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    28 April 2021, Volume 43 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
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    Variation trend of rapeseed production in China from 2008 to 2019
    LENG Bo-feng, LI Xian-rong, CHEN Xue-ting, TANG Jing, CHEN Zhuo-er, ZHANG Qing, WANG Tao, TIAN Yu, WEI Meng-sheng, YAN Hua, LIU Cheng, FENG Zhong-chao
    2021, 43 (2):  171.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019320
    Abstract ( 347 )   PDF (26142KB) ( 799 )  
    To better understand the variation on rapeseed traits in recent 12 years in China, and to provide sug⁃
    gestions for high yield cultivation of rapeseed cultivars, yield data of 7916 samples from 18 provinces with fixed ob⁃
    servation points of China Agriculture Research System (rapeseed) from 2008 to 2019 was collected. Descriptive sta⁃
    tistical method was used to report the variation trend of planting pattern, planting density, plant height, branch, fruit⁃
    ing, yield per unit area and disease of rapeseed in China over the past 12 years. The results showed that, during the
    past 12 years, direct seeding percentage increased by 30.74 points, planting density increased by 56.66%, effective
    branches decreased by 16.05%, first effective branch height increased by 50.20%, plant height increased by 8.82%,
    effective pod per plant decreased by 22.14%, seeds per pod increased by 3.02%, 1000-seed weight decreased by
    0.62%, average yield per plant decreased by 22.38%, theoretical yield increased by 15.00%, actual yield increased
    by 14.03%, cold injury index decreased by 13.57 points, sclerotinia stem rot desease index decreased by 0.83
    points, other pests and diseases index increased by 2.34 points. It was suggested that in the future, high-yieldingrape cultivars should be planted with more density tolerance, more branches, more effective pods per plant and more
    suitable for environments. Meanwhile, according to the actual situation of each region, the cultivation method of
    rapeseed should be guided especially on planting density.

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    Preliminary study on function of CO homologs in Brassica napus
    WU Xian-ping, WANG Zhi-xin, ZHUO Chen-jian, WEN Jing, YI Bin, MA Chao-zhi, SHEN Jin-xiong, FU Ting-dong, TU Jin-xing
    2021, 43 (2):  186.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019266
    Abstract ( 243 )   PDF (6811KB) ( 363 )  
    CONSTANS (CO) gene is an important transcriptional regulator in photoperiodic flowering pathway.
    To explore the function of CO homologous gene of Brassica napus, CDS sequence of Arabidopsis CO was used as ref⁃
    erence, 2 homologs (BnaC09g41990D, BnaA10g18430D) were isolated from cDNA of Brassica napus variety Westar
    and named BnaC09CO and BnaA10CO respectively. The overexpression vectors were constructed to transform into
    Arabidopsis thaliana to observe phenotype and quantitative analysis. Results showed that flowering time of overex⁃
    pression lines was 3-5 days earlier than that of wild type, and the expression of BnaC09CO, BnaA10CO, FT and
    SOC1 were significantly higher than those of wild type. These indicated that BnaC09CO and BnaA10CO played sim⁃
    ilar roles to CO, which could upregulate the expression of FT and SOC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana to promote flowering
    under long-day condition.
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    Evaluation on potential of reducing nitrogen and increasing efficiency for Brassica napus germplasm
    ZHANG Hao, LI Shuang, YE Xiang-sheng, ZHANG Li-mei, XU Fang-sen, SHI Lei, DING Guang-da
    2021, 43 (2):  195.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019282
    Abstract ( 223 )   PDF (4043KB) ( 250 )  
    To discover the potential of reducing fertilizer and increasing efficiency from different rapeseed vari⁃
    eties, response characteristics of different genotypes of Brassica napus (L.) to nitrogen (N) fertilizer and their poten⁃
    tial of N-saving and high efficiency were analyzed by 2 years’field trials in 3 locations. Results showed that materi⁃
    als could be devided into 4 types based on average yield. The 4 types were named (1) efficiency (efficiency under
    low nitrogen condition)-inefficiency (efficiency under high nitrogen condition), (2) efficiency-efficiency, (3) ineffi⁃
    ciency-inefficiency, (4) inefficiency-efficiency. Genotypes with efficiency-efficiency and inefficiency-efficiency
    had 16.96-36.50% of N-saving potential and 21.57-49.59% of yield-increasing potential under high N condition,
    while genotypes of efficiency-inefficiency had 12.23% of N-saving potential and 10.88% of yield-increasing poten⁃
    tial under low N. In addition, Zhongshuang 9 and SV-pyriter were identified with efficiency-inefficiency. D4-15,
    Zhongshuang 11, DH16 and Huashuang 3 were recognized as genotypes with efficiency-efficiency. D2-1, Huash⁃
    uang 5, Jia99H99-15HR, Xiangnongyou 3 and DH17 were identified as inefficiency-inefficiency genotypes. 84001
    had high efficiency under high N level. These results suggested that oilseed rape had high potential of reducing N re⁃
    quirement and increasing yield, and the potential varies among varieties. Hence, identification of genotypes with ef⁃
    ficiency-efficiency and/or inefficiency-efficiency might be the target of rapeseed breeding in future.
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    Establishment of an in vitro embryonic growth system and its application in rapeseed oil synthesis and accumulation study
    DENG Lin-bin, FAN Shi-hang, SUN Xing-chao, HUA Wei, LIU Jing
    2021, 43 (2):  203.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019192
    Abstract ( 227 )   PDF (25955KB) ( 264 )  
    To facilitate the study on embryo developrnent and fatty acid accumulation, tissue culture of rape
    seeds were carried out by using Brassica napus spring type 862. Study of influence factors on 862 oil synthesis and
    accumulation showed that B5 basal medium with 8% sucrose and 0.6% agar was optimal. Extracts from pericarp
    and leaf of different varieties in the medium could improve oil accumulation efficiency in embryo. While pericarp
    extract had higher accumulation efficiency than that from leaf. Extracts of pericarp and leaf from the high oil variet⁃
    ies possessed much higher oil accumulation efficiency.

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    Gene isolation and characterization of 5 fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase in Brassica napus
    XIONG Teng, CHEN Zhang-bin, ZHANG Zhen-qian, CHEN Hao, YUAN Yong, XIONG Xing-hua, WU Xian-meng, GUAN Chun-yun, XIAO Gang
    2021, 43 (2):  212.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019275
    Abstract ( 214 )   PDF (1653KB) ( 246 )  
    To better understand FAT gene function which encodes fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase, 5 FAT genes
    were cloned from Brassica napus cultivars with high oil content (HO) and low oil content (LO). They were named as
    BnaA.FATA.a, BnaC.FATA.b, BnaA.FATA.c, BnaC.FATB.a and BnaA.FATB.b. No sequence difference was found in
    these 5 genes between HO and LO. RT-qPCR analyses showed that expression levels of them in HO seeds were sig⁃
    nificantly higher than those in LO seeds. Yeast heterologous expression of them showed that oil content of all yeast
    transformants were significantly increased, and their fatty acid composition were modified. After transformed into
    Arabidopsis, seeds oil of all T1 transgenic lines were significantly increased. The saturated fatty acids contents in 3
    lines (BnaA.FATA.a, BnaC.FATA.b and BnaA.FATA.c transgenic lines) were significantly decreased, with unsaturat⁃
    ed fatty acids contents significantly increased. Conversely, in BnaC.FATB.a and BnaA.FATB.b transgenic lines, sat⁃
    urated fatty acids contents were significantly increased, and unsaturated fatty acids content was significantly de⁃
    creased. The above results indicated that expression of these 5 FAT genes could increase oil content, and modify fat⁃
    ty acid composition in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.
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    Seed production techniques of hybrid sesame Ⅰ: relationship between parental row ratio and seed yield
    SUN Jian, YAN Ting-xian, YAN Xiao-wen, LIANG Jun-chao, RAO Yue-liang, ZHOU Hong-ying, LE Mei-wang
    2021, 43 (2):  219.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019286
    Abstract ( 235 )   PDF (11454KB) ( 197 )  
    To improve hybrid sesame seed production, parental ratio was optimized by investigation of relation⁃
    ship between parental rows and yield. Sesame recessive genic male-sterile line 1615A was used as material. Re⁃
    sults showed that, in 1:10, 2:10, 3:10, 4:10 and 5:10 experiments, pollination was inadequate, thus the sterility plant
    of female parent (sterile lines) showed unusual plant growth patterns including abnormal mature plants (AMP) and
    plants with invalid branches at stem base (PIB). The percentages of AMP and PIB were increased with the distance
    from male parent (DFM), and were extremely significant positive correlated with DFM, but lightly correlated with
    row numbers of male parent (RNM). The percentages of both AMP and PIB were relatively low in sterile lines in the
    1-3 or 1-4 rows adjacent to male parent. The RNM and DFM had the most significant influence on seeds per cap⁃
    sule (SPC) and yield per plant (YPP), and the RNM was very significant positively correlated with YPP, and DFM
    were negatively correlated with SPC and YPP. The SPC and YPP were decreased with the increase of DFM, and
    SPC and YPP were relatively higher in female plants located at 1-3 or 1-4 rows adjacent to male parent. It could be
    concluded that sesame male paternal pollen was efficiently pollinated on adjacent 3-4 rows of female parent plants.
    In the 6 experimental combinations with the parental row ratio of 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6 and 1:7, SPC and YPP of thefemale plants showed a gradually decrease trend, and theoretical yield first increased and then decreased after the
    highest at 1:5. In the 7 experimental combinations of 2:4, 2:5, 2:6, 2:7, 2:8, 2:9 and 2:10, SPC and YPP of the fe⁃
    male plants also showed a gradually decrease trend, and the theoretical yield increased and decreased after the max⁃
    imum at 2:6. According to the comprehensive test, when the parental row ratio were 1:4 or 1:5 and 2:6 or 2:7, the
    theoretical yield would be 425.54 kg/hm2, 429.30 kg/hm2, 473.61 kg/hm2 and 469.23 kg/hm2 respectively.


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    Single-molecule real-time (SMRT)-based full-length transcriptome analysis of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.)
    ZOU Zhi, ZHAO Yong-guo, ZHANG Li, KONG Hua, GUO Yun-ling, GUO An-ping
    2021, 43 (2):  229.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020230
    Abstract ( 213 )   PDF (6073KB) ( 383 )  
     As a novel type of oil crop in China, tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) is planted for its wide adapta⁃
    tion, high yield and high oil content in tuber. To investigate genetic basis and to facilitate breeding and molecular bi⁃
    ology research, a high quality full-length transcriptome was constructed based on single-molecule real-time
    (SMRT) sequencing. The library was derived from mixed sample of tuber, stolon, root, shoot apex, blade, sheath,
    flower, and floral axis. After filtering, a total of 23.20 Gb high quality data was obtained, and 319 568 circular con⁃
    sensus sequences with an average of 2101 bp and full passes of 43 were extracted. Finally, 57 849 high quality tran⁃
    scripts, composing 121.79 Mb, were obtained after clustering, polishing and redundancy removing. The complete⁃
    ness of this transcriptome library was established to be 79.58%. And approximately 76.20% of the total transcripts
    are full-length. The BLAST search against 7 main databases including NR, Swissprot, GO, KOG, eggNOG, Pfam,
    and KEGG resulted in annotation of 52 424 transcripts, amounting for about 90.62% of the total transcripts. Addi⁃
    tionally, the analyses also resulted in annotation of 3759 lncRNA, 43 060 SSR, and 2300 transcription factor-encod⁃
    ing sequences. These results improved knowledges on genetic information of tigernut, and provided valuable re⁃
    source for futher expression profiling and utilization of functional genes.

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    Effects of different carbohydrate sources on quality of forage rape silage
    ZHAO Na, YANG Xue-hai, WEI Jin-tao, GUO Wan-zheng, CHEN Fang, XU Sheng-wu, ZHOU Guang-sheng, FU Ting-dong
    2021, 43 (2):  236.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019227
    Abstract ( 212 )   PDF (394KB) ( 241 )  
    For multi-functional usage of rapeseed in feedstuff, rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cv Huayouza 62
    was used to study the high-moisture forage rapeseed. Test was divided into 5 groups, in which 20% of each carbohy⁃
    drate raw material (bran, corn flour, rice bran, corn starch) was mixed with high-moisture feed rapeseed silage. Af⁃
    ter 45 days of silage, sensory evaluation was carried out, followed by nutrient composition, pH and organic acid con⁃
    tent determination. Results showed that the addition of various carbohydrate raw materials significantly reduced wa⁃
    ter content of rape to less than 70%. After the addition of the above-mentioned carbohydrate silage, silage sensory
    quality was improved, lactic acid content was significantly increased and pH was decreased. Among them, corn
    meal group silage had the highest sensory score, the highest lactic acid content, and the lowest ammonia nitrogen
    content. Therefore, the mixed corn meal and rapeseed silage was the best feedstuff to be recommend.

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    Effects of rapeseed and wheat straw residue leachates on germination and growth of rice seedlings
    ZHU Yun, YAN Jin-yao, CONG Ri-huan, LU Jian-wei
    2021, 43 (2):  241.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019232
    Abstract ( 235 )   PDF (30790KB) ( 197 )  
    To reveal the reason of rice yield promotion by rapeseed straw under multi-crop planting systems,
    rapeseed-rice and wheat-rice rotation systems were investigated by simulative straw residue leachates effect on rice
    growth. The leachates from straw in soil were used as materials under a randomized block design with 3 factors,
    which included straw types, additive liquid types and leachate concentration. Straw type contains rapeseed and
    wheat. Additive liquid types are distilled water and nutrient solution. Straw concentration includes control(0 g/L),
    low(1 g/L), medium(5 g/L)and high(20 g/L), corresponding to the amount of straw incorporation of 0 kg/hm2, 1500
    kg/hm2, 7500 kg/hm2 and 30 000 kg/hm2. Results showed that straw type, additive liquid type and concentration had
    no significant impact on seed germination, but had significant influence on growth of rice seedlings. Dry weight of
    rice seedlings for rapeseed straw residue leachate was significantly 10.7-44.4% higher than that of wheat straw in
    distilled water. Dry weight of rice seedlings with rapeseed straw residue leachate was 2.2-12.1% higher than that of
    wheat straw in nutrient solution at 1 and 5 g/L straw. Compared with distilled water, dry weight of rice seedlings in⁃
    creased by 53.7-130.0% treated by nutrient solution. The dry weight and plant height of rice seedlings reached the



    maximum at 5 g/L among different straw concentrations. Nutrient accumulation of rice seedlings showed a similar
    trend with dry weight. The difference between nitrogen accumulation was the most significant with distilled water as
    additive liquid. Only on the 12th day after sowing, the nitrogen and potassium accumulation of rice seedlings at 5 g/
    L straw concentration showed significant differences in nutrient solution. Compared with distilled water, N, P, K ac⁃
    cumulation of rice seedlings treated with nutrient solution increased by 2.0-3.0 times, 1.0-2.0 times and 1.4-1.7
    times. The accumulation of nitrogen and potassium in rice seedlings was the highest at 5 g/L straw concentration,
    with no difference in phosphorus. Compared with nutrient solution, the difference in sensitivity index between rape⁃
    seed and wheat straw residue leachate was greater than those with distilled water as additive liquid. In conclusion,
    both rapeseed and wheat straw residue leachates could promote rice growth. Comparing with wheat straw, rapeseed
    straw residue leachate promoted rice growth better.

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    Comprehensive analysis on yield and quality parameters of direct-seeding rapeseed in different environments
    LI Xin-hao, LI Jun, LIU Li-xin, WANG Fang, HAO Rui, WANG Tian-yao, ZHANG Chun-lei, MA Ni
    2021, 43 (2):  251.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019270
    Abstract ( 269 )   PDF (2131KB) ( 348 )  
     For stable and high yield of rapeseed in the Yangzi River area, yiled and quality of direct-seeding
    rapeseed were evaluated on the effects of density, nitrogen application and varieties in 3 different environments.
    Field experiments were conducted with 2 varieties (Brassica napus cv Zhongshuang 11 and Zhongyouza 12) under 2
    nitrogen applications (90 and 180 kg/hm2) and 3 planting densities (1.3×105, 2.6×105, 5.2×105 plants per hectare) in
    3 sites (Yichun, Jingzhou and Lu′an). Results showed that rapeseed yield had significant increase with density. The
    yield of high density (5.2×105 plants per hectare) was 25.6% higher than that of low density, and 10.8% higher than
    that of medium density. Meanwhile, high density significantly increased branch numbers per unit area, and showed
    significant positive correlation with silique number from both main and branch recemes. Compared with N2(180 kg/
    hm2), yield of N1 (90 kg/hm2) was reduced by 25.9%,36.9% and 28.9% in 3 sites, respectively. The high density
    had no significant effect on seed quality, while decrease of nitrogen fertilizer increased oil content and glucosinolate

    at Jingzhou, but reduced protein at Jingzhou and Lu′an. Comprehensive score showed extremely differences among

    the environments and cultivation conditions. Order of the investigated traits were followed by their comprehensive
    scores from high to low: aboveground dry biomass, effective siliques per unit area, branches, 1000-seeds weight, ef⁃
    fective length of main raceme, seeds per silique, and oil content.

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    Effect of different preceding cover crops on yield and nutrient accumulation of winter oilseed rape
    YUAN Jin-chuan, WANG Wei-yan, ZHAO De-qiang, HOU Yu-ting, WU Wei, LIU Yang, WEN Xiao-xia
    2021, 43 (2):  260.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019311
    Abstract ( 205 )   PDF (1949KB) ( 275 )  
    To explore the effect of preceding cover crops on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Guan⁃
    zhong Plain in China, a 2-year completely randomized experiment was carried out to study the impact of preceding
    cover crops. Soil nutrient content, aboveground dry matter accumulation and allocation, nitrogen and phosphorus ac⁃
    cumulation, seed yield and its components of winter oilseed rape were investigated. The test consisted of 4 treat⁃
    ments: SW (soybean as preceding cover crop), HW (hairy vetch as preceding cover crop), MW (maize as preceding
    cover crop), FW (fallow without preceding cover crop, control). Results showed that the SW and HW treatments sig⁃
    nificantly improved soil alkali hydrolyzed nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and available phosphorous
    content compared to FW. Among the leguminous treatments, SW treatment has the most obvious effect of increasing
    soil nutrient content. The soil nutrients of MW were lower than those of FW treatment. In contrast to FW, SW and
    HW significantly improved annual dry matter accumulation by 26.05%, 13.12%, nitrogen accumulation by 30.86%,
    14.86% and phosphorus accumulation by 37.03%, 20.35% respectively, while MW was 2.74%, 12.76% and 3.48%
    lower respectively. Compared to FW, SW and HW treatments significantly increased annual seed yield by 29.48%
    and 17.77% respectively. MW treatment had no significant effect on seed yield. Correlation analysis showed that the
    significant effect of improving seed yield of SW and HW treatments was due to the increase of soil nutrient, aboveg⁃
    round dry matter accumulation, nitrogen accumulation, phosphorus accumulation as well as pods per plant. The
    above results suggested that soybean and hairy vetch might be the reasonable choice of preceding crop for winter oil⁃
    seed rape. Meanwhile, soybean could be recommended as the best feasible preceding crop to optimize seed yield, ni⁃
    trogen and phosphorus accumulation for winter oilseed rape in Guanzhong Plain in China.
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    Effects of density on yield and leaf area index of autumn sesame in red soil dryland under low nitrogen
    WANG Rui-qing, LYU Feng-juan, LIN Hong-xin, ZHANG Zhi-hua, YUAN Zhan-qi, WEI Lin-gen, XIAO Yun-ping
    2021, 43 (2):  271.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019288
    Abstract ( 143 )   PDF (405KB) ( 222 )  
    In order to explore the suitable planting density for high-yield cultivation of autumn sesame in red
    soil dryland under low nitrogen, experiments were conducted in Jinxian and Nanchang from 2016 to 2017 in
    Jiangxi Province,China. 6 planting densities(D1:15.0; D2:22.5; D3:30.0; D4:37.5; D5:45.0; D6:52.5 plants per square
    meter)were set on yield and leaf area index of autumn sesame. Results indicated that number of plant capsules
    from D1 and D2 in Nanchang was significantly increased by 18.32% and 20.27% respectively as compared to D4 in
    2017. The numbers of plant capsules of other treatments were significantly increased by 15.92% to 25.04% respec⁃
    tively as compared to D3. Sesame yield increased first and then waved with the increasing density. At D6 in 2016 in
    Jinxian, the yield was significantly 40.78% higher than that of D1. In 2017, the yield of D2 and D6 at Jinxian were
    18.00% and 16.74% respectively, which were significantly higher than that of D3. The yields of D2, D5 and D6 at
    Nanchang site were 32.86% to 44.15% higher than that of D3 in 2017. The average yields of D2, D5 and D6 treat⁃
    ments were significantly increased by 20.66%-26.82% as compared to D1. Sesame growth waved with the increasing
    density, and leaf area index increased with the density. Thus the suitable density of autumn sesame should be con⁃
    trolled at 22.5 plants or 45.0-52.5 plants per square meter to construct a reasonable canopy and achieve high yield.
    员,E-mail:xyp-801@163.com
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    Effect of seeding density and nitrogen rates on yield and quality of oilseed flax under irrigation
    XIE Ya-ping, LYU Zhong-cheng, WANG Li-min, ZHANG Jian-ping, SONG Man-gang, SHI Xue-fen, ZHAO Wei, ZHAO Li, LI Wen-juan, QI Yan-ni, DANG Zhao, YANG Ting, WANG Bin, LEI Kang-ning, YAN Bin, CUI Zheng-jun
    2021, 43 (2):  277.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019316
    Abstract ( 169 )   PDF (714KB) ( 259 )  
    To investigate the effect of seeding density and nitrogen rates on flaxseed lignan, fatty acids and
    yields, field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 at irrigated area in China. Oil flax cultivar Neiya 9 was
    planted with 3 seeding rates(3.0×106, 6.0×106 and 9.0×106)and 4 nitrogen rates(0, 16, 32, 48 kg·hm-2)during
    the budding stage with irrigation. Results indicated that yield increased significantly with the nitrogen rate under
    the same seeding rate. It also increased with the seeding rate under the same nitrogen rate. Oleic acid decreased and
    linoleic acid increased with the nitrogen rate, while linolenic acid increased with the seeding rate. Seeding rate and
    nitrogen rate had significant influence on oleic acid. Variance analysis results showed that interaction of seeding
    density and nitrogen rate had significant effect on both lignan content and oleic acid content. By correlation analy⁃
    sis, significant positive correlation was observed between lignan and linoleic, and also between lignan and linolenic
    contents. To improve yields and efficiencies of linseed oil, seeding rate as 6.0×106 per hectar and 16 kg·hm-2 nitro⁃
    gen rate were recommended under the planting areas with similar irrigated conditions.

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    Observation on the infection process of Leptosphaeria biglobosa in the leaves and stems of rapeseed
    SHI Zhi-dan, SONG Pei-ling, HAO Li-fen, HUANGFU Hai-yan, YAN Meng-jiao, YANG Yong-qing, WU jing, ZHAO Li-li, LI Zi-qin
    2021, 43 (2):  286.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019295
    Abstract ( 159 )   PDF (62170KB) ( 265 )  
    In order to clarify the infection and expansion process of Leptosphaeria biglobosa in rapeseed (Brassi⁃
    ca npaus), pathogen infection process was observed in tissue after leaves inoculation by green fluorescent protein
    (GFP) labeled L. biglobosa. Results showed that conidia germination was observed after 7 h inoculation. After 17 h,
    germ tube came into stomata, and after 24 h, all conidium germinated. After 36 h, the germ tube formed into hyphae.
    After 120 h, hyphae spread in leaf epidermal intercellular, and invaded mesophyll cells, then the hyphae continued
    to infect and extent into leaf, which formed large area disease spot. After 13 d, the hyphae invaded cortical meri⁃
    stem, and after 15 d, it spread to intercellular in cortex, and infected stem epidermis. After 21 d, hyphae spread to
    vascular tissues. After 23 d, hyphae spread to stem phloem, and after 25 d, hyphae invaded stem catheter, and ex⁃
    panded to the xylem. By tracking L. biglobosa infection process in leaves and stems, it provided a reference basis for
    research of the interaction between rapeseed and L. biglobosa, and also a reference to pathogenesis mechanism and
    control of L. biglobosa.

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    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Leptosphaeria biglobosa
    SONG Pei-ling, HUANGFU Hai-yan, SHI Zhi-dan, YAN Meng-jiao, HAO Li-fen, HUANGFU Jiu-ru, JIA Xiao-qing, GUO Chen, YANG Yong-qing, LI Zi-qin
    2021, 43 (2):  293.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019294
    Abstract ( 150 )   PDF (15166KB) ( 190 )  
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    Sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to tebuconazole and its resistance induction in vitro
    YANG Yong-qing, SONG Pei-ling, YAN Meng-jiao, HAO Li-fang, LIAN Hai-fei, LI Xiu-ping, SHA Na, SHI Zhi-dan, ZHAO Li-li, LI Zi-qin
    2021, 43 (2):  300.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019293
    Abstract ( 258 )   PDF (861KB) ( 203 )  
    To investigate sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to tebuconazole, 68 isolates of S. sclerotiorum
    collected from Anhui, Hunan, Hubei, and Sichuan provinces of China in 2016 and 2018 were studied and resistant
    mutants were induced with ultraviolet. Moreover, mycelium growth rate, sclerotia formation and sequences of the tar⁃
    get gene CYP51 were tested and compared among mutants and wild type, aiming to provide basic understanding of
    tebuconazole application and resistance risk. Results showed that the EC50 values (effective concentrations causing
    50% mycelial growth inhibition) ranged from 0.405 to 2.942 μg/mL. Besides, the proportion of isolates with EC50 val⁃
    ues between 1.0 to1.8 μg/mL was 73.5% and frequency distribution of EC50 values was unimodal, indicating the S.
    sclerotiorum tested were sensitive to tebuconazole. Four tebuconazole resistant mutants of S. sclerotiorum were ob⁃
    tained by ultraviolet-induction combined with culturing on PDA plates amended with tebuconazole. Resistance fac⁃
    tors (RF) of induced mutants were 2.6, 2.9, 3.1, and 4.7, respectively. The resistant mutants exhibited significant fit⁃
    ness penalties based on slower mycelium growth and less production of sclerotia compared to wild type,and a point
    mutation, lysine to glutamic acid (K244E) within the target enzyme CYP51, was detected and associated with resis⁃
    tance to tebuconazole, suggesting that tebuconazole resistance conferred by K244E mutation might not developed in
    field epidemically.

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    Establishment of a multiplex PCR for detection of four Fusarium pathogens of soybean root rot disease
    DAI Yue, YAN Wei-qi, JIANG Xue, YANG Xin-yu
    2021, 43 (2):  307.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019305
    Abstract ( 172 )   PDF (7337KB) ( 259 )  
    Fusarium species are the most common pathogens of soybean root rot disease. Traditional detection
    methods for Fusarium are complicated, time and money comsumming with low efficiency. It’s particularly important
    to establish a rapid detection method for detection of soybean Fusarium root rot disease. In our research, a multiplex
    PCR system was established based on the translation elongation factor gene (EF-1α). The sensitivity of the multi⁃
    plex PCR reaction system and viability to detect simulating infection soybean tissues were carried out, the lowest
    concentration of genome DNA is 1×10-4ng/μL. We successfully detected Fusarium acuminutum, Fusarium oxyspo⁃
    rum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium graminearum with the multiplex PCR detection system. The EF-1α bands were
    successfully amplified with genomes DNA of 100 ng/μL of the 4 Fusarium species or simulating infection samples
    as templates. In conclusion, a multiplex PCR detection method based on translation elongation factor gene was es⁃
    tablished which worked well to distinguish 4 different Fusarium species, the method could be used to diagnose Fu⁃
    sarium pathogens in multiple infection.
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    Isolation and identification of the fungi causing soybean seed decay in maize-soybean relay strip intercropping in Sichuan
    Isolation and identification of the fungi causing soybean seed decay in maize-soybean relay strip intercropping in Sichuan
    2021, 43 (2):  314.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019307
    Abstract ( 157 )   PDF (24894KB) ( 232 )  
    For effective management of soybean seed decay and improvement of soybean yield and quality, it is
    significantly important to find out the fungal species and their pathogenicity of soybean seed decay in maize-soy⁃
    bean relay strip intercropping. During 2017-2018, the infected soybean seeds were collected from Renshou, Chong⁃
    zhou, Nanchong of Sichuan Province, China, respectively. The fungi were isolated from these infected seeds and pu⁃
    rified by hypha tip method, and identified based on morphological characteristic and sequence analysis of rDNA ITS
    and EF-1α genes. The pathogenicity tests of the representative isolates were further conducted. Our results showed
    that a total of 70 isolates were identified as 5 fungal species including Fusarium fujikuroi, F. equiseti, F. asiaticum,
    Diaporthe phaseolorum and D. phaseolorum var. caulivora, with the separation frequency of 62.56 % , 21.43%,
    10.00 %, 4.29 % and 1.43 %, respectively. Furthermore, the pathogenicity tests showed that all of the representa⁃
    tive isolates belonging to five specie were able to cause seed decay of the intercropped soybean cultivar ND12 and
    reduced seed germination and germ length. Fusarium asiaticum and D. phaseolorum had the highest mycelium cov⁃
    erage area, and disease incidence with the disease index of 100. This study firstly reports that the Fusarium spp.
    and Diaporthe spp. are the dominant pathogens of soybean seed decay in the maize-soybean relay strip intercrop⁃
    ping system, which will provide basis for breeding of soybean resistant cultivar and disease management.

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    #br# Research progress of solid fermentation technology in biosynthesis of high value-added microbial metabolites by utilization of oil crop cake and meal
    WANG Meng, CHAI Bao-zhong, XI Zhao, WAN Chu-yun, LI Nian-zu, CHEN Wen-chao, WAN Xia, HUANG Feng-hong
    2021, 43 (2):  322.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019226
    Abstract ( 178 )   PDF (573KB) ( 260 )  
    With the rapid development of processing technology, the direct and low valuable application of oil
    crop cakes and meals has been unable to meet the needs of industry. How to rationally convert the agricultural byproducts
    into high value-added products is an urgent problem to be solved currently. Solid state fermentation has at⁃
    tracted much attention due to its advantages of high efficiency, energy saving and environmental protection. The use
    of oil crop cakes and meals to synthesize high value-added microbial metabolites by solid state fermentation has be⁃
    come one of the research hotspots. In recent years, more and more researchers have used high-throughput screen⁃
    ing, metabolic engineering, artificial mutagenesis and other methods to obtain a larger number of microorganisms
    that can effectively utilize oil crop cakes and meals to synthesize high value-added products, such as enzymes, anti⁃
    biotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and peptides. This article reviewed the key influencing factors of solid state fer⁃
    mentation technology in synthesis of high value-added microbial metabolites from oil crop cakes and meals, includ⁃
    ing microbial species, types and nutritional characteristics of oil crops and meals, processes of solid state fermenta⁃
    tion, and synthesis of highly additional metabolites. It also discussed the challenges of solid state fermentation tech⁃

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    Distribution of triacylglycerol containing erucic acid in seed of Brassica napus cv Wanyou 12
    DU Zhuo-lin, GUO Liang, LU Shao-ping
    2021, 43 (2):  339.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019321
    Abstract ( 44 )   PDF (8488KB) ( 140 )  
    Nowadays, erucic acid (C22:1) has been increasingly used as the source of industrial material. To
    better understand the distribution of triacylglycerol (TAG) in high-erucic acid rapeseed, we used matrix-assisted la⁃
    ser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) technology to employ spatial distribution of
    TAG in Brassica napus L. cv Wanyou 12 (WY12), whcih containing 26% erucic acid. Results indicated that TAGC58,
    C60, and C62 were enriched in the outer cotyledon (OC) and inner cotyledon (IC). In contrast, TAG species
    with less than 58 carbons preferentially accumulated in the embryonic axis (EA), except that TAG-54:2, TAG-54:3
    and TAG-56:2 to TAG-56:5 displayed no heterogeneity in different seed tissues. The FATTY ACID ELONGASE 1
    (FAE1) expression level of 38 DAF (days after flowering) seed showed that FAE1 had 10- and 20-fold higher ex⁃
    pression in OC and IC than that in EA respectively. The results suggested that the different expression of FAE1 in
    different seed tissues was the main factor affecting the spatial distribution of TAG containing C22:1 in the seed of
    WY12.
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    An efficient and accurate method for determination of vitamin C in rapeseed
    WANG Chao, KUANG Lie-qiong, PAN Yu-ying, DUN Xiao-ling, WANG Xin-fa
    2021, 43 (2):  346.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019327
    Abstract ( 271 )   PDF (2103KB) ( 354 )  
    Based on the national standard, an efficient and accurate method was used to determinate vitamin C
    in fresh samples of oilseed rape. Results showed well linear relationship between peak area and concentration of
    standard vitamin C liquid, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The recovery rate of vitamin C in rapeseed was
    97.97% to 101.40%. The relative standard deviation was 1.84% only, indicating that this method had good reproduc⁃
    ibility for rapeseed vitamin C determination. Results also showed that the lower temperature during storage, the
    slower degradation rate of vitamin C. Liquid nitrogen storage was more beneficial to preservation and accurate iden⁃
    tification. The use of liquid nitrogen for sample grind was more beneficial to vitamin C extraction from the samples.
    Compared with no grinding, vitamin C content was increased by about 16%. With the extension of storage time, vita⁃
    min C content in samples stored in liquid nitrogen did not change significantly, and the relative standard deviation
    of vitamin C was less than 2%. Thus the technique could be used to study the variation of vitamin C in large popula⁃
    tion with high efficiency, accuracy and repeatable features. It was expected to be bencticial to the regetable nutrition
    and breeding research of rapeseed.

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    Establishment and applicant of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy models for predicting protein,linolenic acid and lignan contents of flaxseed
    YE Jia-li, JIA Hai-xia, GUO Dong-liang, YAN Wen-liang, YANG Liang-jie, HUANG Li-li, CHEN Da-wei, LI Gong-ze, XIE Li-qiong
    2021, 43 (2):  353.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2019308
    Abstract ( 197 )   PDF (1941KB) ( 319 )  
    Near infrared spectrum models were established using 200 flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) germ⁃
    plasm. Contents of protein, ALA (linolenic acid) and SDG (lignan) were sampled by partial least square method
    (PLS) and net analysis signal algorithm (NAS) spectral preprocessing. Results showed that the standard errors of cal⁃
    ibration for contents of protein, ALA and SDG were 0.7526, 0.5943 and 0.1483. Their modelling correlation coeffi⁃
    cients were 0.9784, 0.9969 and 0.9943. The predicted average deviations were -0.2441, 1.2271 and 0.0521; pre⁃
    dicted standard deviations were 2.7896, 8.2459 and 1.0163. The correlation coefficients of external tests were
    0.9207, 0.8885 and 0.9659. The contents of protein, ALA and SDG of 200 flaxseed samples conformed to the nor⁃
    mality test. In the same environment, contents of SDG and ALA were positively correlated, the contents of SDG and
    protein were negatively correlated, and the contents of ALA and protein were negatively correlated. Among 863 gem⁃
    plasm materials, 12 of them had high ALA (more than 70%) and 8 had low protein (less than 10%), and 11 had high
    SDG (more than 10%).This study provided valuable tools and materials for the genetic improvement of flaxseed.

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