This marker and detection method could distinguish three types of geno⁃
    types through 1 round of conventional PCR reaction and common agarose gel electrophoresis. It has the advantages
    of easy operation, low cost and good stability, and significantly improved the efficiency of target trait selection. In or⁃
    der to breed new germplasm of high oleate peanut, the hybrid combination was made with Yuhua 2 (YH2), a peanut
    cultivar with strong salt tolerance and edible oil as the female parent, and Weihua25(WH25), a high oleic acid pea⁃
    nut as the male parent. Finally, six (5 with semi-erect type and 1 with erect type) new high oleate lines were ob⁃
    tained through screening agronomic traits by pedigree method, and the genotype identification of F1 true hybrids and
    erance of the main seeds of these lines were investigated and analyzed.

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    Response patterns of malonyl-CoA:ACP malonyltransacylase (MCMT) gene family to different stresses in peanut
    PENG Zhen-ying, MENG Jing-jing, TANG Zhao-hui, WANG Jian-guo, ZHANG Jia-lei, GUO Feng, YANG Sha, ZHANG Zhi-meng, DING Hong, LI Xin-guo, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (6):  1078.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020193
    Abstract ( 233 )   PDF (5006KB) ( 217 )  
     Malonyl-CoA:ACP malonyltransacylase (MCMT) catalyzed the formation from malonyl-CoA to mal⁃
    onyl monoacyl ACP. It is not only a basic component of the synthesis of biological fatty acids, but also an important
    component of cell membrane, lipid storage and lipid signaling molecules. But so far there has been little study on
    this gene family. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major oil and cash crop in China, it is very important to delve in⁃
    to the mechanism of oil synthesis of peanut. In this paper, members of peanut MCMT gene family were systematical⁃
    ly analyzed. In cultivated peanut genome, 5 AhMCMTs genes were distributed on 5 different chromosomes. All of
    them contained more than one intron, with the number of 9-12. The length of the proteins varied from 277 to 472
    amino acids without transmembrane structure, and were located in chloroplast. Three AhMCMTs were alternatively
    spliced, among which arahy. FJ253B and arahy. R7F6LC each had 6 splicing variants, and arahy. T9C115 had 2
    splicing variants. The main types of alternative splicing are intron retention, exon jumping, and variable splicing at
    5’-UTR. Through the analysis of evolutionary tree, it was found that there were more MCMT genes in the genomes
    of cultivated peanut, Brassica rapa, Camellia sinensis, Lupinus angustifolius, which may be caused by gene family
    expansion. From peanut transcriptome data, results showed that their tissue-specific expression patterns were signif⁃
    icantly different. Arahy.FJ253B had the highest expression level and was expressed in almost all tissues and organs,
    which was speculated to be the main gene responsible to growth and development. Using peanut root and leaf tran⁃
    scriptome data from different stress treatments of peanut young seedlings, these 5 AhMCMTs response varied under
    different stresses, and had different expression patterns in roots and leaves. It indicated that 5 AhMCMTs had differ⁃
    ent function division to stress.

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    Structure and expression analysis of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase gene AhMMDH1 in peanut
    LI Peng-xiang, TANG Gui-ying, XU Ping-li, ZHU Jie-qiong, SHAN Lei, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (6):  1090.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020204
    Abstract ( 150 )   PDF (4274KB) ( 264 )  
    Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is a class of crucial enzyme in organisms, which involved in the regu⁃
    lation of some important biological processes such as plant growth, pollen and fruit development. However, the func⁃
    tion of malate dehydrogenase on after-ripening and germination of seeds has been hardly studied in plant. In this
    study, the cDNA of AhMMDH1 gene in peanut was cloned, which has an ORF of 1038 bp in size, and encodes the
    enzyme consisting of 345 amino acids. AhMMDH1 is a hydrophobic protein located on mitochondrion. Three-di⁃
    mensional structure analysis found that AhMMDH1 existed as a heterodimer of malate dehydrogenase (M chain) and
    glyoxylate precursor (G chain), and its M chain had a NAD+ binding site at 41-47. The qRT-PCR analysis found
    that AhMMDH1 gene was highly expressed in flowers, followed by dry seeds, and expressed at trace level in stems
    and leaves. The expression levels in seeds at different developmental stages from 10 d to 70 d (when freshly harvest⁃
    ed) after pegging were significantly lower than that in dry seed. The expression of AhMMDH1 increased significantly
    at imbibition for 16 hours, and reached the highest level when the radicle broke through the seed coat (at imbibition
    for 36 hours), and then the expression decreased significantly. It is speculated that AhMMDH1 gene might play an
    important role in after-ripening and germination. This study provided a foundation for further studying the biologi⁃
    cal functions of AhMMDH1.

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    Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of auxin response factor gene family in Arachis hypogaea L.
    TANG Gui-ying, PENG Zhen-ying, XU Ping-li, LI Peng-xiang, ZHU Jie-qiong, SHAN Lei, WAN Shu-bo
    2020, 42 (6):  1100.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020213
    Abstract ( 208 )   PDF (5939KB) ( 340 )  
     Auxin response factor (ARF) is an essential transcription factor (TF) in auxin signal transduction
    pathway. It plays key roles in many processes of plant growth and development, such as seeds gemination, organs
    formation, fruits maturation and embryogenesis. To understand the characteristics of AhARF gene family in peanut,
    62 AhARF genes were identified by bioinformatics methods. These genes were located on 18 chromosomes except
    Chr1 and Chr11, and the amount of genes distributed on the corresponding chromosome of sub-genome A and B is
    approximate. According to the phylogenic relationship of AtARF and AhARF genes, 62 AhARFs and partial AtARFs
    were classified into the other four clades except for ClassIII (Arabidopsis special branch). 33 segmentally duplicated
    gene pairs have been detected in AhARF gene family, and their ratios of Ka/Ks were all less than one, suggesting
    that the purifying selection might participate in expansion of ARF genes during peanut evolution. In addition, their
    physical and chemical properties, and the conserved domains of their proteins corresponding to the genes were pre⁃
    dicted and analyzed by bioinformatics in this study. Furthermore, based on the transcriptome data of 22 different tis⁃
    sues, the gene expression patterns of AhARF genes were displayed by heatmap. To explore the biological function of
    AhARF10, AhARF20,AhARF23 and AhARF46, their spatio-temporal expression profiles were analyzed using realtime
    PCR. The results of this study laid a foundation for further research on the function of ARF gene family in Ara⁃
    chis hypogaea L.

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