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    25 October 2022, Volume 44 Issue 5 Previous Issue   
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    Status and prospects for development and utilization of double-low rapeseed (Brasscia napus) for oil-vegetable-dual-purpose
    Yan YU, Yuan HE, Xiang-yu ZOU, Mao-run ZHOU, Fu-gui ZHANG, Zong-he ZHU, Ke-jin ZHOU
    2022, 44 (5):  921-929.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021167
    Abstract ( 225 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (538KB) ( 176 )  

    Oil-vegetable-dual-usage is one of the important purpose for multifunctional utilization of rapeseed (Brasscia napus L.). The approach effectively drives the development of rapeseed industry and enhances the income of planter. To provide reference data to improve quality and efficiency, and to promote revitalization of rapeseed industry, this review discusses the oil-vegetable-dual-usage model of double-low rapeseed and reviews its developing process, feasibility analysis, quality and picking, as well as variety breeding, and cultivation technology. In addition, considering the problems of the oil-vegetable-dual-usage model with respect to brand management, cultivation technology, policy support and market demand, this study proposes countermeasures and suggestions, including strengthening brand management and policy support, and standardizing production mode.

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    Progress on pathogenicity differentiation in Sclerotium rolfsii isolates from peanut
    Dong-yang YU, Li-ying YAN, Wan-duo SONG, Yan-ping KANG, Yong LEI, Yu-ning CHEN, Dong-xin HUAI, Xin WANG, Zhi-hui WANG, Huai-yong LUO, Xiao-jing ZHOU, Li HUANG, Nian LIU, Wei-gang CHEN, Hui-fang JIANG, Bo-shou LIAO
    2022, 44 (5):  930-936.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021256
    Abstract ( 109 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (474KB) ( 133 )  

    Peanut southern blight is an important soil-borne fungal disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc, widely distributed in most peanut producing countries. During the past decade, it has become an important disease which restricted peanut production in China, and causing significantly economic losses. In this review, characteristics, pathogenicity differentiation, and factors affecting disease development of peanut southern blight were discussed in order to provide reference for prevention and control of the disease.

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    Occurrence and management of tomato spotted wilt virus in peanut
    Wei-bo DONG, Min LI
    2022, 44 (5):  937-947.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021308
    Abstract ( 141 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (5756KB) ( 116 )  

    Thrips-transmitted tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the major viruses causing significant loss on peanut in the world. Many progresses have been made in detection, etiology, epidemiology, and integrated management of TSWV on peanut in the past four decades. In this paper, the major advancements on epidemiology, agricultural measurement, chemical control and resistance breeding were reviewed. In recent years, TSWV has been found in various crops in different regions of China, indicating that China peanut production is facing an increasingly potential threaten from TSWV. The symptoms of TSWV on peanut observed in Dalian in 2021 were described briefly. It is recommended to start the study on peanut TSWV in China.

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    Research progress of a new woody oil tree species Swida wilsoniana
    Yang LIAO, Chang-zhu LI, Ye-shi YIN, Rong-ling YAN, Si-si LIU
    2022, 44 (5):  948-956.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021289
    Abstract ( 128 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (539KB) ( 476 )  

    As an newly important woody oil crop in China, Swida wilsoniana is of great significance for national oil safety. Great achievements in the foundational research and industrial utilization of S. wilsoniana have been made in recent years, these achievements significantly promoted its research process on plant growth and development, as well as genetic background, oil biosynthesis and regulation, oil extraction and ingredient analysis, and oil industrial transformation. In this paper, research progress of S. wilsoniana were reviewed in agronomic characteristics and tissue anatomy, physiological and biochemical characteristics, genetic background and functional genes, fruit development and components accumulation, oil extraction process, oil composition analysis, and oil application, in order to provide references for the deepening and expansion of future research.

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    Study on domestic market integration of oil crops
    Fu-xing LIU, Ke-xin WANG, Lu ZHANG, Zhong-chao FENG
    2022, 44 (5):  957-965.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021161
    Abstract ( 85 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (463KB) ( 55 )  

    Market integration is an important index to measure the efficiency of market mechanism. Studying the spatial market integration relationship of domestic oil crops is helpful to grasp the operation of market macro-scopically, and is of great significance to optimize regional division of labor and improve the efficiency of resource allocation. Taking rapeseed, peanut and sesame as examples, this paper systematically analyzes the spatial market integration of domestic oil crops by using Johansen co-integration analysis, vector error correction model and Granger-causality test. The results show that in the long run, the market prices of rapeseed, peanut and sesame are closely related, and there is a long-term integration relationship in the domestic oil crop market. In the short run, the degree of integration of domestic oil crop market is relatively high. According to the adjustment speed, peanut, rapeseed and sesame are in the order of high to low. From the perspective of causality, there is a two-way causality between the market prices of 70% rapeseed, 57.14% peanut and 30% sesame, which indicates that the market price information is not completely symmetrical. In order to improve the degree of market integration of domestic oil crops, this paper puts forward suggestions on improving the market environment, perfecting the construction of information platform and strengthening the construction of modern logistics system.

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    Construction of fingerprint for Brassica napus germplasm by genome-wide SNPs
    Sheng-bo WANG, Yi-ming HUANG, Cong-yuan LIANG, Jing WANG, Qing-yong YANG
    2022, 44 (5):  966-972.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021234
    Abstract ( 109 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (2667KB) ( 60 )  

    As an important oil crop, Brassica napus provides raw material for vegetable oil and extraction meal as feed, food and fuel worldwide, and has a high economic value. To efficiently identify rapeseed varieties and improve the management of rapeseed varieties, we performed genome-wide re-sequencing for 505 B. napus accessions and identified a core set of SNPs for DNA fingerprint construction. A total of 897 core SNPs were obtained after strict filtering. Detection of 505 B. napus accessions using these 897 core SNPs combination, the average value of MAF was 0.41, and the average polymorphism information content was 0.474. There was at least one different locus between B. napus accessions pairs, and 90% pairs showed 357-508 different loci. Based on these core SNPs, the fingerprint was constructed. Moreover, we obtained the simplified 17 SNPs by reducing the SNP markers, which could fully identify the set of 505 B. napus germplasm. This study provides a reference for genetic diversity analysis, molecular identification and genetic improvement in B. napus.

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    Preliminary study on Songyou 2 for oilseeds and cruciferous vegetable
    Cheng CUI, Hao-jie LI, Jin-fang ZHANG, Ben-chuan ZHENG, Liang CHAI, Jun JIANG, Ka ZHANG, Hai-yan QIN, Zai-yun LI, Liang-cai JIANG
    2022, 44 (5):  973-980.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021223
    Abstract ( 194 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1805KB) ( 111 )  

    The additional lines of Brassica napus with one specific chromosome of the medicinal plant songlan (Isatis indigotica) showed particular antiviral activity, but the nutrients, yield of bolts (vegetable parts), and comprehensive benefits remain to study. In this study, antiviral addition line Songyou 1 (used as paternal plant), and nuclear sterility line Chuan A-3 (used as maternal plant) were crossed to selected Songyou 2 as experimental material. Yield and quality of seeds and vegetable bolts, the agronomic characteristics, and comprehensive benefits were investigated. Results showed that 48.56% plants presented chromosome-specific SSR fragments of songlan. As vegetables, contents of vitamin C and zinc were higher in bolts than those of broccoli (1-1-5), cauliflower (rB-112), B. parachinensis (Q10005), Chinese kale (Chudong niuxin ganlan) and radish (CP4). Amino acids and protein contents were higher in bolts than those of cauliflower (rB-112), B. parachinensis (Q10005), Chinese kale (Chudong niuxin ganlan) and radish (CP4), comparable to broccoli (1-1-5). The average start-cutting days of sprouts were 117 d, with vegetable bolt yield of 16 908.8 kg/hm2, increased by 75.1% compared with oilseed-vegetables cultivation control. Compared with oilseeds cultivation, the final-flowering period was postponed by 6-10 days, and plant height, siliques per plant, seeds per silique, 1000-seed weight, plant yield and oil content were reduced significantly. The predicted biomass at final flowering period was 124.3 t/hm2. The seeds yield was 1127.3 kg/hm2, increased by 16.4% compared with oilseeds-vegetable cultivation control, but decreased by 42.3% compared with the oilseeds cultivation. However, compared with oilseeds cultivation, the average comprehensive benefit of oilseeds-vegetables cultivation was 108 892.4 RMB yuan/hm2, increased by 92 920.4 yuan/hm2. The dual-purpose cultivation for oilseeds and vegetables of Songyou 2 had great sense for both human health and rapeseed cultivation.

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    Identification and genome-wide association analysis for tolerance to acid aluminum using Sichuan and Chongqing soybean germplasm
    Shi-hua XIANG, Hao YANG, Hong-yan YANG, Hua-wei YANG, Lin YU, Ya-bin HAN, Qing-yuan HE
    2022, 44 (5):  981-988.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021242
    Abstract ( 217 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1596KB) ( 107 )  

    In order to find out acid aluminum tolerance soybean germplasm in Sichuan-Chongqing region, and to discover candidate genes for tolerance, 201 soybean bred lines and local varieties from Sichuan-Chongqing region were selected and identified. Hydroponic experiment was carried out to identify seedling tolerance using relative elongation of the main roots as index. Genome-wide association analysis was performed using 83 622 SNP markers. Results showed that the average relative elongation of the main roots of 201 Sichuan-Chongqing resources was 77.00%, the variation range was 13.0% to 98.6%, the coefficient of variation was 17.6%, and the generalized heritability was 93.2%. Among them, the relative elongation of the main roots of 6 soybean lines were above 95.0%, showing extremely high tolerant to acid aluminum. The relative elongation of the main roots of 2 resources were less than 20.0%, indicating their extreme sensitive to acid aluminum environment. Using 0.0001 as threshold of significant association sites, 4 SNP sites were detected simultaneously. Using GLM and MLM models, the 4 SNPs were located in the 4 haplotype blocks on chromosomes 2, 11, and 20, respectively. Seven candidate genes were searched from 4 haplotype blocks. With reference to the functional annotation and transcription expression level of the candidate genes, it could be predicted that Glyma.02g211800 and Glyma.20g185500 were candidate genes for soybean acid aluminum tolerance response and physiological regulation.

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    Construction of HH103ΩNopAAΩNopD and effect of mutation on nodulation ability of soybean rhizobium
    Chao MA, Miao-xin GUO, Sheng-nan MA, Yue WANG, Yu-tian SUN, Da-wei XIN, Qing-shan CHEN, Jin-hui WANG
    2022, 44 (5):  989-995.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021226
    Abstract ( 83 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (2130KB) ( 49 )  

    Soybean originated in China and is an important oil crop. The soybean-rhizobium symbiosis provides a rich nitrogen source for soybeans. Rhizobium type Ⅲ effector is one of the key signal molecules that affect symbiotic nodulation. The nodulation identification of HH103ΩNopAA and HH103ΩNopD shows that the two mutants have different host compatibility for Suinong 14 and ZYD00006, and a double mutant of HH103ΩNopAAΩNopD was constructed by tri-parental mating method on the basis of HH103ΩNopAA. Suinong 14 and wild soybean ZYD00006 were used to identify the nodules of the mutants. The nodule number and nodule dry weight of HH103ΩNopAAΩNopD were not significantly different from those of HH103ΩNopAA. Then, we used 100 soybean resources collected in the previous stage to identify the nodulation, and analyzed the nodulation characteristics of soybean varieties with NopAA and NopD mutations under different genetic backgrounds. The number of nodules in most varieties was significantly reduced, and the number of nodules in some varieties was inoculated with single mutations. There are significant differences between the mutant and the double mutant. This study provides new ideas for the subsequent analysis of the symbiotic signal transduction between NopAA and NopD and the compatibility of rhizobium with soybean varieties. At the same time, based on the differences in genotypes, soybean varieties that have higher compatibility with different rhizobia can be screened to provide support for the further cultivation of soybean varieties with high nodulation and high nitrogen fixation.

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    Identification and analysis of soybean DELLA gene family
    Shuai LIANG, Qing-shan CHEN, Zi-kun ZHU, Dong-dong LI, Zhao-ming QI, Da-wei XIN
    2022, 44 (5):  996-1005.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021224
    Abstract ( 87 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (3938KB) ( 84 )  

    DELLA is a main regulator of interaction between plants and environment and plant development. It is a negative regulatory protein involved in gibberellin signaling pathway and plays an important role in affecting the expression of plant hormone related genes and regulating symbiosis establishment and growth and development between plants and microorganisms. In this study, bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the gene structure, location information, protein structure, conserved motif phylogenetic tree, cis elements, synteny analyses and gene expression of DELLA gene family in soybean. The results showed that DELLA gene family has seven members in soybean genome, which were located on seven different chromosomes. These genes had a single exon and N-terminal DELLA domain, and similar motif distribution, which proved that DELLA gene family was highly conserved. The phylogenetic tree showed that this family had three subfamilies. It’s promoter region contained a large number of cis acting elements, including elements involved in plant hormone response, drought induction and light response. Soybean DELLA genes Glyma.11G216500, Glyma.18G040000, Glyma.08G095800 and Glyma.05G140400 displayed better synteny with AT1G14920, AT1G66350 and AT2G01570 in Arabidopsis. Glyma.18G040000 and Glyma.11G216500 were expressed in various tissues of soybean, and the expression amount was relatively high. The above conclusions enrich our understanding of soybean DELLA gene family and lay a light on the further study of soybean DELLA gene function.

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    Cloning and genetic transformation of soybean fatty acid dehydrogenase GmFAD3C-1 gene
    Su-qi JIAO, Jun-ming ZHOU, Yu-qing SHANG, Jia-xin WANG, Ai-jing ZHANG, Hao-bo HE, Qiu-zhu ZHAO, Yue LI, Dan YAO
    2022, 44 (5):  1006-1017.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021253
    Abstract ( 113 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (6098KB) ( 80 )  

    By comparing the sequences of four key enzyme genes in the soybean fatty acid dehydrogenase GmFAD3 family, the GmFAD3C-1 gene had a base site deletion (G) at +966bp in the low linolenic acid soybean mutant MT72 compared with the control JN18, producing a frameshift mutation resulting in large changes in the amino acid sequence (the mutant gene is named gmfad3c-1). The GmFAD3C-1 gene overexpression and its CRISPR / Cas9 editing vectors were constructed, and the T2 transformed plants were obtained using the pollen tube channel method. The fatty acid dehydrogenase enzyme activity assay showed that in the T2 grain of overexpressing plants, enzyme activity increased 47.62%-78.85% compared to control, and in the editing vector T2 generation, enzyme activity decreased 25.67%-47.11% compared to control. The results of the fatty acid relative content determination further indicate that the expression of the GmFAD3C-1 gene is closely related with plant linolenic acid content.

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    Transcriptome analysis of peanut protein mutants at different seed development stages
    Jia-ning LIANG, Jun ZHANG, Le-zeng TAN, Song-nan YANG, Xue-ying LI, Dan YAO, Liang-yu CHEN, Qiu-lin WU, Yong-yi XING, Xiao HAN
    2022, 44 (5):  1018-1029.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021257
    Abstract ( 93 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (6342KB) ( 94 )  

    Peanut is a high-quality edible protein resource. To improve the seed protein, mutant was studied by transcriptome analysis. Peanut mutant P06 (by EMS mutagenesis of Weihua 8) had significantly increased protein than wild type (P05). Thus the transcriptome sequencing of Weihua 8 and mutant P06 was carried by comparing seed protein and gene expression at 20, 40 and 60 day after flowering. Wild-type (P05-20, P05-40, P05-60) and mutant (P06-20, P06-40, P06-60) sample libraries were constructed for transcriptome analysis. Comparing the sequencing results of wild-type and mutant at the 3 different seed stages, 2936, 3329 and 2849 differentially expressed genes were obtained respectively. The up-regulated differentially expressed genes were 1599, 2471 and 707, and the down-regulated differentially expressed genes were 1337, 858 and 2142 respectively. By KEGG enrichment analysis, 26, 23 and 31 metabolic pathways with significant difference were obtained respectively. Pathways related to protein biosynthesis included glycolysis / gluconeogenesis, fatty acid biosynthesis and pyruvate metabolism. Among them, 15 candidate genes related to protein biosynthesis were selected. The results of this transcriptome sequencing are helpful to reveal the related genes of protein biosynthesis regulation in peanut seed kernel and provide a theoretical basis for better understanding the mechanism of protein biosynthesis in oil crops.

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    Pollination varieties selection of 3 main cultivated Camellia oleifera in Hubei Province
    Ling-jian CHEN, Yan ZHANG, Guo-wang LIAO, Yi-ming CHENG, Xiao CHEN, Hui ZHANG, Si-qi WANG, Hui WANG, Ke-bing DU, Chang-qing SHU, Jun-yong CHENG
    2022, 44 (5):  1030-1036.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021248
    Abstract ( 90 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (414KB) ( 34 )  

    Oil-tea camellia is the most important woody edible oil tree species in China. To improve fruit setting rate, proper pollination varieties were selected for 3 main Camelliaoleifera varieties (i.e. Changlin 4, Eyou 81 and Eyou 102) in Hubei Province, China. Pollens were from 5 varieties, Changlin 3, Changlin 4, Changlin 40, Eyou 81 and Eyou 102, using natural pollination as control. Fruit setting rate, fruit featrues, seed kernel oil content, and fatty acid contents were investigated. Among them, fruit setting rate of self-pollinated Changlin 4 and Eyou 81 was very low, while that of Eyou 102 was relatively high; pollination varieties had significant effect on fruit setting rate; for Changlin 4, pollination varieties had no significant effect on fruit fresh weight, dry seed rate, dry seed kernel rate, oil content and linoleic acid content, but had significant effect on fruit setting rate and fruit size; for Eyou 81, pollination varieties had no significant effect on dry peel thickness, dry seed kernel rate and kernel oil content, but had significant effect on fruit setting rate, fruit size and fresh weight per fruit; for Eyou 102, pollination varieties had significant effect on fruit setting rate, dry peel thickness, dry seed rate and kernel oil content, but had no significant effect on others. Comprehensively based on fruit setting rate and fruit traits, the best pollination varieties for Changlin 4 was Changlin 3, followed by Changlin 40 and Eyou 102; the suitable pollination varieties for Eyou 81 were Changlin 4 and Eyou 102; the best pollination variety for Eyou 102 was Eyou 81, followed by Changlin 3, Changlin 4 and Changlin 40.

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    Effects of saline-alkali stress on germination characteristics of peanut seeds and comprehensive identification and evaluation of salt damage
    Ting XU, Yan-tao LIU, Hai-jiang WANG, Qiang LI, Peng WANG, Hong-ye DONG
    2022, 44 (5):  1037-1047.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021245
    Abstract ( 91 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (2039KB) ( 75 )  

    With the continuous expansion of saline alkali land area, saline-alkali stress has become one of the important factors affecting peanut germination. In order to explore the characteristics of salt and alkali tolerance of peanut varieties, salt and alkali tolerant peanut varieties were screened. Taking germination rate, germination potential, germination index and salt damage rate as indicators, Yihua 1, Huayu 25, Huayu 39, Fenhua 1 and Yuhua 37 were used as experimental materials. The effects of three saline alkali types of NaCl, NaHCO3 and NaCl + NaHCO3 (1∶1) and four stress concentrations (0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9% and 1.2%) on peanut seed germination were analyzed. The differences among various indexes were compared and analyzed, and the saline alkali tolerance was evaluated. Results showed that, saline-alkali stress inhibited seed germination. With the increase of saline alkali solution concentration, the germination rate, germination potential and germination index showed a downward trend, indicating the increase of salt damage rate. The stress degree of NaCl + NaHCO3 (1∶1) was greater than that of NaCl and NaHCO3. The seeds did not germinate at the concentrations of 0.9% and 1.2%. The results of salt damage classification and comprehensive evaluation of membership function demonstrated that Yihua 1 processed a highest level of salt and alkali tolerance under three salt and alkali stresses, while Huayu 39 showed the worst salt and alkali tolerance under each salt and alkali stress. Yihua 1 is the dominant variety under saline-alkali stress. The types of saline alkali soil in Xinjiang are mainly mixed saline alkali. Totally the concentration of 0.6% can be used as the critical concentration of salt and alkali tolerance for each variety.

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    Effect of water stress in different phases on photosynthetic characteristics of drought-avoidant soybean
    Chun-juan YAN, Shu-hong SONG, Chang-ling WANG, Xu-gang SUN, Yong-qiang CAO, Li-jun ZHANG, Li ZHANG, Xiao-yang HUO, Wen-bin WANG
    2022, 44 (5):  1048-1056.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021215
    Abstract ( 91 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1610KB) ( 92 )  

    Drought is one of the major natural disasters that limit the formation of soybean yield. Application of drought-avoidant varieties is an effective way to alleviate the loss of soybean yield under drought stress. Drought avoidance resistance refers to the ability of plants to maintain high water potential under drought stress. To better understand the mechanism of drought avoidance, two soybean hybrids with contrasting drought avoidance, Liaodou 14 (drought-avoidant) and Liaodou 21 (drought-sensitive) under water stress were evaluated, in order to reveal the photosynthetic regulation mechanism of drought-avoidant genotype soybean. The results showed that water control in each period and soil moisture significantly affected the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), and stomatal conductance (Gs) of soybean plants. Drought limited the plant’s Pn, Tr, Gs, and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci). In general, the average Tr of Liaodou 21 was higher than that of Liaodou 14. With the increase in soil water content, the intercellular CO2 concentration of plants generally gradually increased. The initial fluorescence (F0 ) value of soil drought (W1) treatment was higher than other water treatments. The F0 value was the lowest when the water was controlled at pod stage (R3-R5). Drought stress reduced the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), electrons transport rate (ETR) and actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSⅡ ) of plants. When soil moisture was controlled at the same stage, the maximum fluorescence yield (Fm) and Fv/Fm of Liaodou 14 were higher than those of Liaodou 21. On the drought stress condition, Liaodou 14 can maintain a lower transpiration rate and higher Fm and Fv/Fm value than that of Liaodou 21. This could be an important photosynthetic factor for drought-avoidant genotype to resist drought stress.

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    Combined virulence of boscalid and prochloraz to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
    Liu CHEN, Hai-yan LI, Qing-lin MENG, Li-qiu ZHENG, Hai-cheng CHANG
    2022, 44 (5):  1057-1064.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021230
    Abstract ( 92 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (2494KB) ( 80 )  

    To clarify the combined virulence of fungicides for preventing Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection on sunflower, we studied the efficacy of mixture of boscalid and prochloraz on suppression of mycelial growth, sclerotial germination and expression of pathogenesis-related genes in S. sclerotiorum. Results showed that the mixtures of the fungicides boscalid and prochloraz with different ratios had a demonstrable synergistic inhibition on S. sclerotiorum. When boscalid mixed prochloraz at ratio 1:1, the synergistic inhibition was the strongest with synergy ratio of 1.7657. The mixture of boscalid and prochloraz could effectively inhibit the growth of S. sclerotiorum, reduce the germination rate of sclerotia. The formation rate of ascomycetes and its effect were significantly better than boscalid or prochloraz. The oxalic acid excreted by S. sclerotiorum and its activity of cell wall degrading enzymes were significantly reduced by treated with the mixture of boscalid and prochloraz. Compared with controls, the expression of 3 pathogenic genes Ss-oah1, Ss-pg1 and Ss-pg3 of S. sclerotiorum were respectively reduced 69.90%, 55.00% and 71.30%. As a result, the mixture of boscalid and prochloraz could effectively inhibit S. sclerotiorum growth and reduce the pathogenicity of S. sclerotiorum.

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    Optimal application rate of nitrogen fertilizer in winter rape planting area in southern Shaanxi Province
    Xiao-jun WANG, Chun-li WANG, Zhi ZHANG, Jian-li YANG, Ya-jun GAO
    2022, 44 (5):  1065-1073.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021246
    Abstract ( 111 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1987KB) ( 129 )  

    To determine the appropriate amount of nitrogen fertilizer for green and efficient production of winter rape in southern Shaanxi, so as to achieve scientific fertilization in this area, field experiment was conducted from 2019-2020 with 2 cultivars and 4 N application rates. Split plot experiment was designed including 2 factors: variety (early maturing variety Dadi199, and conventional mature variety Qinyou 28) as the main treatment, and 5 N application rates (N0, N90, N180, N270, N360) as sub-plot treatment. Reults showed that N nutrition status of Qinyou 28 was stronger, and the aboveground dry matter accumulation and N accumulation were also higher at harvest. Based on the analysis of linear + platform model, N input thresholds of Qinyou 28 and Dadi 199 reached the maximum rates at 188.9 kg/hm2 and 238.1 kg/hm2, respectively, and the maximum yields were 3774.4 kg/hm2 and 3678.2 kg/hm2, respectively. Their oil production of the 2 varieties at different maturity reached the maximum when at N input as 180 kg/hm2, which were 1823.4 kg/hm2 and 1735.1 kg/hm2 respectively (no significant difference was found between the 2 varieties). The content of glucosinolate in seeds increased with the increase of N application. Under the 4 N application conditions, the glucosinolate content was less than 45.00 μmol/g, which was less than the national standard. For the 2 varieties, when N application rate were theoretical less than 183.6 kg/hm2 (for Dadi 199) and 188.5 kg/hm2 (for Qinyou 28) respectively, there would be no additional accumulation of nitrate N reserves in soil root layer (0-100 cm) after planting (compared with 65.4 kg/hm2 held in the soil root layer before sowing rape). When there was no additional accumulation of nitrate N in soil non-root layer (100-200 cm), the N application rate required by the varieties would not exceed 263.5 kg/hm2 (Qinyou 28) and 379.7 kg/hm2(Dadi 199), respectively. In summary, considering the influencing factors as variety, yield, oil production, quality and residual nitrate N reserves in soil profile, the optimal N fertilizer would be 180 kg/hm2 for green and efficient production of winter rape in southern Shaanxi Province.

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    Novel genotypes and quantitative trait locus for rust resistance in peanut
    Liang-qiang CHENG, Jian-bin GUO, Wei-tao LI, Li HUANG, Huai-yong LUO, Nian LIU, Xiao-jing ZHOU, Wei-gang CHEN, Jun WANG, Jian-wei LYU, Ting-hui HU, Qing-lin RAO, Yong LEI, Bo-shou LIAO, Hui-fang JIANG
    2022, 44 (5):  1074-1080.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021233
    Abstract ( 92 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1434KB) ( 47 )  

    Rust is a major fungal disease affecting peanut yield and quality. In this study, a recombinant inbred line population (RIL) constructed from “Zhonghua 10 × ICG 12625” was used as material. The F8 generation population was tested for rust resistance in two environments, Wuchang and Yangluo. 8 rust-resistant lines (QT0348, QT0368, QT0400, QT0402, QT0419, QT0458, QT0463 and QT0485) were obtained. QTL analysis using the pre-constructed genetic map detected 10 QTLs associated with rust resistance, with 4.54% - 10.78% phenotypic variation explained (PVE), distributed on 7 chromosomes. Among them, qBB06.1 and qBB06.4 were repeat consistent QTLs with contribution rates of 10.76%. The corresponding segment in the physical map contained 193 genes according to the flanking markers, of which 178 genes were annotated, and one NBS-R gene was among the functionally annotated genes. The results of this study provide a basis for genetic improvement of rust resistance in peanut.

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    Characterization of extracellular metalloproteinase from Puccinia helianthi
    Meng ZHANG, Lan JING, Yan LU
    2022, 44 (5):  1081-1088.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021219
    Abstract ( 72 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (1328KB) ( 93 )  

    To further understand the pathogenic mechanism of sunflower infected by rust, the hydrolytic and biological activity of a novel metalloproteinase (Mep) secreted by Puccinia helianthi were characterized and analized. Protease activity was determined by azocasein method, and its absorbance was measured at 280 nm. Results showed that the protease had hydrolytic activity to azocasein, and the optimum temperature and pH of pure enzyme were 50℃ and 7.0 respectively. It remained stable at pH 5.0-9.0 and below 50℃. The activity of Mep was significantly inhibited by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA), ethylene glycol (2-aminoethyl ether) tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 1,10-phenanthroline. Ions Ca2+, Zn2+ and Mg2+ could significantly increase the activity of Mep. The results indicated that the enzyme was a metalloproteinase. In addition, qRT-PCR results showed the expression of Mep gene in the process of rust infection of sunflower. The gene expression reached a peak at 48 h after inoculation, and then gradually decreased. It could be proved that Mep was involved in the early infection process of P. helianthi to sunflower.

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    Construction and application of near infrared ray model for oil content prediction in peanut kernel
    Hong-chang JI, Xiao-chen QIU, Wen-hao LIU, Chang-li HU, Ming KONG, Xiao-hui HU, Jian-bin HUANG, Xue YANG, Yan-yan TANG, Xiao-jun ZHANG, Jing-shan WANG, Li-xian QIAO
    2022, 44 (5):  1089-1097.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021205
    Abstract ( 83 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1856KB) ( 64 )  

    Kernel oil content is an important index for peanut quality evaluation. It is of great significance to establish a rapid and efficient oil content detection method for accelerating the breeding of high oil peanut varieties. The RIL population constructed by crossing high oil parent Yuhua 14 with oil content of 59.32% and LOP215 with oil content of 48.97% was used as the modeling material, and the spectra of 229 samples were collected by using Antaris II type fourier transform near infrared spectrometer produced by thermo company (USA), and then the oil content of seed kernel was determined. The partial least squares (PLS) method was used to construct the near infrared calibration model of peanut kernel oil content. The root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of the model was 0.885, and the correlation coefficient R2=0.9147. Twenty-one peanut materials not involved in the modeling were selected for external validation of the model, and the coefficient of determination of predicted value and chemical determination value of the model R2=0.9492, indicating that the model can be applied to determination of oil content in peanut kernels. Twenty-one lines with oil content more than 55% and 9 lines with oil content less than 48% were obtained by screening from the progeny population of crossing between Yuhua 14 and LOP215, which can provide germplasm materials for breeding high or low oil content peanut varieties.

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    Study on double microdroplet digital PCR for accurate quantitative detection of the transgenic rice expressing human serum albumin
    Xiao-fei LI, Xiao-qing YAO, Xiao-hong YAN, Jun LI, Li ZHU, Gang WU, Jun-ling LUO
    2022, 44 (5):  1098-1107.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021247
    Abstract ( 83 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (2571KB) ( 151 )  

    Gene engineering rice expressing Oryza sativa recombinant Human Serum Albumin (OsrHSA), is a transgenic rice line independently developed in China that can produce OsrHSA in rice on a large scale. It has high promotion value and application prospect, but there is no accurate and quantitative detection method for it at present. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is an emerging frontier PCR technology in recent years, which can achieve the absolute quantification of DNA molecules without relying on standard substances, and has been widely used in the field of quantification of transgenic products. In this study, a dual ddPCR method for accurate quantitative detection of recombinant human serum albumin gene engineering rice (Line 114-7-2) was established based on ddPCR platform. The optimal reaction conditions were obtained by verifying the specificity of primer probe, optimizing the concentration of primer probe and annealing temperature. Furthermore, the limits of detection, quantification and reproducibility of the method were determined. Finally, through quantitative detection of rice samples of different contents of transgenic rice within, the advantages and disadvantages of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and dual ddPCR were analyzed and compared. The results showed that the HSA/PLD dual ddPCR method established in this study had better stability, high sensitivity, low cost, accuracy and reliability, and was suitable for accurate quantitative analysis of transgenic rice expressing OsrHSA independent of standard substances. It could replace qRT-PCR method for absolute quantitative detection of transgenic rice expressing OsrHSA. The technical system for accurate and quantitative determination of transgenic rice components in China was improved.

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    Quality deterioration of imported soybean during local heating process
    Xi ZHU, Ruo-lan WANG, Ya-wei HUANG, Xing ZHOU, Hao-jie LI, Qiang SHENG, Zhi-shuai CAO
    2022, 44 (5):  1108-1116.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021204
    Abstract ( 82 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (2569KB) ( 146 )  

    During the maritime transportation and storage of imported soybeans, the changes of environmental temperature and humidity lead to the increase of local moisture content, resulting in local heating, and eventually lead to quality deterioration of soybean. In this paper, 120 kg soybean with different water content and impurity content was embedd in simulated warehouse to simulate local condition, the soybean quality was investigated during storage process at room temperature. The results showed that, the higher the moisture content of embedded soybean, the more easily the soybean quality was affected. After 21 days of storage, the crude fat content of the soybean with moisture content of 20% decreased by 0.95%, the acid value increased by 4.36 mg·g-1, and the total unsaturated fatty acid content decreased by 0.92%, protein water holding capacity decreased by 1.09 g·g-1, oil holding capacity increased by 0.78 g·g-1, emulsification activity index and emulsification stability increased by 3.38 m2·g-1 and 2.59%, respectively. However, the soybean embedded with water content of 16% or with impurity content of 50% have slower heating and lower heating temperature. The change trend of soybean crude fat and protein isolate quality index was similar, but the change range was smaller.

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    Drying characteristics and quality of wet peeling Cyperus esculentus under different drying processes
    Peng-xiao CHEN, Ping-ping GUO, Fan YANG, Ye LIU, Jian-zhang WU, Wen-xue ZHU
    2022, 44 (5):  1117-1122.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021207
    Abstract ( 77 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1453KB) ( 111 )  

    The method of wet peeling followed by drying can simplify the process before oil extraction and improve oil yield and quality of Cyperus esculentus. In order to explore the most suitable drying process for wet peeling C. esculentus, in this paper, thin layer hot-air drying characteristics of wet peeling C. esculentus were studied, and the quality changes of wet peeling C. esculentus and oil were compared under different drying processes. Hot-air temperatures of 50℃, 60℃, 70℃ with wind speed of 0.8 m/s were set and natural drying was set as control. The color, hardness, rehydration of wet peeling C. esculentus, and the quality of C. esculentus oil were determined after different drying processes. The results showed that, the brightness and redness of sample decreased, meanwhile the hardness increased after drying. The rehydration of hot-air samples at 50℃ was the best, followed by natural drying, and the worst at 70℃. Under the condition of hot-air drying, with the increase of air temperature, the acid value and peroxide value of the prepared oil increased, but it was far lower than the national standard for edible vegetable oil.

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    Methylene blue and β-carotene double fading method in soybean breeding of lipoxygenase free
    Xian-xu WANG, Hui-ming FAN, Ran OU, Lei WANG, Sui WANG, Yan JIANG, Shao-dong WANG
    2022, 44 (5):  1123-1129.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021235
    Abstract ( 72 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1548KB) ( 88 )  

    The development of screening and identification methods for three isozyme lacking characteristics of lipoxygenase (lox-1,2,3) is significance to the breeding and phenotypic identification of odorless soybean with lipoxygenases lacking in F2 soybean seeds. In this study, methylene blue and β-carotene fading reactions at different pH values of three isoenzymes Lox-1,2,3 were used to accurately identify four phenotypes of Lox-1, 2, 3 wild type, Lox-1, 2, 3 free, Lox-1, 2 free, and Lox-3 free in F2 generation by trace sampling. The identification had no impacts on breeding of the selected individuals with target traits and could provide technical support for breeding and phenotypic identification of new soybean varieties with null lipoxygenases deficiency.

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    A local BLAST based high throughput primer designing R package (LightPrimer) and its application
    Ya-jun XIONG, Yi-jie CHEN, Juan ZOU, Fan ZHANG
    2022, 44 (5):  1130-1138.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021258
    Abstract ( 79 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (2982KB) ( 73 )  

    The primer quality is one of the important factors affecting PCR reaction. The shortcomings of current primer design software mainly lie in relatively low throughput, complicated operation process and less extent of source opening. In this study, a high-throughput primer designing software (LightPrimer) was developed for cloning, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), SNP and InDel markers development based on R and Local-BLAST. LightPrimer extracts specific sequences from the working genome via sequence information, followed by sequence fragmentation, Then basic local alignment between fragmentated sequences and the genome is performed by Local-BLAST, screening of highly specific fragmentated sequences which are filtrated through sequence specificity index and matched loci. After that a list of candidate primers is to be obtained by filtration of Tm, GC content, amplicon length, primer length, 3' end matching, GC end base and dimer screening. The sequence evaluation diagnostic plot could provide a reference for primer optimization if no target primers were obtained. LightPrimer is of high throughput, simple operation process, cross platform and open source, which could be a useful supplement to the existing primer design software. The LightPrimer can be downloaded from gitHub (https://github.com/YangtzeSoyGDB/LightPrimer.git).

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