Animal husbandry is severely restricted by insufficient grass production in northern pastoral areas in China. To improve forage rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) for large-scale planting in Heilongjiang Province, yields of several rapeseed varieties were analyzed on nutrient accumulation and fertilization effect under different cultivation modes by multi-point field tests. Results showed that yield advantages of Jinyou 158, 15-P15 and 12-P38 were rel? atively high. High yield was obtained under conditions of 15 kg/hm2 weight of sowing seeds, 150 kg/hm2 diammoni? um phosphate and forage rapeseed planted early on April 22. The biomass was relatively high in flowering time and better silage would be made by mixing with corn straw. This research was expected to provide reference for multifunctional utilization of forage rapeseed in the precocious zone of northern China.
To accurately determine the content of trans-vitamin K1, extraction and determination of trans-vita?min K1 in vegetables was developed by using solid phase extraction high performance liquid chromatography-tan?dem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS). The target was extracted by n-hexane and purified by neutral alumi?na SPE column, and then separated on aC30 liquid chromatography column with methanol containing 0.025% formic acid and 2.5 mmol/L ammonium formate, and quantified by mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The cis- and trans-vitamin K1 were separated within 20 min. The validation results showed that a good relationship in linear ranges was obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.9985. Meanwhile, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of trans-vitamin K1 were 0.29 μg/kg and 0.95 μg/kg, respectively. The re? covery rates ranged from 87.5% to 117.6%, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day var? ied from 0.72% to 9.59%. Then, the proposed method was used to analyze bolt of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.）and three other vegetables（B. rapa spp. chinensis, B. oleracea var. Italic Planch, B. oleracea var. capitata）with high content of trans-vitamin K1. The content of trans-vitamin K1 in B. napus was 340.08 μg/100g and higher than those in Chinese cabbage (260.93 μg/100g), broccoli (167.65 μg/100g) and kohlrabi (151.11 μg/100g). The proposed method has high sensitivity and selectivity, and could be successfully employed to detect vitamin K1 in vegetables. The comparison between Brassica napus with other vegetables indicated that Brassica napus is a vegetable with high
vitamin K1 content.
For plant type breeding, a multi-inflorescence rapeseed mutant was investigated on phenotype and molecular markers. Results of F1, RF1 and segregation population indicated that one pair of dominant genes were dif?ferent between the 2 tested parental materials and no cytoplasmic effect was detected. Using Brassica napus 60K SNP array combined with molecular marker technology, a linkage map of the multi-inflorescence gene MI was con? structed. Two flanking markers L04-2 and L06-14 were mapped at 4.4 cM and 9.3 cM from MI gene respectively. Their physical distance was 2.5 Mb.
NBS-LRR (nucleotide binding site and leucine rich repeat) is a large complex gene family playing important role in plant disease resistance. For better understanding of NBS-LRR gene family in Brassica napus (L.), bioinformatics analyses were conducted in B. napus and other 4 species (B. oleracea, B. rapa and Arabidopsis thali? ana and Oryza sativa). As a whole, family identification, phylogenetic analysis, conserved motif, gene structure, chromosome localization and codon bias were analyzed. Results showed that 463 NBS-LRR members were identi? fied in B. napus. Referenced by A. thaliana, the members were divided into 2 groups, TIR-NBS-LRR and CCNBS- LRR, which were further divided into 4 and 8 subgroups respectively. All 19 chromosomes contained NBSLRR genes. Among them, 53 genes distributed on ChrC09. The NBS-LRR genes were mostly presented in clusters. Large-scale fragment replication of the genes was speculated. Results of codon bias analysis of the family in the 5 species showed that ENC (effective number of codon) of B. napus genes was 37.76 to 61.00, which was similar to B. oleracea in their preference. Codon bias features by preference of collinear homologous relationship showed more similarity between B. napus and B. oleracea.
Pod-related traits are important to peanut yield. To better understand genetic basis of peanut yield, QTL mapping for pod-related traits was conducted using 166 recombinant inbred lines. The lines were derived from parents Zhonghua 5 and ICGV 86699 which were significantly different in pod size and weight. Pod length and width in 5 environments and 100-pod weight in 6 environments were investigated for QTL mapping by population phenotyping and by genotyping. Nine pod-length QTLs, 10 pod-width QTLs and 12 100-pod-weight QTLs were de? tected respectively. Among them, 10 QTLs were repeatedly detected in multiple environments (including 6 stable QTLs detected in different locations). Among the 6 stable ones, 5 QTLs (qPLB06.2, qPLB06.3, qPWB06.2, qHP? WB04.3 and qHPWB06.3) had more than 10% PVE (phenotypic variation explained) in at least one environment. Five QTL clusters were identified. QTL clusters Ⅳ and Ⅴ, located on B06, were collocated with pod-related QTLs, which were stably detected in multiple environments. The collocations showed obvious genetic correlations among the pod traits.
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is the key enzyme that regulates the protein/oil content ra? tio in plant seed. The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene PaPEPC2 (accession number in GenBank is MK606450) was cloned from the leaves of Paeonia ostii by the method of RT-PCR and RACE. The full-length cD? NA of PaPEPC2 gene was 3201 bp with an open reading frame of 2898 bp encoding 965 amino acids. PaPEPC2 gene encoded protein which belongs to an acidic and hydrophilic protein with the molecular weight of 110.3 kD and the academic isoelectric point of 5.65. The results of secondary structure prediction showed that the main structural element for PaPEPC2 protein was α-helix and random coil. Furthermore, the sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the protein encoded by PaPEPC2 gene belongs to C3 type PEPC, which was most closely re? lated to C3 type PEPC protein of Vitis vinifera (XP_002280569.1). qRT-PCR showed that PaPEPC2 was expressed in all of tissues, and expression level of the PaPEPC2 gene was the highest in stem and ovary, and the lowest in bud. During the seed development, the expression level of PaPEPC2 gene showed increasing trend firstly, and then decreasd, with the highest expression level at 42 d. Moreover, the expression of PaPEPC2 gene in the seed was in? creased after harvest with the peak level after harvest at 7 d after storage under room temperature, and then de? creased gradually. These findings implied that PaPEPC2 gene played a periodic regulate role in synthesis of oil and protein during seed development and maturation in Paeonia ostii.
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens in soybean production world? wide. Planting resistant cultivars is an environment friendly method to control SCN damage. Wild soybean, the wild relative of domestic soybean, is an invaluable gene pool to broaden the genetic background of soybean cultivars due to its higher genetic diversity and superior stress resistance. To date, lots of studies identified SCN resistance QTL using domestic soybeans, while only a few reports explored QTLs from wild soybeans. In this paper, SCN resistance QTL mapping was performed using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) with F2 and F2:3 popu? lations derived from a cross between Suinong 14 and ZYD03685. A high-density genetic linkage map comprising 7783 SLAF markers was constructed, with the total length of 2664.2 cM. Two QTLs of qSCN-1 and qSCN-2 were detected on Chromosome 18 (Chr18) 4.25-4.31 Mb, and Chr18 13.50-13.81 Mb, explaining 22.96% and 10.96% of resistance variation (female index) respectively. None of reported SCNresistance QTLs located at qSCN-2, indicat? ing that qSCN-2 was a novel QTL. In the region of qSCN-1 and qSCN-2, there were 6 and 14 genes included re? spectively. The QTLs and genes included in the QTL regions could not only shed light on the SCN resistance mecha? nisms, but also facilitate cultivar development employing wild soybean germplasm.
To understand the effect of brassinolide on quality and dim light reaction of Brassica napus L., 2 ir? radiated mutants (XY881 and XY883) of B. napus cv Xiangyou 15 were investigated to study the effects of epibrassi? nolide (2,4-BL) on seed germination, vegetative growth, oil production and related components by pot experiment and field trials from 2014 to 2016. Results showed that 2,4-BL had the same effects on both lines. 2,4-BL had dose effect on seed germination. Low concentration promoted seed germination. Low 2,4-BL promoted elongation of main stem, increased photosynthetic efficiency, and promoted fruiting without affecting seed size and seed oil. Using 2,4- BL after flowering delayed seeds ripen and led to lower oil content. Regulation of 2,4-BL decreased in the case of long-term continuous use. Gene expression data showed that 2,4-BL induced (BnaPIF4, BnaBZR1 and BnaBES) gene expression of the key transcription factors in brassinosteroid signalling pathway and the light signalling path? way. It suggested that 2,4-BL activated downstream regulatory gene network to promote vegetative growth and si? lique growth by promoting photosynthesis. Thus 2,4-BL could be used as growth regulator in rapeseed production, but be applied at low concentration or long intervals, with the best result before the full flowering stage.
To better understand the mechanism of waterlogging on direct-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), changes of rapeseed cultivar Fengyou 737 during radicle period were investigated after waterlogging by 4 regulators pretreatments. The 4 regulators were AOA [O-(carboxymethyl) hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride, for soaking], GA3 (gibberellic acid, for soaking), PP333 (paclobutrazol, for soaking), and 1-MCP (1-methyl-cyclopropene, for fumigat? ing imbibed seeds). Results showed that, waterlogging at the radicle growth significantly reduced the seedling emer? gence rate and emergence index, and inhibited the seedling growth. The pretreatments with AOA, 1-MCP and GA3 effectively relieved the waterlogging stress on rapeseed emergence, among them the pretreatment of AOA
showed relatively higher promotion to seedling growth. The pretreatment of PP333 reduced the waterlogging stress on rapeseed emergence. After waterlogging for 24 hours, the cell autophagic activity increased in germs of seeds pre? treated with AOA, which could be helpful to improved stress adaptation. The pretreatments of 1-MCP, AOA and GA3 reduced ethylene release rate in seeds under non-waterlogging condition but decreased the falling range of eth?
ylene release after waterlogging for 24 hours. It indicated that lowering endogenous ethylene production prior to wa? terlogging but maintaining ethylene production to certain degree might be conducive to waterlogging tolerance of rapeseed at radicle growth period.
Bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is responsible for great losses to sesame in south? ern China. To develop a precise chemical approach to control the disease, 5 chemicals were tested at different dates and applications. Results showed that: the disease appeared mostly in bud stage and peaked at initial flowering stage as evidenced by dramatic growth rate of disease index. When seedlings were sprayed with the bactericides at initial flowering and the following 10 days, the control effects were 71.11-74.25% by 20% thiodiazole copper (300 g ai/hm2) which led to 33.95-36.73% yield increase of sesame. During the tests in 2017-2018, control effects of 20% thiodiazole copper (300 g ai/hm2), 20% Zn thiazole (300 g ai/hm2) and 3% zhongshengmycin (22.5 g ai/hm2) were among 70.02% to 75.23%, with sesame yield increase of 32.14-35.63%. Both control effects and yield in? crease showed no significant difference among the 3 bactericides.
To explore the correlation between visible infection rate of peanut early leaf spot, airborne conidia density of Cercospora arachidicola Hori and environmental factors by using 5 varieties as material, epidemic dynam? ics of peanut early leaf spot was investigated, airborne conidia of C. arachidicola and meteorological factors were monitored in field. Combined with meteorological data, the relationship among variables was analyzed. The seasonal epidemic curve of peanut early leaf spot showed a typical S-shape. Exponential phase was from peanut seedling to early July, logistic phase was from early July to mid-September, and decline phase was from mid-September to the end of peanut growth period. The apparent infection rate of the disease showed a normal distribution in the whole growing season, and its trend could reflect the change of disease epidemic rate in different epidemic phases. There was a significant positive correlation between the airborne conidia density and the detectable infection rate of the tested peanut varieties, which indicated that the disease index could be accurately analyzed by the airborne conidia density. Both infection rate and airborne conidia had no significant correlation with meteorological factors of the day. Only airborne conidia density had significant negative correlation with rainfall of the day, and the correlation coeffi? cient was -0.454, which indicated that strong rainfall had a significant settling effect on airborne conidia dispersion. The infection rate and airborne conidia density of peanut early leaf spot were both significantly positively correlated with mean temperature, mean relative humidity, mean leaf wetness and accumulated rainfall of previous 7 days re? spectively. The above results showed that the meteorological factors with high correlation could be used as the key input variables in the prediction model to providescientific management and control of peanut early leaf spot.
Prinsepia utilis Royle is a perennial rare woody oil plant, with high nutritional value and extensive pharmacological effect, which is unique national wild resources in China. Based on fatty acid composition analysis, a method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS/ MS) was established and applied to analyze lipids types, composition and relative content in P. utilis Royle oil. Re? sults showed that P. utilis Royle oil contained 39.17% oleic acid, 36.16% linoleic acid and 16.38% palmitic. The ra? tio of saturated fatty acid:monounsaturated fatty acid:polyunsaturated fatty acid was close to 0.6:1:1. Totally 169 lip? ids speices were found, including 76 phospholipids, 84 glycerides and 9 glycolipids. Among them, phosphatidylino? sitols and triacylglycerols were dominant phospholipids and glycerides respectively. Meanwhile, glycolipids mainly contained digalactosyldiacylglycerols. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-tandem mass spec? trometry showed its advantages of high sensitivity, good accuracy and high throughput on plant lipid detection.
Halogeton glomeratus is an extreme halophyte widely distributed in arid regions of Northwestern China. The purpose of this study was to analyze the seed nutrition of H. glomeratus to evaluate its edible oil and fod? der. The results showed that seed of H. glomeratus could be used as a good source of protein forage because its high crude protein content of 50.20% with abundant amino acids and mineral elements. Furthermore, the oil content of seed was 19.37%, and its unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 91.80%, especially was rich in linoleic acid and lino? lenic acid, up to 50.6% and 18.0% respectively. The seed of H. glomeratus also could be used as health edible oil resource. Use of salinization land to grow H. glomeratus, as a new oil and forage crop, exploiting its seed value as high quality edible oil and protein forage, have great economic and ecological benefits.
Late leaf spot (LLS) is one of the most harmful and widely distributed peanut fungal diseases in the world. In the past 30 years, the harm of peanut in major peanut producing areas in the world has been aggravated, which has become an important factor restricting the quality, yield and economic benefits of peanut. In this paper, we focused on the research status of LLS resistance varieties and strains, resistance inheritance, candidate resis? tance genes, QTLs, molecular markers and gene transformation, and prospect the research direction of peanut LLS resistance breeding in the future in order to provide reference for peanut breeders.
There is abundant genetic variation in peanut oleic acid content. Compared with common oleic acid peanuts, high oleic acid peanuts are favored by consumers due to their high monounsaturated fatty acids. Increasing the content of oleic acid and decreasing the content of linoleic acid (increasing O/L value) played the key role in peanut quality improvement and had the major interest of domestic and foreign research. It is very important to im? prove people′s living standard and health through breeding the improved composition of fatty acid. Based on the characteristics of FAD2 genes of the fatty acid dehydrogenase, the research progress of molecular markers of pea? nuts with high oleic acid, the detection technology of oleic acid content and the breeding methods of peanuts with high oleic acid were reviewed. Subsequently, the new varieties of high-oleic acid peanuts developed in China and the United States at the present situation and prospect of high-oleic acid peanut breeding were summarized.
Rapeseed contains many antioxidant components, which play important roles in protecting the body against oxidative damage. In this review, we discussed antioxidant activities and evaluation methods of these compo? nents in rapeseed. The antioxidant components derived from rapeseed included peptides, polyphenol, polysaccha? ride and tocopherol (vitamin E), etc. Three methods to produce the peptides were also reviewed, they were hydrolyza? tion by digestive or non-digestive enzyme, and fermented by microorganism. The activity evaluation methods con? tained chemical in vitro assays, cell-based antioxidant experiment and animal-based antioxidant experiment. Prob? lems and potential issues were also discussed for future research.