In this study, a hybrid combination was contructed with F1 of Deyou 5, a Brassica napus variety, as female parent and a new line 273R as male parent. In the F2 generation, 6 mutant plants with obvious shorter plant types at seedling stage were selected. After 5 generations of purification, we bred a stable new germplasm, LSW2018. The germplasm shows dwarf marker characters at seedling stage, with shrunken, thicker and darker leaves, shorter petiole. The growth is lightly weak but stable, plant height is significantly shorter than that of the normal variety. From the budding stage to maturity, LSW2018 gradually turned into a normal shape, with shorter internodes and thicker stalks, stronger lodging resistance, and lower branching positions. The flowering habit, branching angle, inflorescence characteristics, primary and secondary branches, grains, and other characteristics of LSW2018 are not significantly different from those of the homologous normal high-stalk line HSW2018, but the plant height and branch height are extremely different. The average transplanting plant height of LSW2018 is 136.24 cm and the direct seeding is 110.4 cm. In short, LSW2018 is considered to be a new short-stem Brassica napus germplasm suitable for mechanized and light-simplified planting, which might have high utilization value and broad application prospects.
LSW2018, a Brassica napus germplasm, has typical "dwarf" character at seedling stage, and the plant is short with thick stem and strong lodging resistance. As an ideal dwarf germplasm resource, LSW2018 is especially suitable for mechanized operation and has important utilization value. In order to explore the breeding advantages, and study the inheritance of dwarf character of LSW2018, 119 normal high-stalk Brassica napus cultivars (lines), 12 Brassica rapa cultivars (lines) and 6 Brassica juncea varieties (lines) were selected to construct cross combinations with LSW2018 (P1), and the populations of F1, F2, F3, aBC1 and bBC1 were analyzed. The results indicated that dwarf trait was controlled by a pair of dominant genes, plant height has major gene-polygenic genetic effect, and there is no cytoplasmic effect.
DW871 is a Brassica napus dwarf line with unusual and excellent plant type. To study the dwarf-related genes and their expression patterns of DW871, we took B. napus HW871 as control and selected stem tissues at the bolting stage for transcriptome gene expression analysis. Results showed that there were 8665 significant differentially expressed genes between DW871 and HW881, of which 2582 were up-regulated and 6083 down-regulated. The enrichment analysis of GO could be annotated to 22 subcategories in 3 categories, the enrichment analysis of KEGG was annotated to 295 pathways in 31 subcategories in 5 categories. We screened genes closely related to dwarfing traits from significantly different genes, 43 in pectin degradation, 69 in auxin signal transduction, and annotated 22 in the monolignol biosynthesis. It was found that the dwarfing character of DW871 was related to cell elongation, abnormal cell wall formation and cell division, and obstruction of auxin signal transduction. In particular, in monolignol biosynthesis, it is possible to regulate a series of physiological and biochemical processes related to lignin by regulating the expression of enzymes such as PAL and CCR. The differential genes related to dwarfing traits were screened in this research. It could be hypothesized that the dwarfing mechanism of DW871 involving abnormal auxin response and lignin synthesis， which lead to abnormal cell elongation， growth and cell wall changes， and ultimately lead to the dwarfing of DW871.
Branch angle is important in plant-type traits of rapeseed. For better understand molecular regulation of moderately compact branch angle for high yield and mechanized harvesting, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was constructed from Holly and APL01 with significantly different branch angles. Their phenotype of branch angle was investigated in 2 environments. Results showed that branch angles of the RIL population showed continuous variation and normal distribution. QTL mapping analysis was performed using high-density SNP genetic linkage map constructed in previous study. As a result, 8 branch angle QTLs were mapped on chromosomes A9, C3, C4 and C7 respectively. The phenotypic variation explained by a single QTL ranged from 4.05% to 9.60%. Compared with previous studies, 2 new QTLs cqBA.C4-2 and cqBA.C4-3 were stably expressed in the 2 environments, and explained 5.13%-6.80% and 4.60%-7.21% of the phenotypic variation respectively. According to resequencing results of Holly and APL01, a total of 7226 SNPs and 829 InDels were found within cqBA.C4-2 confidence interval (10.32-14.3 Mb), of which 7226 SNPs contained 220 non-synonymous mutations and 5 stop-gain mutations, 15 out of 829 InDels caused frameshift mutations. These mutation sites corresponded to 55 genes. A total of 416 SNPs and 65 InDels were found within cqBA.C4-3 confidence interval (44.39-44.46 Mb), of which 416 SNPs contained 50 non-synonymous mutations, 1 out of 65 InDels caused frameshift mutations. And these mutation sites corresponded to a total of 15 genes. According to Arabidopsis homologous genes function annotation, 4 candidate genes related to branching angles were found as BnaC04g13100D, BnaC04g15900D, BnaC04g16280D, and BnaC04g44330D. The above results were expected to provide valuable information for revealing regulation of rapeseed branching and cultivating compact rapeseed varieties through molecular design methods.
Rapeseed （Brassica napus L.）
Phytochrome (PHY), as a receptor for red and far-red light sensing in plants, plays an important role in the regulation of response to shade, biological and abiotic stress. Identification of PHY family genes in Brassica napus and analysis of their molecular mechanism are helpful to improve the light energy utilization rate of B. napus, and to cultivate varieties with resistance to stress, and suitable for dense planting and machine harvesting. In order to study the family characteristics of PHY genes in B. napus, five AtPHY genes were used as reference sequences, 11, 6, 5, 5, 10 and 9 PHY genes in Brassica napus, B. oleracea, B. rapa, B. nigra, B. juncea and B.carinata were identified, respectively. Results of bioinformatics analysis showed that the sequences and gene structures of PHY were highly conserved in Brassicaceae species. In B. napus, PHYA （subgroup） members were mainly expressed in roots, while PHYB members were mainly expressed in leaves. PHYA and PHYB were regulated by heat and cold stresses, but the effect of abiotic and hormone treatments on PHY genes expression were not obvious. During vernalization, the expression levels of PHYB subgroup were down-regulated, while PHYC and PHYE expressions were up-regulated. In PHYA subgroup, only a few genes were up-regulated after vernalization treatment. Most PHY genes were strongly repressed by infection of S. sclerotiorum, while 2 members of PHYA subgroup were induced.
Brassica juncea is an important oil crop and vegetable, which has better resistance to drought, disease and pod shattering. In this study, 34 wild micro-core germplasm resources and 51 newly derived resources in B. juncea were used to discover their genetic diversity. Their genetic similarities of the 85 accessions were analyzed by 305 polymorphic ILP （intron length polymorphism） markers, and were divided into 2 subgroups. In each subgroup, wild germplasm and their derived germplasm were in the same cluster. Analysis of genetic variation and diversity index indicated that new germplasm had greater genetic variation than their parental lines. In addition, data showed that oil and protein contents of 85 accessions from the new resources increased significantly in comparing with their parental lines. In the 34 parental lines and 51 new lines, the correlation index between oil and protein content were -0.612 and -0.899 respectively, indicating a significant negative relationship. The present study was expected to be helpful in solving the shortage of germplasm resources, plant breeding and basic research in B. juncea.
Research of the population structure and genetic diversity has guiding significance to soybean improvement. In this study, 105 cultivar soybean accessions bred from Huang-Huai-Hai and Southern region of China were collected to detect their population structure and genetic diversity by using 99 SSR polymorphic primer pairs. The results showed that a total of 1142 alleles were detected at 99 loci with 11.54 average number of alleles per locus ranging from 5 to 24. The whole population was divided into 4 subgroups according to breeding period. The range of Nei's gene diversity was 0.628-0.839 with an average of 0.774. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.562-0.820 with an average of 0.742. The genetic distance between subgroups ranged from 0.387 to 0.197 with an average of 0.297. Ninety-nine percentage of total variation was explained within the subgroups，and 1% of total variation was explained among subgroups based on the molecular variation analysis, which indicated that there were frequent gene exchanges in subgroups. The principal coordinate analysis showed that the first, second, and third principal factors explained 4.12%, 3.61%, and 2.90% of the total variation respectively. These soybean germplasm could be divided into 3 subgroups based on STRUCTURE analysis and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster. Further comparison showed that the UPGMA subgroups and STRUCTURE subgroups displayed a highly consistent correlation with these pedigrees and the genetic base of each period. The genetic diversity had period characteristics and showed an increasing trend in this study.
Breeding and application of peanut cultivars with desirable resistance to Aspergillus flavus is crucial for integrated management of aflatoxin contamination. Most peanut germplasm lines identified as resistant to A. flavus infection or aflatoxin production possess small pod or seed with relatively low yield potential. In this study, a total of 188 recombinant inbreed lines (RILs) population derived from Zhonghua 16 × J11 were assessed for their resistance to A. flavus infection and consequent aflatoxin production. The yield-related traits including 100-pod weight and 100-seed weight were also investigated among the RILs. The results revealed that variations of percent seed infection index (PSII) and aflatoxin content (AFT) in the RILs were much wider than those of their two parents. Eight lines with resistance to seed infection, nine lines with resistance to aflatoxin production were identified from the RILs. A special line with large pod and resistance to both seed infection and aflatoxin production was identified, which could be potential for further resistance improvement in peanut.
To identify high-quality safflower germplasm and provide theoretical reference for breeding, 482 safflower germplasm were analyzed on their genetic diversity, correlation, principal component by 12 agronomic traits from 30 counties and regions worldwide. The 12 traits including plant height, branch height, height of the top branch, number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, seedling survival rate, initial flowering, flower color, with or without spines on leaf margin, with or without spines on bract, leaf margin, and thousand-grain weight were selected as agronomic traits for comprehensive evaluation of safflower germplasm. Results showed that abundant genetic diversity was found among these recourses. The genetic variations were mainly from secondary branches number (74.2%), seedling survival rate (60.5%), number of primary branch (52.9%), branch height (51.0%), height of the top branch (27.0%), plant height (23.7%), and thousand-grain weight, (21.2%). Correlation analysis found that plant height had significant positive correlations with other traits except for leaf margin, thousand-grain weight and flower color. Thousand-grain weight had significant positive correlation with the number of secondary branches, and had negative correlations with plant height, branch height, and height of the top branch, respectively. The bract trait also represented significant correlations with branch height, height of the top branch, and leaf margin traits. Principal component analysis revealed that four components contribute 65.882% of all components. The 1st component included height of the top branch and bract traits. The 2nd component included primary and secondary branches. The 3rd component included leaf and bract traits, and the 4th component included survival rate and flower color. By cluster analysis, 482 safflower germplasm was divided into 5 groups at the genetic distance of 7.5. In summary, it indicated that safflower resources had rich genetic diversity. The 12 agronomic traits above could be used on effectively resources evaluation from different regions.
To better understand the genetic diversity and population structure of castor bean germplasm resources, SSR marker analysis of 191 castor bean accessions from 5 areas （including 16 provinces or municipalities） of China and other 3 countries was performed with softwares PopGene1.32, MEGA7.0 and Structure2.3.4. It was showed that 194 polymorphic alleles were detected by 86 SSR primers, with average allele number （Na） of 2.26. The average heterozygosity （Ho） and expected heterozygosity （He） were 0.29 and 0.36 respectively. Shannon diversity index （I） was 0.54. Based on cluster analysis, the 191 accessions were assigned into 2 groups at the genetic distance of 0.20, each group contained germplasms from different origin areas. No directly relation was found between genetic distance and geographic origin. These accessions were also divided into 2 clusters by Structure2.3.4 software, that was similar to the cluster result. However, Q value of 170 accessions were higher than 0.6, suggesting a relatively single blood relationship. Another 21 accessions had mixed pedigree with complicated genetic background. The above results was expected to provide basis for genetic background, breeding improvement and parent selection in castor bean.
CDDP （conserved DNA-derived polymorphism） and ITS （internal transcribed spacer） molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity among 17 cultivars of Camellia oleifera in Jiangxi Province, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the identification and utilization of local Camellia oleifera varieties. Our results indicated that 170 polymorphic bands were amplified by 17 CDDP primers among 204 bands, and the ratio of polymorphic band was 83.33%. The 17 cultivars of Camellia oleifera could be identified by primers ERF2, ERF3 and WRKYR1 respectively. The SM （simple matching） similarity coefficients among varieties ranged from 0.5506 to 0.8544 with an average of 0.7438. And according to the UPGMA cluster analysis, 17 cultivars of Camellia oleifera could be divided into 5 categories，and tend to cluster according to economic traits. ITS sequence analysis showed that, the overall average genetic distance of 17 cultivars of Camellia oleifera was 0.0702. NJ phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the genetic relationship among 17 Camellia oleifera varieties could be obviously reflected in phenotypic traits. This study shows that CDDP molecular markers combined with ITS sequence analysis technology could be effectively used for genetic diversity analysis of Camellia oleifera.
Brassica napus L. is one of the important oil crops in the world. However soil salt stress severely inhibited its growth and development. Previous studies have shown that under salt stress, plants increase their own salt stress resistance by expressing some miRNAs and regulating the expression of their target genes. In this study, rapeseed was cultured under 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl treatment and control, and took the shoot and root to construct 12 small RNA libraries for high-throughput sequencing. Through the differential expression analysis of miRNAs in the whole genome, a total of 26 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and 171 corresponding target genes were predicted. Combining the differential expression of genes in the early transcriptome and the results of the differential expression of miRNAs in this study, it is speculated that miRNA156-SPL15-WRKY, miRNA397-LAC12-xylogen, miR169-NFYA5 and miR399-UBC29-ubiquitination pathways might be involved in the regulation of salt stress resistance in B. napus.
Phytocyanin （PC） is a class of copper containing electron transfer proteins involving in plant photosynthesis, growth and environmental adaptation. To investigate the function of BnPC family in allotetraploid crop Brassica napus L., 173 members were identified from B. napus genome. They were divided into 4 subfamilies as early nodulin-like proteins, uclacyanin-like protein, stellacyanin-like protein, and plantacyanin-like protein. Structure analysis showed that among them, 133 BnPCs contain N-terminal secretion peptide, 77 contain glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor signals which anchor PCs in cell membrane, 87 contain arabinogalactan protein-like regions, and 104 contain N-linked glycosylation sites. Whole genome duplication and segmental duplication played important roles in family expansion. Tissue/organ-specific pattern was found in their expression. 95 BnPCs were observed responding to at least one abiotic stress treatment including drought, cold, salt and heat.
To explore the more efficient regulation mechanism of lipid accumulation in Desmodesmus sp. under mixotrophic condition, Desmodesmus sp. were cultivated unde autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions, and differences of lipid accumulation of Desmodesmus sp. under two cultivation conditions were compared using transcriptome sequencing. The results showed that the mixotrophic group had 1081 up-regulated genes, 575 down-regulated genes, and 23 331 non-significantly differentially expressed genes. The enrichment of the differential gene GO term was mainly in the molecular function, biological process and cell components of photosynthesis, such as thylakoid, photosystem I, chlorophyll binding, photosynthetic electron transport, light response and dark response etc. The enrichment of KEGG pathway was mainly characterized as photosynthesis, followed by fatty acid elongation, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, and starch and sucrose synthesis. Under mixotrophic condition, reduced PSⅡ's demand for light energy was reduced, but photosynthetic electron transport was enhanced, and more ATP and NADPH were produced for carbon fixation in photosynthesis and other metabolic activities of cells. The enhancement of lipid accumulation was mainly due to the enhancement of glycolytic pathway, which produced more acetyl-CoA for fatty acid production and promoting fatty acids production.
To deeply understand the physiological mechanism of peanut response to drought stress for breeding and planting in dryland, drought-tolerant peanut varieties NH5 and HY22 and sensitive varieties FH18 and NH16 were selected and used as materials. Reactive oxygen species accumulation and scavenging ability, protective enzyme activity, ability of osmotic regulation substance accumulation and root characteristics were determined to explore physiological response of peanut to drought stress. Results showed that drought stress leads to wilting and activity decreased of root. Hydrogen peroxide accumulated severely in sensitive cultivars and a 2.4 times increase was observed compared to control. Anti-superoxide anion activity was declined significantly in drought sensitive cultivars, while it was slightly affected in drought-tolerant cultivars. The reactive oxygen scavenging system in peanut responded to drought positively, and free proline of each cultivar greatly accumulated under drought stress, with 1.3-4.2 times increase in the 4 cultivars. The soluble protein content increased slightly (between 1.2-2.0 times), and among different cultivars, protective enzyme activity increased by 1.1-5.4 times. The maximum variation coefficient of protective enzyme activity was 22.40% in the drought-tolerant cultivars while 53.36% in sensitive cultivars with low activity. The correlation analysis showed that ascorbate peroxidase was significantly positively correlated with the anti-superoxide anion activity of peanut. In addition, significant positive correlation could be observed between superoxidase dismutase activity and soluble protein, and between peroxidase activity and proline content.
To improve phosphorus （P） uptake efficiency and high yield of rapeseed （Brassica napus） on 2 soil types （yellow-brown earth and acid purplish sandy soil） with low soil P availability, P fertilizer application scheme were studied based on characteristics of soil, fertilizer and rapeseed varieties. Cultivars Zhongshuang 11 （ZS11） and Shengguang 168 （SG168） were investigated on effects of single superphosphate （SSP）, diammonium phosphate （DAP）, ammonium polyphosphate （APP） and calcium-magnesium phosphate （CMP） on seedling growth, yield, yield-related traits, P uptake and physiological P use efficiency by pot experiments. Results showed that application of P fertilizer significantly promoted plant growth, increased the number of primary branches and siliques per plant, and finally increased seed yield as compared with control of without P. The plant growth of both cultivars on acid purplish sandy soil were significantly better than those on yellow-brown earth in the control. Under the same fertilizer treatment, plant growth of both cultivars on yellow-brown earth were better than those on acid purplish sandy soil, and seed yield of SG168 was significantly higher than that of ZS11 on yellow-brown earth. The seed yield of both cultivars grown on yellow-brown earth treated with DAP and grown on acid purplish sandy soil treated with CMP were the highest among all the treatments with the same soil. In addition, P uptake efficiency of SG168 was higher than that of ZS11 treated with the same fertilizer in the same soil. DAP and DAP or SSP were recommended to apply to cultivar ZS11 and cultivar SG168 grown on yellow-brown earth, respectively. CMP was recommended to apply to both cultivars on acid purplish sandy soil.
Rational crop rotation has a positive role in promoting crop production. In order to clarify the effect of different crop rotation patterns and previous crops on growth and grain yield of oilseed flax in dry land flax, a long-term field positioning experiments were conducted. We studied the effect of regulation of six different rotation treatments on grain yield formation of oilseed flax and which response to different stubbles. Six rotation patterns were set as follows: flax-flax-flax-flax （FFFF）, flax-wheat-potato-flax （FWPF）, flax-potato-flax-wheat （FPFW）, flax-flax-wheat-potato （FFWP）, flax-wheat-flax-potato （FWFP） and flax-wheat-potato-wheat （FWPW）. The results showed that crop rotation influenced grain yield and yield-related traits of oilseed flax. The grain yield of oilseed flax under different rotation treatments increased by 5.99%-88.49% compared with continuous cropping （FFFF）. The frequency of oilseed flax had a significant effect on grain yield. The grain yield under FWPW treatment with 25% flax planting frequency increased by 17.55%-62.50% compared with that of 50% flax planting frequency and 88.49% compared with that of continuous cropping, respectively. Plant height, capsule number, branch number and 1000-seed weight under rotation treatments were greater 1.74%-15.15%, 12.82%-38.48%, 11.02%-24.93% and 4.88%-13.56% than that of FFFF pattern, respectively. The accumulation amount and distribution ratio of dry matter in different organs were significantly correlated with grain yield of oilseed flax. Crop rotation significantly promoted dry matter accumulation, which were increased by 14.87%-39.57% compared with that of FFFF. The dry matter accumulation was decreased with the increasing of frequency of oilseed flax, which was generally expressed as 25% flax planting frequency > 50% flax planting frequency > 100% flax planting frequency. The results showed that crop rotation could effectively promote plant height, branch number, effective capsule number or 1000-grain weight by promoting the accumulation of dry matter in various organs of flax and optimizing dry matter distribution, which further increased grain yield of oilseed flax. It indicates that appropriate rotation mode and crop stubble can effectively solve the problem of yield reduction caused by continuous cropping of flax. In this study, FWPW rotation mode is the best rotation mode for high yield of flax in arid and semi-arid regions.
In order to improve low temperature tolerance of rapeseed, 10 rapeseed inbred lines with different level of low temperature tolerance were selected, and 25 combinations were generated by NCⅡ incomplete bi-serial hybridization. Seeds of 10 parents and 25 combinations were germinated under normal condition （22℃） and low temperature condition （9℃）, germination rate, germination potential, germination index, mean germination were investigated to analyze combining ability, genetic parameters and heterosis of various germination traits. Results showed that there were significant differences in germination traits in different hybrid combinations at 9℃, but not significant differences at 22℃. P2 （Ningyou 18）, P7 （2007R13） and P10 （C18） had strong germination capacity at 9℃, and general combining ability（GCA） of each trait was higher. Hybrid combination generated by P2 （Ningyou 18）, P7 （2007R13） and P10 （C18） had higher special combining ability （SCA） of each germination trait and strong heterosis at 9℃. GCA of these four traits in cultivar C18 was the highest,and cross （B018×Huyou 17） × C18 exhibited the highest of special combining ability （SCA）. Analysis of genetic parameters showed that heritability of the relative germination index in the narrow sense was larger than that in the broad sense, and should be selected in the early generation. The narrow sense heritability of relative germination potential, relative germination rate and relative average germination time is low, while the broad sense heritability is relatively high, so it should be selected in the late breeding generation. The broad heritability and narrow heritability of germination index were the highest among the four traits. Overall, combining ability and genetic effects analysis of germination index during germination stage could be used to identify low temperature tolerance germplasm of rapeseed to improve the breeding program.
In order to clarify the action mechanism of ethanol extract from industrial hemp stalks on soybean cyst nematode, soaking method was used to study the effects of the extract on physiological and biochemical indexes such as total sugar, glycerin, protein contents and detoxification enzyme activity in soybean cyst nematode. The results showed that, total sugar content and glycerin content of the second-instar nematodes （J2） showed an upward trend with the extension of treatment time, meanwhile soluble protein content gradually decreased. When J2 has been soaked for 24 hours, there were extremely significant differences between the treatment group and the control, in particular, total sugar content and glycerin content of J2 significantly increased by 96.2% and 33.5% respectively. The soluble protein content was 26.3% lower than the control. In addition, AchE, CarE and GST activity all gradually decreased, and were 61.1%, 51.3% and 45.4% lower than the control. The ethanol extract of industrial hemp straw could cause disorder of carbohydrate metabolism in nematodes and reduce the resistance of nematodes, and weaken the ability of nematodes to degrade toxic substances, which might be the cause of nematode death.
To evaluate the clubroot disease-resistant and agronomic characteristics of 16 rapeseed varieties at Duodao District of Jingmen City, factor analysis was performed in this study. The results showed that two common factors (characteristic root >1), the economic index factor F1 and quality index factor F2, were extracted using factor analysis method. Their cumulative variance contribution rate reached 86.637%, which could fully represent the information of original data. The score trend of rapeseed was basically consistent with planting benefit trend, indicated that evaluatoin results were reliable and valid. Rapeseed varieties 18ZP05, 18Miao-337, 18ZP01 and SHR02 had good performance and higher planting benefit, and could be considered suitable to extend at local area in Jingmen City.
In order to find the most typical characteristics part of rapeseed on its oleic acid content hyperspectral estimating in Brassica napus L., 44 germplasm resources with high oleic acid content were used as materials. Spectral reflectance of seed and its oleic acid data were collected according to an order of main stem, primary branch, and secondary branch. The data were analyzed on relationship between seed oleic acid contents and original & first derivative spectral reflectance of different parts. Estimation model as stepwise multiple linear regression, partial least squares regression (PLSR), and principal component regression were established based on full wavelength and characteristic wavelength. Univariate linear regression model was established based on spectral index. And then, determination coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and relative predicted deviation (RPD) were used to evaluate the accuracy of these models. Results showed that the PLSR model based on original spectral reflectance of the main stem had the best estimation effect in the full-wavelength model, with calibration set R2c 0.83 and RMSEc 1.63%, and validation set R2v 0.71, RMSEv 1.92%, and RPD 2.00. Among the characteristic wavelength models, PLSR model based on the first-order differential spectrum of the primary branches had the best estimation effects, with R2c 0.85 and R2v 0.87, RMSEc 1.08%, RMSEv 1.13%, and RPD 2.57. Among the estimation models constructed based on the spectra index, the RPD was less than 1.50 which prediction effect was poor. Therefore, the PLSR model based on the first derivative characteristic wavelengths might effectively estimate oleic acid content of the primary branches seeds. It also provided a sampling reference for spectral detection of oleic acid content in B. napus seeds with high oleic acid.
In order to resolve low automation and timeconsuming in determination of thousand-seed weight of rapeseeds, a method based on image processing technology was proposed. Pixels number representing rapeseed （Brassica napus） seed area was obtained by image processing. Correlation models were established between seeds area and seed mass. Kernel of each seed was obtained by selective limit erosion algorithm and then was labeled on gradient image of seed. Then watershed algorithm was used to segment rapeseeds on the labeled gradient image. The rape seeds which were still adhesive after first segmentation were extracted, and their kernel inside the seed was obtained by method of maximum value after distance transformation.Then the watershed algorithm was used to segment seeds again. In the segmented image, 1000 seeds were randomly selected and their area was extracted. 1000-seed weight was calculated by the correlation model between seeds area and mass. Results showed that the relative error of 1000-seed weight of the 3 varieties was less than 3.16%. This accuracy could fully meet the requirements of national standard.
According to current situation of peanut fertilization, the technology of peanut whole-period controllable fertilization was put forward on the basis of defining the characteristics of peanut growth and development for fertilizer, to set up a simplified, controllable, efficient, ecological fertilization and high yield technology system. This system helps to realize the specific fertilization of peanut for different growth stages and underground distribution. This technology can improve plant resistance, increase pod yield and reduce the application amount of chemical fertilizer such as nitrogen, and achieve the goal of reducing fertilizer application and increasing efficiency. It will attribute to the ecological restoration and the sustainable development of cultivated land.
With the continuous improvement of material living standard, changes in working environment and living state have led to the development of the sub-health status and the aging of the population. Dietary supplements with multiple biological functions have become a hot topic for consumers and researchers. Carotenoids are not only natural pigments that play a key role in photosynthetic organisms, but also have various protective functions for human health. Therefore, they are often used as nutritional supplements in the food industry and pharmaceutical industry. However, the high sensitivity of carotenoids to processing conditions and environmental factors, as well as their strong hydrophobicity limit the bioavailability of carotenoids and their wide application in complex processed food environments; other nutrients such as lipid, cellulose, protein and mineral elements in food matrix also have great influence on the bioavailability of carotenoids. Related research has shown that emulsion, a special delivery system, can protect carotenoids from environmental factors and improve their bioavailability in the human body. From the perspective of multiple factors affecting the bioavailability of carotenoids, this review focused on the research progress and application status of carotenoids bioavailability regulated by emulsion delivery systems, and looked into the future development trend of these delivery systems.