Table of Content

    28 June 2021, Volume 43 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
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    Research advances in the biosynthesis and regulation of lipid in oil crops
    FAN Shi-hang, LIU Nian, HUA Wei
    2021, 43 (3):  361.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021097
    Abstract ( 402 )   PDF (2044KB) ( 528 )  
         Vegetable oil is not only the main source of edible oil but also an important renewable biofuel for nproduction and industry for humans. Thus, it is of great scientific significance and application value to elucidate the mechanism of the biosynthesis and regulation of oil in plants, which can improve the content and composition of vegetable oil. In this review, the biosynthesis of plant oil and the progress of genetic research on oil syntheses such as maternal effect, QTL, and GWAS were summarized to uncover the mechanism of lipid accumulation of oil cropsMeanwhile, we summed up the well-known genes that participate in lipid biosynthesis and regulation. This paper was expected to shed light on current research status in this field, provide an important reference to the further understanding of the regulation of oil crops lipid biosynthesis, and to give a better theoretical basis to oil crops molecular improvement and genetic breeding.

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    Molecular regulatory mechanisms of explant regeneration
    LI Jun, FAN Shi-hang, LIU Jing-lin, LIU Jing, HUA Wei
    2021, 43 (3):  376.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020200
    Abstract ( 212 )   PDF (742KB) ( 224 )  
          Plant cell totipotency is considered to be the fundamental basis for plant cell engineering. Different explants could regenerate into intact plants to fulfill asexual reproduction via de novo organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis induced by wounding stimulus. Actually, explants regeneration is highly depended on developmental and environmental signals. This paper reviewed explants perception of wounding signal and reprogramming initiation, shoot and root regeneration under exogenous auxin/cytokinin balance and gene expression, somatic embryogenesis regulation and hormone dynamics, especially the epigenetic regulation during the process of reprogramming in explant regeneration. It was expected to obtain high efficient explant regeneration system for genetic transformation and production practice.

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    Cloning and activity of BnLEC1.A07 gene promoter in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) lines with different oil content
    WANG Yan-jia, FAN Shi-hang§, LIU Jing, ZHENG Ming, HUA Wei
    2021, 43 (3):  383.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021092
    Abstract ( 233 )   PDF (5889KB) ( 282 )  
         In order to further study the gene BnLEC1 on oil biosynthesis, high-oil variety 61616 and low-oil variety 51070 were used as materials to carry out transcriptome and quantitative PCR analysis. The results showed that the expression level of BnLEC1. A07 in 61616 was significantly higher than that in 51070. Cloning and sequence comparison of the promoter PLEC161616 (1829 bp) and PLEC151070 (1824 bp) were performed respectively.The results showed that a large number of SNPs and InDels between the two promoters, and single-base SNPs were abundant. Cis-acting elements analysis showed that PLEC161616 had one CAAT-box and two jasmonic acid response elements more than those of PLEC151070, and one cell cycle control element and two abiotic stress response elements were missing. The promoter fusion vectors with GUS and LUC were constructed respective. GUS staining, LUC fluorescence imaging in vivo after transient transformation of tobacco leaves and luciferase activity assay showed that the activity of PLEC161616 was higher than that of PLEC151070. The comprehensive results showed that the expression level of BnLEC1.A07 gene in different lines was positively correlated with oil content. PLEC161616 had stronger priming activity than PLEC151070. This study provides a theoretical basis for further exploring the regulation mechanism of the lipid synthesis gene BnLEC1.A07 in different rapeseed lines.

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    Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of ZIP transporter gene family in Brassica napus
    HE Dan, YANG Tai-hua, LI Ting, WU Jin-feng, PENG Jia-shi, LIU Li-li, ZHANG Da-wei, YAN Ming-li, LI Zai-yun
    2021, 43 (3):  392.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021071
    Abstract ( 379 )   PDF (11750KB) ( 388 )  
        ZIP transporter gene family, which is mainly involved in absorption and transport of metal cations,and plays an important role in plant, development and response to heavy metal stress. In this study, 51 members of the ZIP gene family in Brassica napus were identified by bioinformatics method,. Tandem duplication were found in A and C subgenomes as compared with three basic species of Brassica. Using Brassica napus CV ZS11 as a reference genome, the ZIP gene family was mapped onto 17 chromosomes, and 10 motif were predicted, all of which contained ZIP domain. Moreover, the cis-regulatory elements locating at 3 kb upstream of promoter region were predicted. Based on phylogenetic tree analysis, the ZIP gene family of Brassica napus was divided into three major groups,and was conserved among the three basic species of Brassica. In addition, ZIP gene family showed tissue-specificand BnaIRT3 genes were ac⁃tively expressed in different tissues and different developmental stages. We also found that BnaIRT1.A01a was expressed in both leaves and roots of rape treated with different concentrations of cadmium, which might play an important role in response of rape to cadmium stress. These results might provide references for the subsequent biological functions of the ZIP gene family.

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    Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of AOC gene family in Brassica napus L.
    KANG Yu, LIU Wei, XIE Pan, GUAN Mei, QIAN Lun-wen, GUAN Chun-yun, HUA Wei, HE Xin
    2021, 43 (3):  405.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021070
    Abstract ( 336 )   PDF (6183KB) ( 332 )  
         Allene oxide cyclase(AOC)is an important synthase in jasmonic acid(JA)signal pathway, whichplays an important role in many growth and development processes, such as photosynthesis, material metabolism and stress response. In this study, based on 4 AOC genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, 12, 4 and 6 AOC genes were identified in Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. Then the molecular characteristics, protein conserved domains, phylogenetic tree, gene structure and chromosome distribution, tissue expression patterns under different stresses and hormone treatments were systematically compared and analyzed. The results showed that AOC gene wa highly conserved in the above Brassicaceae species, and AOC1/2/3 gene existed in the form of tandem gene cluster;12 BnaAOC genes had different tissue expression patterns and responded to various stresses and hormone treatments; BnaAOC3(BnaA09g19550D and BnaC09g52550D)genes were induced by methyl jasmonate(MeJA), salicylic acid(SA), salt stress and PEG-6000 treatment, and strongly induced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This study
    might lay a foundation and provide guidance for further understanding the biological functions of AOC family genesin response to abiotic stress and S. sclerotiorum in Brassica napus.

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    Breeding for thermo-sensitive pol cytoplasmic male sterile line and its restorer with high oleic acid through molecular marker-assisted selection in Brassica napus
    GUO Ju-ling, SHI Xiao-rui, XIN Qiang, HONG Deng-feng, YANG Guang-sheng
    2021, 43 (3):  418.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020132
    Abstract ( 211 )   PDF (2710KB) ( 241 )  
          High oleic rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) oil has high nutrition with good quality for cooking, processing and storage. For high oleic acid breeding and heterosis utilization, male sterile line and restoring line were bred  by using line J-3111 with high oleic acid as donor parent. Its high oleic allele (fad2 gene) was succefully transferred into a thermo-sensitive pol cytoplasmic male sterile (pol TCMS) line 616A and a restoring line L-135R by backcross and molecular marker-assisted selection. Results showed that oleic content of the improved strains was up to 75.18%. Meanwhile, yield traits of the improved lines showed no significant difference comparing with recipient parents in silique length, seeds number per silique and thousand-seeds weight. Based on whole-genome resequencing data, InDel markers were developed closely-linked with fad2 gene. Thus we obtained improved pol TCMS line and restoring line with high oleic contents, which laid foundation for breeding of high-yield and high-oleic cotent.

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    Effects of AGPase gene Glgc overexpression on starch and oil synthesis in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
    ZHAO Kai-qin, YANG Qing-hui, ZHANG Yun-yun, LUO Yan-qing, WANG Jing-qiao, LI Jing-feng, CHEN Wei, TIAN Zheng-shu
    2021, 43 (3):  426.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020016
    Abstract ( 139 )   PDF (1403KB) ( 130 )  
          In order to understand the function of adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase)gene and its relationship with the changes in oil content of rapeseeds, two types of specific promoter-gene expression vectors were constructed: pMB-DOF-Glgc (overexpress the exogenous AGPase gene Glgc in early embryos)and pMB-Cruc-Glgc (overexpress the exogenous Glgc in late embryos). By detection of transgenic positive plants subsequently, it was intended to increase starch synthesis in embryo, promote synthesis of fatty acids, and achieve the purpose of increasing the oil content of rape seeds. Ten single-copy positive strains were selected from the transformed positive plants in each vector group by qPCR method. The relative starch content in seeds at different developmental stages and oil content of mature seeds of the above positive plants were analyzed. Oil content analysis was performed on mature seeds of all transformed positive plants. Results presented that the average relative content of the starch in single-copy plant seeds in DOF: Glgc group and Cruc: Glgc group increased from the pre-development stage (22 DAF) and the middle stage development (35 DAF), respectively. The peaks of starch accumulation in two mock-vehicle controls were 9.43% and 9.76%, at 31 DAF respectively. Maximum starch content of the DOF: Glgc group also appeared at 31 DAF, reaching 12.33%. While in Cruc: Glgc group it appeared at 35 DAF, reaching 12.92%. The average oil content of mature seeds in the two control groups was 40.12% and 40.00%, and the average oil content of mature seeds in the DOF: Glgc group and Cruc: Glgc group were 40.35% and 40.26%, respectively. For 150 transgenic lines, oil content of two Cruc: Glgc group were 40.58% and 40.60% respectively,while the average oil content of the controls were 40.30% and 40.33%. The analysis results revealed that the starch content of DOF: Glgc and Cruc: Glgc transformants significantly increased, and the peak value of the increase was consistent with the promoter's spatiotemporal specificity. However, the increase in oil content of the transformant seeds was
    not significant. Thus suggested that increasing the starch content in rape embryos might not change the final carbon flow distribution and thus affect the seed oil content.

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    Construction of whole genome full-length cDNA FOX-hunting overexpression library in Brassica napus
    ZHANG Kai, WEI Si-yu§, CHANG Wei, FAN Yong-hai, LU Kun
    2021, 43 (3):  435.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020044
    Abstract ( 193 )   PDF (1862KB) ( 205 )  
          Genome-wide overexpression library is an important basis for systematic characterization of gene function in Brassica napus. Full-length cDNA FOX-hunting overexpression library was constructed by combining FOX-hunting and Gateway recombination techniques with full-length cDNA of mixed samples of seedling roots and leaves treated with 4 hormones and 4 abiotic stresses, and mature seeds and silique pericarps in B. napus. Titer of the primary library was 3.0×106, and total CFU was 1.2×107. The secondary FOX-hunting overexpression library had a titer of 2.6×106 and a total CFU of 1.04×107. PCR identification showed that the positive clone rate was 96%, and the amplificons were all exhibited as single band random distributed within 250-3000 bp, indicating that the primary library had been well recombined into pJVC55 vector. Sequencing results of Agrobacterium-transformed clones showed that 12 of the 140 clones were non-specific. GO enrichment analysis found that, except for 21 genes
    enriched in photosynthesis, the remaining genes randomly distributed in transcription factors and kinases, and their functions were involved in multiple aspects involved organ development, metabolism and stress response. The results showed that our FOX-hunting overexpression library of B. napus had rich polymorphism and high integrity,but no functional preference, which laid an important foundation for the functional genome study in B. napus.

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    Phenotypic identification and genetic analysis of a chlorophyll deficient mutant yl1 in Brassica napus
    PENG Men-lu, ZHAO Xiao-zhen, WANG Xiao-dong, CHEN Feng, ZHANG Wei, SUN Cheng-ming, ZHANG Chun, GUAN Rong-zhan, ZHANG Jie-fu
    2021, 43 (3):  443.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020267
    Abstract ( 191 )   PDF (3498KB) ( 241 )  
          To further exploit and utilize high photosynthetic efficiency germplasm in rapeseed, chlorophyll deficient mutant was investigated on agronomic traits, photosynthetic pigment, photosynthetic parameters and chloroplast ultrastructure. The mutant was named Ningyou yl1(yl1 for short) from Brassica napus cv Ningyou 18(NY18)by EMS(ethyl methane-sulfonate). Compared to NY18, yl1 was yellowing throughout the whole growth stage, and had significant changes in agronomic traits. Seedling􀆳s photosynthetic pigment content decreased significantly, and chlorophyll b decreased sharply. The net photosynthetic rate decreased significantly for abnormal and underdeveloped chloroplasts. The thylakoids loosely distributed and was disabled to stack into grana thylakoids. To understand the genetics of yl1, NY18 and the mutant were crossed to develop six-generation populations of P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1P(B1)and BC1P2(B2). By using combined separation and analysis method of plant main gene + multi-gene of the sixgeneration, it was found that yl1 chlorophyll deficiency was controlled by an incomplete dominant gene and conformed to one pair additive dominant gene model. The main gene heritability of F2 generation was 96.42%.

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    Cloning and expression characteristics of BnNAC61 gene in Brassica napus
    HAO Li-fen, YAN Meng-jiao, HUANGFU Hai-yan, SONG Pei-ling, FANG Yong-yu, JIA Xiao-qing, LI Zi-qin, HAN Bing
    2021, 43 (3):  452.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020364
    Abstract ( 193 )   PDF (4860KB) ( 241 )  
         NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) are involved in the regulation of plant growth, development, senescence and and various stress responses. To elucidate expression characteristics of BnNAC61 in Brassica napus, BnNAC61 gene was cloned from total cDNA of B. napus by RT-PCR. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the total length of CDS was 846 bp, encoding 281 amino acids, and N-terminal contained the conserved domain of NAM. Its cis-acting elements of W-box, response to resistance and stress, ABA and MeJA (jasmonic acid methyl ester) were found in promoter region. Subcellular localization using the transient expression system of tobacco showed that BnNAC61 was localized in nucleus. Yeast assay showed that BnNAC61 belonged to the transcriptional activator, and the transcriptional activation region was located at the 136-208 aa. By qRT-PCR, it was found that BnNAC61 expression was significantly up-regulated after inoculation with Leptosphaeria biglobosa. Moreover, BnNaC61 expression was induced by PEG, NaCl and 4℃ stress, and showed a first increasing trend. BnNAC61 expressions after salicylic acid, MeJA and ACC (aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid) treatments were significantly higher than that of the control (P<0.05), although it was inhibited after ABA treatment. These results indicated that BnNAC61 is a transcription factor involved in various stress, especially in signaling pathways of MeJA and ethylene.
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    Genetic dissection of plant architecture-related traits by GWAS with PCA in Brassica napus
    ZHANG Xu, Safdar Luqman Bin, TANG Min-qiang, LIU Yue-ying, ZHANG Yuan-yuan, LIU Sheng-yi
    2021, 43 (3):  462.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020032
    Abstract ( 272 )   PDF (3646KB) ( 275 )  
         For global demand of high yield breeding, complex genetic regulation on plant architecture was focused by genome-wide association study (GWAS) and principal component analysis (PCA), based on 4 typical traits related to plant architecture (PA) of 373 B. napus (L.) accessions. The 4 traits included plant height, branch height,branch number and main inflorescence length in 3 environments (Wuhan 2014-2015, Wuhan 2015-2016, and Yangzhou 2015-2016). Results showed that PCA could reasonably explain the phenotypes related to PA. PCAGWA Sand normal GWAS could verify and complement each other and provide the most information on traits that determine rapeseed architecture. Further, 19 PA related candidate genes were obtained from chromosomes A01, A10 and C06. Two genes on chromosome C06 were related to the new loci identified by PC1-GWAS. This method and results provide new ideas and strategies for the analysis of the formation mechanism of complex traits such as PA.
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    Cell division and signal transfer mechanism of Brassica napus mediated by reactive oxygen species
    QI Wei-liang, MA Li, WANG Ping, WANG Fei, SUN Bai-lin, WANG Wan-peng, WU Jun-yan, SUN Wan-cang
    2021, 43 (3):  470.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020275
    Abstract ( 192 )   PDF (7995KB) ( 127 )  
        To understand the role of reactive oxygen (ROS) in cold resistance mechanism of Brassica napus,studies were carried on investigation of generation, distribution and signal transduction of ROS in B. napus cells. B.napus variety 16NTS309 was used as material for O2- sub-cellular localization by histochemical staining and organizational structure analysis. It was found that O2- signal was detected in meristem of root tip, meristem of shoot tip,leaf primordia, leaf margin and callus, which had strong ability of cell division under normal conditions. However,the plant underwent an oxidation explosion after cold stress. The sub-cellular distribution of O2- was found in root,petiole and leaves by morphoanatomical analysis. Tissue structure analysis showed that starch grains in petiole and mesophyll cells were homogeneous, and location of O2- in roots and calli was mainly in plasma membrane and cell wall. Diffusion of O2- was even found in surrounding cells. It suggested that O2- might be actively involved in regulating cell division. Vascular tissue system of B. napus might be capable to complete redox messenger synthesis, signal amplification and system transport. And cold response could be realized by ROS signaling between different tissues and over long distances organs in B. napus.

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    Application research of unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing and deep learning in identification of freezing injury in rapeseed
    AN Tan-zhou, LI Li-li, ZHANG Rui-jie, LI Li, LIU Qing-yun, QIAO Jiang-wei, WANG Xin-fa, YAO Jian
    2021, 43 (3):  479.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021066
    Abstract ( 267 )   PDF (5852KB) ( 299 )  
          Meteorological disaster is a major factor that affects crop yield and agricultural sustainable development in China. Freezing injury could lead to growth retardation and yield reduction of rapeseed. Rapid and accurate identification and evaluation of rapeseed freezing injury not only can provide basic information for the accurate field management but also have important significance for rapeseed breeding with freezing tolerance. Here in this study, we employed the low-altitude UAV remote sensing technology, by using Dajiang Phantom 4 Pro V2.0 that carries a 20 million pixel RGB camera, photographed 2052 accessions of rapeseed breeding materials. These materials were in wintering growth stage of 88 days old. After splicing, clipping, evaluation and expansion, the images taken were divided into training set and verification set according to 8:2. The images of training set were input into the developed deep learning network model in batches to extract freezing injury features and optimize the network model. After optimization, the identification results were verified with the images of verification set. The results demonstrated that the overall identification accuracy of the deep learning network model was 98.13%, the Micro F1 was 98.13%,the Macro F1 was 98.11%, the Kappa coefficient was 0.96, indicating that this deep learning network model had reliable and fine overall performance. This experiment realized the rapid, efficient and accurate evaluation of freezing damage of large area rapeseed materials with relatively low cost, and made up for the defects of traditional investigation methods. At the same time, the complete set of freezing injury identification methods established in this study can provide important support for the subsequent research on the mechanism of freezing resistance and variety selection. What is more, it can also substantially support the development of phenotyping systems on other alike traits.

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    Analysis of genetic effects for seed high oil content based on multi-population in peanut(Arachishypogaea L.)
    YU Hai-yang, LI Yu-ying, LYU Yu-ying, ZHANG Xiu-rong, YANG Hui, ZHANG Kun, WANG Lin, LIU Feng-zhen, WAN Yong-shan
    2021, 43 (3):  487.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021058
    Abstract ( 204 )   PDF (1123KB) ( 181 )  
         In order to investigate the genetic model of oil content in high-oil peanut line Nongda D666, four F2 populations(DP, PD, SD, 3D)were constructed using Nongda D666 as the central parent. Meanwhile, using the parents of Nongda D666, Fenghua 2 and Krapt.st.16, two F2 populations of positive and reciprocal crosses(FP, PF)were constructed. The six F2 populations were used to analyze the main gene+polygene genetic model of oil content. Oil content in the six F2 populations had wide genetic variations and transgressive segregation, which showed a con⁃
    tinuous distribution, consistented with the genetic distribution characteristics of quantitative traits. There was little difference in oil content between parents of DP or PD, and the mean oil content of F2 populations were higher, which were 54.29% and 54.02%, the coefficient variations(CV)were 3.38% and 3.90%, respectively. There was significant difference in oil content between parents of SD or 3D, the average oil contents of their F2 populations were only 52.66% and 51.75%, and their CV were 5.51% and 6.24%, respectively. The average oil contents of F2 populations in FP and PF were 50.30% and 51.52%, and CV were 6.30% and 6.00%, respectively. The six populations were in accordance with three genetic models. In DP and PD, the inheritance of oil content was fitting none major gene mod⁃ el(0MG), and was controlled by polygenes. In SD and 3D, it fitted the two major gene model with additive-dominant-epistatic effect(2MG-ADI), both additive and dominant effects were positively regulated, and additive effect was dominant. The heritabilities of major genes was 33.64% and 37.80%, respectively. The gene effect values in the two populations were similar, and the synergistic genes were inherited from the high oil parent. In FP and PF, inheri⁃
    tance of oil content fitted two major genes model with equal dominant effect(2MG-EAD), and the heritabilities of the major genes were 51.17% and 63.56%, respectively. The inheritance pattern of the positive and reverse crossing combination was the same, indicating that the oil content is dominated by nuclear inheritance, the additive effect is positive, and the synergistic genes were inherited from the high oil parent. Comprehensive analysis showed that the transgressive inheritance of oil content in Nongda D666 was controlled by two major genes inherited from Krapt.St.16 and polygenes with additive genetic effects.

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    Verifying high variation regions based on sect. Arachis chloroplast genome and revealing the interspecies genetic relationship
    WANG Juan, LI Chun-juan, SHI Da-chuan, LIU Yu, TANG Rong-hua, HE Liang-qiong, ZHAO Xiao-bo, YUAN Cui-ling, SUN Quan-xi, YAN Cai-xia, SHAN Shi-hua
    2021, 43 (3):  495.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020120
    Abstract ( 198 )   PDF (1298KB) ( 249 )  
       Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops and cash cropsworldwide. However, the genetic improvement of peanut cultivar is restricted by its narrow genetic base. The highly variable wild peanut species may serve as a rich genetic source of disease and insect resistant genetic resources. In order to take advantage of these wild peanut resources, the phylogenetic relationship of the Arachis species need firstly to be understood. The whole chloroplast (cp) genomes with uniparental inheritance and low order classification will help to reveal the sect. Arachis genetic relationship, but more time and procedures would be reqrired. Here,the total of 9 candidate high variation regions was targeted based on the available 15 sect. Arachis cp complete genomes and 1 sect. Erectoides cp complete genome. By PCR verification, the region psbE-petL was found to be the highest variation region, which was used to detect the genetic relationship rapidly for the unknown sect. Arachis species. By comparing the topological structure of the phylogenetic tree, our study provided important reference for new species delimitation and interspecies exploration.
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    #br# Visual analysis of yield and components of high oleic acid peanut cultivar Kainong 1760
    DENG Li, GUO Min-jie, YIN Jun-hua, GU Jian-zhong, MIAO Jian-li, LI Yang, REN Li
    2021, 43 (3):  502.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2021050
    Abstract ( 318 )   PDF (3458KB) ( 217 )  
          To provide effective guidance for high yield and good quality of peanut breeding, yield and its rela⁃tionship with agronomic traits of small-pod high oleic acid peanut cultivar Kainong 1760 was analyzed. The data of regional trials for small-pod peanut varieties in Henan Province in 2014 and 2015 were performed to evaluate the yield and stability of Kainong 1760 based on GGE biplot, and the visual correlation and path analysis were conduct⁃
    ed by R language. Results showed that yield and stability of Kainong 1760 ranked the first in both 2014 and 2015.Coefficient of variation of shelling percentage was the smallest. The positive correlation coefficient between full pod percentage and yield was extremely significant. And 100-pod weight, single plant productivity, 100-seed weight,main stem height, lateral branch length, branches number with pods had significant positive correlations with yield.The direct path coefficient of branches number with pods was the largest, indicating that it was the key trait affect⁃
    ing yield of Kainong 1760. In conclusion, Kainong 1760 was suitable for large-scale promotion and utilization inHenan Province for its high yield and strong stability. Meanwhile, branch number with pods should be priority consideration during breeding practice of new small-pod peanut cultivars.
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    Analysis on trends of main traits for summer soybean varieties released in Anhui from 1983 to 2019
    WANG Da-gang, CHEN Sheng-nan, YU Guo-yi, LI Jie-kun, HAN Qian-xiao, WU Qian, HU Guo-yu, HUANG Zhi-ping
    2021, 43 (3):  510.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020127
    Abstract ( 251 )   PDF (1489KB) ( 322 )  
          To improve soybean varieties and develop the soybean industry in Anhui, the changing trends of yield, quality and resistance related traits for 105 soybean varieties released in Anhui Province from 1983 to 2019 and their intrinsic connections were analyzed. The results showed that there were 100 normal summer soybean vari⁃ eties, accounting for 95.24%, and 5 hybrid soybean varieties, accounting for 4.76%. The variation range of effective branch number was the maximum in these main traits,while that of growth periods and total protein and fat content was the smallest. The correlation analysis showed that, yield had extremely significant negative relation with plant height (r=-0.318), had extremely significant positive relation with 100-seed weight (r=0.269); the protein content had extremely significant negative relation with fat content (r=-0.586) and had extremely significant positive relation with total protein and fat content (r=0.809); 100-seed weight, yield and fat content significantly increased with average annual improvements of 0.06 g, 16.59 kg·hm-2 and 0.02%, respectively. Meanwhile plant height, effective branch number, protein content and total protein and fat content was very significantly reduced by 0.23 cm, 0.03,0.07% and 0.05% per year respectively. The annual average of growth periods remained stable from 1983 to 2019.Among 64 soybean varieties released in Anhui Province from 2007 to 2019, 3 (4.69%) and 11 (17.19%) varieties were high resistant and resistant to both soybean mosaic virus strains SC3 and SC7,and 28 (43.75%) and 35(54.69%) belonged to resistant type or intermediate type, including moderate resistance and moderate susceptibility,respectively. Significance analysis showed that there was no significant difference in average yield and total protein and fat content between the resistant and intermediate types of SMV. In summary, high-yield breeding, simultane⁃ ously improving the disease resistance and quality of varieties is an important direction for the sustainable development of soybeans in Anhui Province.

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    Analysis on registration of sunflower varieties in China
    LI Rong-de, LI Ai-ai, NIU Qing-jie
    2021, 43 (3):  518.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020141
    Abstract ( 265 )   PDF (940KB) ( 204 )  
           Since May 2017, China officially implemented a registration system for non-major crop varieties.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an important oil crop which was one of the first 29 crops to be included in thevariety registration catalog. At the end of 2019, a total of 1687 sunflower varieties were registered nationwide. This study reviewed the basic conditions of these registered sunflower varieties. After the implementation of sunflower variety registration, a number of high-quality varieties have emerged which are widely used in production. The problems encountered include insufficient utilization of germplasm resources and inadequate knowledge on protection of registered varieties. There is the need to make full use of germplasm resources, improve breeding techniques, and strengthen joint technical research and other related activities.

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    Establishment of a rapid and effective transgenic system for oil flax
    CHI Hui, ZHANG Tian-bao, LIU Cai-yue, LI Liang, PEI Xin-wu, YUAN Qian-hua, LONG Yan
    2021, 43 (3):  524.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020342
    Abstract ( 211 )   PDF (1330KB) ( 184 )  
         Linseed flax is an important oil crop in China, and it is also the main cash crop in arid and semi-arid regions. In recent years, with the development of national economy and the improvement of life quality, people's demand for linseed flax is gradually increasing. It is of great significance for molecular breeding of linseed flax to establish a rapid and efficient genetic transformation system. In this study, cotyledonary nodes were used as the explants and the glyphosate was used as the screening target in the genetic transformation system. After comparing the proportion of growth regulator in each growth period of linseed flax, the genetic transformation method was established and eptimized. Compared with the traditional method of transforming hypocotyl into explants, the seedling time could be shortened to two months, and the positive plant identification method was simple and efficient. This system provides a favorable condition for accelerating molecular breeding and gene related research of linseed flax.
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    Research progress on specific lipid companions and analytical methods in oil crops
    ZHANG Yao, WU Bang-fu, LYU Xin, XIE Ya, CHEN Hong, WEI Fang
    2021, 43 (3):  530.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020134
    Abstract ( 265 )   PDF (1734KB) ( 298 )  
          Oil crops are the main source of edible vegetable oil, which provide indispensable energy and nutrientsfor human life activities. There are many specific lipid companions in oil crops, such as phytosterols, plant polyphenols,squalene, tocopherols, resveratrol and so on. These specific lipid companions not only affect the physiological process of oil crops, but also have an important impact on the quality of edible oil. In this paper, the specific lipid companions and their analytical methods in oil crops were reviewed in order to provide scientific guidance for the development of deep processing products of oil crops and the nutritional components and functional evaluation of vegetable oils.
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    Sphingolipid profile analysis method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography-orbitrap mass spectrometry and its application in vegetable oil and oil crops#br#
    WAN Li-hao, QU Chen-ling, WANG Xiu-pin
    2021, 43 (3):  542.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020355
    Abstract ( 201 )   PDF (3578KB) ( 322 )  
         Sphingolipids and their metabolites have strong biological activity and participate in important physiological activities such as cell proliferation, differentiation, immunity, apoptosis and aging. As a newly discovered nutrient, it has a very important impact on human health. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry combined with Lipidsearch database software were used to determine and analyze sphingolipid composition characteristics of rapeseed oil, soybean oil and peanut oil and the corresponding oil crops. Relative molecular mass of the precursor ion of the primary mass spectrometry and the relative molecular mass of the fragment ion of the secondary mass spectrometry were used to characterize sphingolipids. The results showed that a total of 11 sphingolipids were detected in rapeseed oil, a total of 14 sphingolipids were detected in soybean oil, a total of 18 sphingolipids were detected in peanut oil, and 24, 22, and 24 sphingolipids were identified in the three corresponding oil crops. This method is qualitatively accurate and the number of sphingolipids analyzedis relatively comprehensive. It could provide a reliable basis for the nutrition research of vegetable oils and oil crops, and could provide a qualitative reference for fingerprints of vegetable oils and oil crops.

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