• 2020 Volume 42 Issue 3
    Published: 28 June 2020

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  • ZHANG Yi, WU Xiang-ping, ZHANG Fang, LUO Li-xia, GUO Rui-xing, TU Jin-xing
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    With the rapid development of genome sequencing, some important results have been obtained based on genomic data with a large-scale analysis of genetic diversity of rapeseed in recent years. Based on these re⁃ sults, we summarized the development history and genetic analysis of rapeseed cultivars in China. We focused on ge⁃ netic analysis of growth period, pedigree breeding and hybrid pedigree breeding of rapeseed cultivars, with the aim to deepen people's understanding of the origin, variation and evolution of rapeseed. According to current situation of rapeseed production, we made suggestions to reduce the cost of rapeseed production and increase yield per unit ar⁃ea, and discussed the future development of rapeseed varieties in China.

  • TAN Zhao, WU Wen-qin, ZHANG Wei-qi, YIN Nan-ri, JIA Ming-ming, CHEN Xiao-mei, ZHANG Zhao-wei, LI Pei-wu
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    The accurate and efficient determination of the trace elements in agricultural products and their field environment is important for the government regulation towards trace elements in agricultural products, ensur⁃ing consumer safety, and promoting the high-quality development of the grain and oil industry. This paper reviews the detection techniques of the trace elements in agricultural products and their producing field environment in re⁃cent years. The principles and characteristics of spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, chromatography and electrochem⁃istry were compared and analyzed, and the practical application advantages and disadvantages of these detection techniques were discussed. This paper provided an reference for the research of the trace elements detection tech⁃nology in agricultural products and their producing field environment, as well as technical support for high quality development of grain and oil industry and their products.

  • ZHOU Dan, MIN Ya-jie, QI Xin, NING Jia-nan, WU Wen-qin, ZHANG Zhao-wei, LI Pei-wu
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    The quality and safety of agricultural products is the technique focus of the strategy of rural vitaliza⁃tion. Carbamate pesticide residues are seriously threatening the safety of agricultural product and human life and health. Nowadays, the common detection methods are instrument-based for carbamate pesticide residue, which dis⁃ satisfy the request of an on-site rapid, sensitive and simultaneous detection for multiple carbamate pesticide resi⁃ dues. Based on the home-made monoclonal antibodies against carbofuran and carbaryl respectivity, a microarray for rapid and simultaneous detection of multiple carbamate pesticide residues was developed within 30 min. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection(LODs)were found to be 0.11 and 0.09 ng/g, while the linear ranges were 0.33-3000 and 0.18-1500 ng/g for carbofuran and carbaryl respectively. By using spiked peanut samples, it recorded recoveries of 88.4%-98.3%, 90.1%-118.8% for carbofuran and carbaryl respectively. The RSD of intraarray were found at 9.0%, 3.5%, while the RSD of inter-array were recorded at 12.3%, 16.3% respectively. The de⁃
    tection results of the microarray were highly consistent with that of HPLC-MS/MS. This proposed microarray provid⁃ ed an on-site high-sensitivity, simultaneous and rapid detection of carbofuran and carbaryl, and could be widely used in the fields of agricultural product quality safety, food safety and environmental monitoring.

  • WANG Zhong-zheng, HONG Qi
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    A multi-walled carbon nanotube/Nafion modified electrode for determination of heavy metal ionlead in soybean and rice by stripping voltammetry was established. The linear regress equation was y = 4.66x+46.19, with correlation coefficient of 0.994. The detection limit was in the range of 0.1~20 μmol/L. The recoveries of lead in the soybean were in the range of 99.50% ~ 100.37%, with RSD less than 5.63%.The recoveries of lead in the rice were in the range of 98.75% ~ 101.25%, with RSD less than 5.63%.The method was applied to the detection of heavy metal ion lead in soybean and rice .It has safeguard effect to grain and oil products.

  • ZHAO Xin-nan, WANG Xiu-pin, LI Pei-wu, YIN Nan-ri, WAN-Li hao, WANG Xiao, ZHANG Liang-xiao
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    There are many types of triglycerides in vegetable oils, and their structures are complex, which is difficult to quantify with certainty. This paper used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, selective re⁃ action monitoring (SRM) mode, two pairs of ion pairs for qualitative, external standard method to accurately quantify seven major triglycerides in vegetable oils, including: glyceryl trilinolein (LLL), 1-oleic acid-2,3-linoleic acid glyc⁃ eride (OLL), 1-palmitic acid-2,3-linoleic acid glyceride (PLL), 1-palmitic acid-2-oleic acid-3-linoleic acid glyc⁃eride (POL), glyceryl trioleate (OOO), 1,2-oleate-3-glycerate glyceride(OOP), 1-palmitic acid-2-oleic acid-3-stearic acid glyceride(POS). The triglycerides were separated by reversed-phase chromatography, and the isopropylalcohol / acetonitrile mixed solution and acetonitrile / water mixed solution were used as mobile phase gradient elu⁃tion. The triglyceride could be separated and detected within 15 minutes. This method has a good linear relation⁃ship, all above 0.996, with a detection limit of 0.3 μg/kg, a limit of quantification of 1.0 μg/kg, and a precision(RSD) of 1.2% to 4.9%. The method is simple and fast to operate, and it can be used to detect the seven triglycer⁃ides in vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, corn oil, and peanut oil.

  • QIN Zuo-jian, WU Zong-yuan, TU Xing-hao, CHEN Hong, WEI Fang
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    Hydroxy fatty acids and epoxy fatty acids represent the main oxidized fatty acids in plant oils de⁃rived from linoleic acid and linolenic acid under enzymatic , light or thermal treatment. During the heating process,the changes of oxidized fatty acids in plant oil reflect its oxidative stability and the initial changes of oxidation. In this study, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of oxidized fatty acids of 4 different plant oils (rapeseed oil, sun⁃flower oil, perilla oil and linseed oil) was carried out based on high performance liquid chromatography-triple quad⁃rupole mass spectrometry. The results showed that the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids(LA,ALA) in 4 plant oils decreased, while the contents of most oxidized fatty acids of LA and ALA increased significantly after the oils being heated at 180 °C for 30 min. Principal component analysis (PCA) result showed that the plant oil samples of different types and treatments were clearly separated. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) re⁃vealed that six potential markers (13-HODE, 13-oxo-ODE, 12,13-EpOME , 9,10-EpODE, 12,13-EpODE, 15,16-EpODE) were identified in the early stage of thermal oxidation of plant oil. This work could provide guideline for the evaluation of the initial stage of plant oil oxidation and the in-depth investigation of the mechanism.

  • ZHENG Xiao-xiao, ZHU Yao-yao§, LIANG Hua-bing, ZHAN Jie-peng, SHI Jia-qin, WANG Xin-fa
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    The object of this study was to analyse the function of gene BnHemd encoding uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) in rapeseed, and to better understand its relationship with chlorophyll synthesis for higher photosyn⁃thetic efficiency and yield. Gene editing technology was used to edit 2 copies of the gene on A9 and C8 chromosomes in Brassica napus cv Zhongshuang 11. The 2 genes were named BnA09.Hemd and BnC08.Hemd and cloned from the cultivar. Their CDS sequences were 885 bp and 876 bp respectively, composed of 9 exons, each encoding 294 and 291 amino acid residues. Protein analysis showed that the 2 copies had similar physicochemical properties, and both were unstable and hydrophobins. Phylogenetic tree showed that BnA09.Hemd and BnC08.Hemd were recently related to B. rapa and B. oleracea respectively, which is consistent with genetic evolution of B. napus. RT-PCR results showed that BnHemd was expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flower buds, seeds, and keratin peels of Zhongshuang 11.The expression levels in keratin peels and flower buds were much higher than those in roots, stems and leaves. Prelim⁃
    inary functional analysis showed that plants with 2 copies of the gene double-simultaneously edited at the same time showed a significant decrease in chlorophyll content, lower photosynthetic rate and delayed growth.

  • QIN Si-si, LIU Wei-guo, CHEN Bin, ZHAO Xing-jian, XU Mei, LI Shu-xian, GAO Yang, WANG Li, WEN Bing-xiao
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    In order to explore the relationship between soybean agronomic traits and yield, the relationship be⁃tween agronomic traits and yield of 27 soybean materials were studied under the conditions of net cropping and shade screen simulation of maize and soybean intercropping. The results showed that at seedling stage, under nor⁃mal light, the variation of branching characteristics was great and the contribution to the biomass of aboveground was small. The degree of variation and contribution of branches increased after being shaded. In the mature stage,under normal light, the branch grain weight contributed more to yield per plant than the main stem. But the percent⁃age of grain weight per plant was greater after shading. Five main components were obtained by principal component analysis, and the cumulative contribution rate under normal light and shade treatment reached 85.79% and 86.05% respectively.Two shade-tolerant soybean materials, Nandou 12 and E383, were selected. This study might provide a theoretical basis for increasing yield of intercropping soybean by promoting branching.

  • CUI Yan-qin, XU-Jing , GUO Yuan-zhang, GUAN Zhong-bo, JIAN Jia-li, XU Gui-zhen
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    The objective was to analyze the changes of yield and agronomic traits of sesame cultivars released in the region in northern China in the past 11 years. The progress and the changes of breeding traits in the northern area of sesame was discussed, in order to provide scientific evidence for genetic improvement of sesame in future. Based on data of from northern China’s cultivars participated in the adaptation regional test from 2007 to 2017 in northern China, the multiple stepwise regression, correlation analyse and other methods were used to compare agro⁃ nomic traits and grain yield traits, including resistance of 16 identified species. The traits were analyzed for quality and disease resistance. The changes of sesame high-yield and high-quality breeding in northern sesame production areas were studied. Results showed that totally 41 varieties participated the regional test from 2007 to 2017. 16 vari⁃ eties were identified by the National Sesame Variety Identification Committee. The yield of newly bred sesame vari⁃ eties had gradually increased. Year by year, 4 traits increased including number of candidated varieties, plant stem  kength, number of individual plants, and growth period. Correlation analysis and multivariate stepwise regressioanalysis showed that main stem length, capsules per plant, and growth duration had greater impacts on yield, fol⁃ lowed by other traits such as plant height and 1000-grain weight. According to their quality analysis and disease re⁃ sistance, no significant quality improvement was found in the past 11 years. The disease resistance initially de⁃
    creased and then increased, but yield in this area increased year by year. The main factors affecting yield were found including plant height and growth duration, followed by single plant number, 1000-grain weight and seed per capsule. In conclusion, under the premise of ensuring certain plant height and growth duration, 3 traits could be in⁃creased including capsule numbers per plant, 1000-grain weight and seeds per capsule. The extended of growth pe⁃riod and the increase of plant height directly affected the development of mechanized production of sesame. The
    main breeding objectives should be medium-dwarf stalk, short internode, closed carp, excellent quality and strong disease resistance.

  • YILiu-xi, GAOFeng-yun, ZHOUYu, JIAXiao-yun, ZHANGHui, WANGShu-yan, HOUJian-hua, SIQINBateer
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     For oil flax breeding, accurately identification and evaluation of germplasm phenotypic traits were focused using 269 flax germplasm resources. A total of 14 phenotypic traits related to yield and quality were investi⁃ gated in 4 environments. The results showed wide phenotypic variations in yield and quality traits, among which the coefficient of variation of grain weight per plant was the highest (24.33%), and growth duration was the lowest (2.66%). The order of phenotypic variation coefficients of yield-related traits was grain weight per plant > fruit num⁃ ber per plant > 1000-grain weight > stem length > branch number > plant height > fruit number > growth duration. The order of phenotypic variation coefficients of quality traits was stearic acid > oleic acid > palmitic acid > linoleic acid > crude fat. 14 phenotypic traits showed normal distribution trend. In 4 environments, the broad heritability of linolenic acid reached 85.91% and 52.38% for stem length. The order of general heritability of yield traits was 1000-grain weight > fruit grain number > grain weight per plant > plant height > growth duration > fruit number per plant > branch number > stem length. The order of general heritability of quality traits was linolenic acid > crude fat > stearic acid > oleic acid > palmitic acid > stearic acid.

  • YANG Ting, LU Jian-nong, ZHANG Dan, SHI Yu-zhen, LI Dong-na, GU Shuai-lei, YIN Xue-gui
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    For better use of castor resources, 302 wild castor accessions were collected systematically from southern China. Their genetic diversity on 6 qualitative traits and 7 quantitative traits were analyzed by cluster and principal component analysis. Phenotypically, these wild castor materials possessed medium-sized blades, ovalshaped capsules, tower-shaped spikes, long racemes and medium inflorescence density. With rich genetic variation, the target traits in these materials behaved high genetic diversity index. Among them, stem diameter with the high⁃est 10.020, were followed by the number of main stems (10.896). The highest coefficient of variation belonged to the number of effective spikes (75.422%), which followed by the height of main stem (46.656%). At the genetic distance of 20, 302 accessions were clustered into 3 groups. In group I, the accessions had medium height, small number of main stem node, large number of effective spikes and longer spike length. In group Ⅱ, the accessions had larger plant, stronger stem, long spike but small number of effective spike. In group Ⅲ, the accessions had shorter plant,thin stems, medium effective spike number. Principal component analysis of 7 quantitative traits showed that cumu⁃lative contribution rate of the first 3 principal components reached 84.425%. The traits with higher load included main stem spike height, stem diameter, plant height, main stem spike length, main stem node number, primary branch spike length and effective spike number per plant. The eigenvalue of the effective spike number per planthad the opposite effect to the first 6 traits, showing the contradiction between plant height, spike size and effective spike number.

  • REN Jing-yao, JIANG Chun-Ji, LI Xin-lin, ZHANG He, YU Hai-qiu, JIN Hua
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    1,3,4-triphosphoinositide 5/6-kinase (ITPK) is a conservative multi-function enzyme, which regu⁃lates the metabolism of the inositol phosphate, and is widely existent in plant, animal and nematode. In this study, 7 AdITPKs and 7 AiITPKs were obtained from the wild species peanut genome Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis, and the biological characteristics of the ITPK gene family of peanut were analyzed by bioinformatics meth⁃
    od. The results showed that the chromosome location of AdITPKs and AiITPKs gene was similar between the two speices, both two members on chromosome 03 and 05, one AdITPK on the chromosomes A01, A08 and A10, and one AiITPK on the chromosomes B01, B07, B10, respectively. The exons of the ITPK genes in peanut between 1 to 10, encoded with 220 to 483 amino acids, the evolution relationship analysis showed that the ITPK gene family were divided into 3 subfamilies, based on the conservative domain analysis, the family gene contained 4 to 6 conservative
    structural motifs. The secondary structure of the two homologous genes was similar, except AdITPK5 and AiITPK5、 AdITPK6 and AiITPK6. The tertiary structure of the most peanut ITPKs were similar, while AdITPK1、AdITPK6、AiITPK1 and AiITPK6 were significantly different from the others. The tissue expression pattern of the peanut ITPKis different, and the expression levels of the peanut ITPKs were high in the seed, the root and the root nodule in the early growth period. This study laid a theoretical foundation for the later study of peanut ITPK gene and provided abasis for the regulation of ITPK on peanut growth.

  • LU Yan, LIU Yang, SONG Yang, JING Lan
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     In this study, 255 NBS-encoding genes were identified in sunflower genome by bioinformatics meth⁃ods. The results showed that the candidate proteins could be classified into two groups, based on the gene structural diversity, conserved protein motifs and phylogenetic relationship analysis. We also identified physic-chemical prop⁃erties, motifs of encoded putative proteins, and physical locations of 42 NBS-LRR genes. We found that most of NBS-LRR genes were located in chromosome 4, 8 and 13, 52.4% of which were located in gene clusters. Addition⁃ally, domain prediction data showed all the proteins had NBS domain. These 42 genes shared 29.26% similarity in amino acid sequence. Expression data revealed all of six NBS genes had specific expression in disease-resistant va⁃rieties which inoculated with Puccinia helianthi. The results indicated that these genes might be involved in the sun⁃flower resistant response to rust disease stress.

  • GU Si-cheng, ZHU Kun-miao, GENG Mo-lin, JIANG Xiu-han, XU Zheng-hua, HU Li-yong
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    For better use of wood residues from charcoal industry, poplar vinegar was studied on rape (Brassica napus L.) by pot experiment. Poplar vinegar was sprayed on leaves at seedling stage. Application concentration of wood vinegar was diluted 600, 500, 400, 300, 200, 150, 100, 50 and 10 times with water control. Two sowing dates were set up as March 14 and April 4. The wood vinegar solutions were sprayed on seedlings of 3-leaves and 8-leaves periods respectively at both sowing dates. Results showed that 10 traits were increased by spraying 300-500 times wood vinegar on both periods. The 10 traits included root dry weight, stem dry weight, leaf dry weight, total dry weight, plant height, root neck diameter, maximum leaf length, maximum leaf width, leaf area and specific leaf weight. Among them, the increase reached 3.04%-41.98% on root dry weight, 35.74%-68.27% on stem dry weight,19.80%-55.90% on leaf dry weight, 27.14%-57.02% on plant total dry weight. The leaf area increased by 50.97%-85.53% 400 times compared with control. When the wood vingar was in 10-50times, rapeseed growth was signifi⁃
    cantly inhibited. Between the 2 periods, spraying at 3-leaves significantly increased the growth of root, stem and leaves. Conisidering of root shoot ratio, the wood vinegar promoted aboveground growth rather than roots. In conclu⁃sion, the application of 300-500 times diluted wood vinegar at the 3-leaves and 8- leaves periods could significant⁃ly improve plant growth on palnt height, root neck diameter, leaf area, specific leaf weight and biomass of rape. And the application effect was better with 400 times at 3-leaves period.

  • WAN Lin, LI Zhang-kai, LI Su, LIU Li-xin, MA Ni, ZHANG Chun-lei
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    In order to reveal the alleviating effect of exogenous strigolactone (SLs) on drought stress in rape seeding stage, a pot experiment with Zhongshuang 11(Brassica napus L.) was conducted to study the effects of 0.18 μmol/L SLs on growth, photosynthetic rate, antioxidant system and osmotic regulators in rapeseed under well water supply and drought stress. The results showed that exogenous SLs could effectively alleviate the inhibition of drought stress on growth of rapeseed seedlings. Compared with drought stress, SLs treatment effectively increased the dry
    matter accumulation by 21.13%. The chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate of leaves increased by 9.37% and 90.65%, respectively. Moreover, the soluble sugar and proline content increased by 26.53% and 25.28%, respec⁃ tively. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased by 12.58%,12.04% and 12.61%, respectively. The contents of antioxidant ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) increased by 14.15% and 18.96%, respectively. The ratios of ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG increased either. The levels of reac⁃
    tive oxygen species decreased significantly, the hydrogen (H2O2) content and superoxide anion radical (O2·-) produc⁃ tion rate decreased by 11.18% and 15.28%, respectively, and effectively reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) con⁃tent in leaves and alleviated membrane damage caused by drought stress. In conclusion, SLs treatment can acceler⁃ate the chlorophyll synthesis rate, enhance photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant capacity of leaves, promote the growth of rapeseed seedlings, and effectively improve the drought resistance in rape seedlings stage.

  • JIANG Heng-ke, SUN Meng-yuan, LI Yan, SUN Xin, SHANG Jing, YU Liang, LIU Chun-yan, YANG Wen-yu, DU Jun-bo
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    Glycine soja often grow in shrub-shaded environments, but the mechanisms for adapting to shading have not been reported. Gibberellins (GAs) are a group of hormones that regulates shade avoidance. In order to study the effects of GA3 on the shade avoidance of Glycine soja, the phenotype of Glycine soja under white light and shad⁃ing after GA3 and GA synthesis inhibitor (paclobutrazol, PAC) application were analyzed. Expression of genes regu⁃lating photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis, GsCAO, and photosynthetic electron transport, GsPSAE and GsPSAG,were analyzed. The results indicated that photosynthetic pigment content of shading Glycine soja after PAC pretreatmentwas significantly higher than that of the control, while GA3 pre-treatment were opposite. chlorophyll fluo⁃rescence parameters suggested that PAC pre-treatment could enhance the shade-resistant while GA3 pre-treatment would make Glycine soja more sensitive to shade. Further research demonstrated that the expression of photosynthet⁃ic pigment biosynthesis gene GsCAO, photosynthetic electron transport genes GsPSAE and GsPSAG had an effect on enhanced shade-resistant of Glycine soja.

  • ZHANG Lei, TANG Lin, HUANG Xiao-qin, YANG Xiao-xiang, WU Wen-xian, XIANG Yun-jia, ZHOU Xi-quan, LIU Yong
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    To investigate the effects of soybean as previous crop on clubroot disease of oilseed rape, and to ex⁃plore new way for clubroot control, occurrence of oilseed rape clubroot was investigated on resting spores in rotating field. Root exudates of different previous crops on germination of resting spores of the pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae were also tested by spore germination method. Results showed that soybean planting significantly reduced the occurrence and damage of clubroot on oilseed rape as succeeding crop, and resting spores in soil were also re⁃duced. The incidence and disease index were 34.00% and 19.26 respectively. Soil dormant spore content was 1.45× 106/g soil. These were significantly lower than those of rapeseed (71.33%, 50.15, 2.92 × 106/g soil), Chinese cab⁃bage (73.33%, 49.48, 2.68 × 106/g soil) and uncultivated field (70.67%, 48.00, 2.82 × 106/g soil) as previous crop or treatment. Root exudates of soybean, oilseed rape and Chinese cabbage stimulated resting spores germination of P. brassicae. After 6 days co-culture with root exudates, the germination rate of resting spores was 29.82% for soybean root exudates, which was significantly higher than those from Chinese cabbage (15.52%), oilseed rape (14.83%) and
    blank nutrient solution (6.48%). Thus the mechanism of clubroot occurrence reduction by soybean pre-cropping plants might be preliminarily clarified as: soybean root exudates could stimulate resting spores germination of P. brassicae, and then lead to zoospores death due to lack of host plants, and consequently reduce the primary infection for succession crop rapeseed.

  • DI Na, JU Xiang-yu, HAN Hai-jun, WANG Jing, CUI Chao, ZHENG Xi-qing
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     In order to study the effects of preculture conditions on germination of sunflower broomrape seeds,different preculture conditions, including temperature, osmotic potential, preculture time, pH and gibberellin con⁃centration, were set to conduct one element experiments and orthogonal design experiments. The one element experi⁃ment results showed that the optimal preculture conditions were temperature at 25℃, preculture time at 7 days, os⁃motic potential at 0 MPa, pH 7.0, with concentration of gibberellins of 30 mg/mL . The orthogonal design experi⁃ment results showed that, the primary and secondary influence order of the elements which affect the germination of sunflower broomrape seeds was preculture temperature>preculture time>osmotic potential>pH. The optimal pre⁃culture conditional combination included temperature at 25℃ , preculture time at 7 days, osmotic potential at-0.5 MPa, pH 7.0. The germination rate of sunflower broomrape seeds reached the highest of 75.85% at the optimal preculture conditional combinations.

  • ZENG Qing-chao, SHI Cheng-ren, QIN Sheng-nan, QU Chun-juan, JU Qian, DU Long, LI Xiao, JIANG Xiao-jing, QU Ming-jing
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    Peanut production was decreased obviously due to peanut pests in Qingdao peanut field. Insect com⁃munity diversity, main pests and their natural enemies were studied in Qingdao.The results showed that insect com⁃ munity structure is stable and natural enemy species is relatively rich. The main pests in peanut were Aphis craccivo⁃ra, Frankliniella occidentalis, Stompteryx subsecivella, Spodoptera litura and there were 48 kind of natural enemies including Leis axyridi, Propylea japonica, Eupeodes corollae, Orius laevigatus and Apanteles derogatae Watanabe.The dynamic results of these four pests and their natural enemies in three years showed that there was a significant correlation between Aphis craccivora and their natural enemies. The natural enemies of Frankliniella occidentalis had lower control and natural enemies had some control effect on Stompteryx subsecivella. The result provided a theo⁃ retical basis for field pest control.