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    01 November 2021, Volume 43 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Thaumatin-like protein kinase BnTLK1 from Brassica napus related to fungal disease resistance
    ZHONG Xue, LI Xiang, ZUO Rong, LIU Jie, LIU Sheng-yi, BAI Ze-tao, TONG Chao-bo
    2021, 43 (5):  743.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020090
    Abstract ( 157 )   PDF (10055KB) ( 132 )  
    As the fifth family of pathogenesis-related proteins, TLP (thaumatin-like protein) plays an important defensive role in the interaction between plant and pathogen. In some species, the C-terminal of TLP fused kinase domain, but the fusion gene function required to be discussed. In Brassica napus, we identified and cloned a gene named BnTLK1, which contained a TLP domain at N termini and serine/ threonine-rich receptor-like kinase domain at C termini. Sequence characterization showed that BnTLK1 had typical transmembrane structure and formed two independent units at 3D structure level. The expression of BnTLK1 was low in different tissues, high expressed in the cultivar 'ZY821' of high resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and induced by S. sclerotiorum based on public transcriptome data analysis. To investigate the effect of BnTLK1 on S. sclerotiorum and other fungus, BnTLK1 were expressed in prokaryotic system and get the soluble protein BnTLK1 after overnight induction at 0.4 mmol/L IPTG and 17℃. Bacteriostatic experiment further confirmed BnTLK1 could indeed inhibit the mycelium growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea.
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    BnTLP1 on resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Brassica napus
    SHI Mei-juan, ZUO Rong, LIU Jie, ZHAO Chuan-ji, DONG Zhi-xue, HE Yi-zhou, LI Yan, LI Xiang, TONG Chao-bo, HUANG Bang-quan, BAI Ze-tao, LIU Sheng-yi,
    2021, 43 (5):  752.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020109
    Abstract ( 121 )   PDF (7704KB) ( 102 )  
    BnTLP1 gene was previously found highly expressed in tolerant Brassica napus cv. Zhongyou 821. To deep understand the tolerance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, BnTLP1 gene was identified using overexpressed transgenic Arabidopsis lines. Leaf inoculation was carried out using BnTLP1 overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis lines, wild-type and tlp1-1 mutant by S. sclerotiorum mycelial agar plugs. Compared to WT, BnTLP1 overexpression lines exhibited the smallest lesion, while tlp1-1 showed the largest one, suggesting that BnTLP1 could positively regulated Sclerotinia disease resistance. Subcellular localization indicated that BnTLP1 was located in cell membrane and nucleus. Expression analysis of marker genes in different defense signaling showed that jasmonic acid/ethylene might play roles in the early stage of BnTLP1-mediated diseased resistance.
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    Construction and phenotypic analysis of EMS-treated mutant library in spring Brassica napus L.
    FAN Shi-hang, SUN Xing-chao§, LIU Jing-lin, ZHANG Liang, DENG Lin-bin, LIU Jing
    2021, 43 (5):  762.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020339
    Abstract ( 124 )   PDF (74002KB) ( 162 )  
    Creation of spring rapeseed mutant library is expected to be used in variety improvement and functional genomic research. Spring Brassica napus does not need a long vernalization process for flowering and has a short growth period, which makes it very promising for the creation of mutant banks in rapeseed. In this study, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) was used to mutate the seeds of spring rapeseed 862 to construct an EMS mutant library. By comparing the effects of 8 different concentrations of EMS (0-1.4%) on seeds germination rate, 0.8% EMS, which resulted in 37.2% germination rate, was used as the application concentration. Through field screening and phenotypic statistics, the morphological characteristics of 1823 individual plants in M2 generation were identified. The total mutation frequency was 3.91%. The mutant phenotypes mainly include leaf color, leaf shape, plant height, plant type, silique length, seed size, seed coat color, and seed oil content. The construction of this mutant library provided a variety of phenotypic germplasm resources for functional genomics research and molecular breeding in rapeseed.
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    Constructing and comparing of SSR map on introgressed segment linkaged with Rfo gene for Ogu CMS restorer line 16C
    ZU Feng, HE Chun-fang, YANG Su-juan, HE Xiao-ying, CHEN Wei, LI Jing-feng, ZHANG Guo-jian, ZHANG Jian-kun, WANG Jing-qiao
    2021, 43 (5):  771.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020057
    Abstract ( 95 )   PDF (2865KB) ( 113 )  
    To push the application of Ogu CMS restorer line 16C, SSR map of introgressed segment linkaged with Rfo gene of the Ogu CMS restorer line 16C was constructed. And comparison of 16C with R2000 from Europe was carried out by SSR molecular makers. Sterile line 81A and the restorer line 16C were used as parents to develop an F2 population. 38 SSR primers originated from radish reference genome were designed to screen SSR markers linked with Rfo gene in F2. Results showed 12 of the primers linking with Rfo gene. Among them, 2 markers, R9SSR2416 and R9SSR3326, were at the two end sides of introgressed fragment separately. 11 of the 38 primers were found to be different between 16C and R2000 by PCR. 2 of the 11 markers were specific for 16C and the other 9 were specific for R2000. The introgressed segment in 16C was about 3.30 Mb (Chromosome_R9:8480586-11779992). Thus it was different from R2000 on both size and source.
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    Breeding of a high oil-content restorer line 4061R for dominant genic male sterile in rapeseed
    ZHU Ji-feng, ZHANG Jun-ying, JIANG Mei-yan, JIANG Jian-xia, YANG Li-yong, LI Yan-li, WANG Wei-rong, ZHOU Xi-rong
    2021, 43 (5):  778.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020138
    Abstract ( 97 )   PDF (5565KB) ( 174 )  
    To breed high oil and double-low (low erucic acid and low glucosinolates) restorer with morphological marker for dominant genic male sterile in rapeseed, breeding materials with lobed-leaf, high oil content or restoring gene were utilized as parents. The restorer line 4061R with lobed-leaf, high oil-content and precocious feature was obtained through composite-crossing combined with directional selection. The field test and quality analysis showed that 4061R had lobed leaves with total growth period of 210 d, plant height of 156.2 cm, seed number per siliqua of 20.1, silique numbers of per plant of 300.2, 1000-seed weight of ~4.3 g. In Shanghai, yield of 2219.7 kg/hm2 was obtained under 18.5×104 plants/hm2. The restorer seed oil-content was 50.6%, with erucic acid 0.7%, and glucosinolate 19.6 μmol/g detected by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Thus 4061R was an ideal restorer line with better comprehensive properties.
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    Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic analysis of SERK gene family in Brassica napus
    GU Qiao-mei, ZHAO Yun-yan§, PENG Ao-yi, CHENG Feng-jie, LUO Ding-fan, TANG Jian-tao, WU Wei-jiao, XU Zhao-shi, WEI Wen-liang
    2021, 43 (5):  783.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020282
    Abstract ( 108 )   PDF (11701KB) ( 125 )  
    Somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK) is related to plant somatic embryogenesis, especially plant response to abiotic stress. In order to identify members of BnaSERK gene family in Brassica napus, cultivar Zhongshuang 11 was used to study their evolutionary relationship and function on drought and salt tolerance. Expression patterns were also explored on parts of the BnaSERK genes under drought and salt stress. A total of 24 BnaSERK genes were identified in B. napus genome, which were divided into 3 sub-families and distributed unevenly on 15 chromosomes. Their conservative gene structures and motifs were found exist with various cis-acting elements related to hormones and abiotic stress. Collinearity analysis showed that respectively 14, 44 and 32 genes in B. napus were collinear with Arabidopsis, B. rapa and B. oleracea. Based on comparative genomics information, BnaSERK genes in B. napus had undergone polyploidization and gene loss or expansion to varying degrees. Selection pressure analysis showed that the BnaSERK gene family was relatively conservative during evolution process among Brassica species. BnaSERK gene expression patterns in leaves under either salt or drought stress revealed their important roles in stress. Results showed that BnaA07g29610D, BnaC01g43240D and BnaCnng07810D genes were up-regulated, while BnaA01g23070D and BnaA07g23390D genes were down-regulated under salt. BnaA07g23390D and BnaA07g29610D genes were up-regulated, and BnaC01g43240D, BnaCnng07810D and BnaA01g23070D genes were down-regulated under drought stress.
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    Quality formation characteristic of peanut varieties with different grain types
    XIE Chang, DANG Xian-shi, LIU Na, YAO Rui, YU Hai-qiu, WANG Jing, JIANG Chun-ji, ZHAO Xin-hua, WANG Xiao-guang
    2021, 43 (5):  795.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020140
    Abstract ( 97 )   PDF (2690KB) ( 115 )  
    To clarify the quality formation rules of peanut varieties with different grain types, a large-grain cultivar ‘Huayu22’, a medium-grain cultivar ‘Tieyinhua 2’ and a small-grain cultivar ‘Nonghua 16’ were used as materals, a field experiment accompanied by completely random design was conducted to compare the dynamic changes of water content, crude protein content, crude fat content, soluble sugar content and starch content in different varieties.The test results showed that: the water content of peanut pods decreased gradually during the ripening process, and the kernel’ water content of large-grain peanut was higher than that of medium-grain type and small-grain type (P < 0.05); the crude protein content of the shell was gradually transferred to the kernel, and the crude protein and crude fat content of the kernel were accumulated little by little. The protein content of medium-grain type was always higher than that of small grain type, and large grain type, with a significant difference (P < 0.05). The crude fat content of small-grain cultivar ‘Nonghua 16’ was higher than that of the other two varieties, with a significant difference (P < 0.05) , while the content of soluble sugar and starch in peanut pods decreased at pod setting stage. Moreover, the content of starch in small-grain cultivar ‘Nonghua 16’ was higher than that in medium and large size peanut pods (P < 0.05). Those results showed that there was a negative correlation between crude fat content and crude protein content, a significant positive correlation between soluble sugar and starch content, and an extremely significant negative correlation between crude and crude fat content and soluble sugar and starch content. The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis for breeding high-quality peanut varieties for special purpose.
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    Pods mechanical property of different peanuts and identification of elite varieties(lines)
    XU Jing, PAN Li-juan, CHEN Na, WANG Tong, CHEN Ming-na, WANG Mian, YU Shan-lin, DING Hong, SUN Wei, ZHAO Xiao-dong, CHI Xiao-yuan
    2021, 43 (5):  803.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020263
    Abstract ( 85 )   PDF (10051KB) ( 83 )  
    Mechanical properties of peanut pod are important reference factors for mechanized harvest, and peg strength and pod rupture force are the key indicators. A total of 173 peanut varieties (lines) were collected to evaluate their peg strength, pod rupture force, seed-setting range, peanut yield and quality with a numerical method. The results showed that there was a widely variation in peg strength (4.35-11.68N), the plant-petiole dropping force (8.34N) was higher than that of the pod-petiole (7.03N). 13 peanut lines reached significant or extremely significant levels between plant-petiole and pod-petiole. The significant differences on pod rupture force were detected among three directions. The pod rupture force was minimized when they were in vertical position and maximized when they were in lateral position. The pod layer height of large peanut varieties (lines) was significantly higher than that of small peanut varieties (lines), however, there was no significant difference in pod layer thickness between large and small peanut varieties (lines). The peg strength was from the dropping force of pod-petiole (r=0.82, p<0.01). 51 peanut varieties (lines) showed an increase in pod and seed kernel yield compared to the control. Five and three principal components were extracted by principal component analysis in the mechanical properties and yield and quality traits, and cumulative contribution rate reached 66.73% and 80.33% respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that pod-petiole dropping, plant-petiole dropping, the ratio of pod-petiole dropping, mature pods peg strength, immature pods peg strength were the main traits affecting peg strength. Finally, a total of 19 peanut varieties (lines) with excellent peg strength and increased production were obtained. This work becomes helpful in design of harvesting machineries, and provides elite lines in breeding for new peanut varieties.
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    Sequence and expression analysis of DREB transcription factor gene AhDREB3 in peanut under abiotic stress
    CHEN Na, PAN Li-juan, CHEN Ming-na, WANG Tong, XU Jing, WANG Zi-qiang, YANG Zhen, XIE Hong-feng, ZOU Zong-feng, HUANG Xiang, HUANG Hui-wen, YU Shan-lin, CHI Xiao-yuan
    2021, 43 (5):  816.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020183
    Abstract ( 94 )   PDF (1317KB) ( 105 )  
    DREB belongs to an important subfamily of AP2/ERF transcription factor families, and have important functions in regulation of plant abiotic stress resistance. To screen the potential function of stress-related gene AhDREB3 in peanut, full-length sequence of the drought-responsive element-binding protein 3 (AhDREB3) was focused. Evolution of its protein encoded by AhDREB3 was analyzed. Primers were designed to detect its expression under several abiotic stresses by fluorescence quantitative PCR. Results showed that AhDREB3 gene did not respond to low temperature in leaves and roots of peanut, but responded significantly to high salt (in leaves and roots) and drought (in roots) stress. In addition, the AhDREB3 gene did not respond significantly to exogenous ABA in peanut leaves and roots, suggesting that the gene might play a role in peanut through an ABA-independent pathway.
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    Genetic analysis and QTL mapping of soybean leaf shape under rhizobia inoculated environment
    YANG Yong-qing, CHEN Sheng-nan, LI Xin-xin, ZHAO Qing-song, FU Ya-shu, YANG Chun-Yan, ZHANG Meng-chen, LIAO Hong
    2021, 43 (5):  825.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020105
    Abstract ( 72 )   PDF (3364KB) ( 106 )  
    To determine the genetic basis of soybean leaf shape under the environment with rhizobia inoculation, two soybean varieties with contrast leaf shape and their derived RIL population were used for genetic and QTL analysis under both environment with and without rhizobia inoculation. As results showed that the heritability of leaf shape related traits varied from 0.60 to 0.95 and there also existed interactions between environment and genotype, meanwhile, rhizobia inoculation could significantly affect the correlation coefficients of leaf shape index (LS) with grain number (GN), pod number (PN) and grain weight (GW) per plant. In addition, total 8 QTL with LOD values varied from 2.50~7.03, which could explain 6.4%~16.9% genetic variation, were determined under both environments with and without rhizobia inoculation. Among them, qLS-15 with LOD values varied from 2.50~3.69 could explain the 6.4%~9.3% genetic variation caused by rhizobia * genotype interaction for leaf shape traits, suggesting that qLS-15 is one of the main genetic loci that could interact with the environment. In summary, rhizobia could affect soybean leaf shape through genetic locus of qLS-15, these results provide a theoretical basis for analyzing the mechanism of rhizobia in increasing soybean yield.
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    Mutagenic effect on seed of oil flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) induced by 60Co-γ irradiation
    ZHAO Li, WANG Bin
    2021, 43 (5):  832.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020312
    Abstract ( 66 )   PDF (10461KB) ( 48 )  
    In order to investigate the mutagenic effect of 60Co-γ irradiation on oil flax seed, three 60Co-γ doses of 800 Gy, 1000 Gy and 1200 Gy irradiations were treated on seeds of 6 cultivars (lines), and the effects of irradiation on seed germination, agronomic and quality traits were examined, to determine the optimal irradiation dose of flax. The results showed that using 60Co-γ treated oil flax seed, the germination energy, germination rate, plant height, technical length, seeds per boll, 1000-seed weight, the content of oil, linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid were all lower than those of the control. And the effective tiller, effective branch, bolls per plant, lignan, linolenic acid and stearic acid content were all higher than control. With the increase of irradiation dose, the germination energy, germination rate and lignan content gradually decreased, the root length, seedling height, fresh weight per plant, oleic acid content decreased firstly and then increased, the plant height, technical length, effective branches, bolls per plant, 1000-seed weight, linolenic acid, stearic acid andpalmitic acid content increased firstly and then decreased, effective tiller, bolls per plant, seeds per boll, no seed bolls, oil content and linoleic acid content were increased with the increasing of the dose. The inflection points all appeared in 1000 Gy, and there were obvious differences among varieties. The theoretical optimal irradiation dose of flaxseed was 1029 Gy. Elit materials occured about 10% to 21% when the seeds treated with 60Co-γ irradiation. And high lignan content seemed easy to be found, followed by the linolenic acid content, and finally the oil content. High dose (1200 Gy) was beneficial to the variation of oil content and linolenic acid, while low dose (800 Gy) was beneficial to the variation of lignan. These results can provide theoretical basis for eseirradiation breeding and germplasm innovation of flax.
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    Effects of potassium application rates on succession of main photosynthetic organs in oilseed rape
    HU Wen-shi, MENG Fan-jin, LI Jing, LU Zhi-feng, REN Tao, LU Jian-wei
    2021, 43 (5):  843.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020121
    Abstract ( 81 )   PDF (4971KB) ( 134 )  
    For high yield and better understanding of potassium (K) effect, succession and photosynthetic capacity of rapeseed photosynthetic organs (leaves and siliques) were investigated by field experiment in 2018-2019. The dynamic changes of leaf area index (LAI) and pod wall area index (PAI) were explored under different K application rates. Results showed that the LAI gradually increased with growth, and reached to the maximum (3.4-4.8) at flowering stage and then rapidly decreased, whilst the PAI was increased steeply. Under the same treatments, the maximum PAI was equivalent to that of the LAI. The effects of K application rates on LAI and PAI were consistent. Both LAI and PAI were increased with K application rates. But PAI/LAI was not affected by K application. During the growth stages, photosynthetic rates were increased with K rates until exceeding to 120 kg/hm2. At the daytime, photosynthetic rates in the noon were enhanced obviously with K application rates. K fertilizer alleviated the ‘midday depression’ during the overwintering period. LAI, PAI and photosynthetic rates were significantly related to seed yield. Application of K fertilizer significantly increased the photosynthetic area and capacity of photosynthetic organs of oilseed rape, thereby increasing seed yield.
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    Effects of sowing date on forage yield and quality of forage rape
    ZHANG Yao, GE Jun-zhu, ZHOU Guang-sheng, YANG Yong-an, HOU Hai-peng, WU Xi-dong, WANG Jin-long, LIANG Qian, MA Zhi-qi
    2021, 43 (5):  851.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020277
    Abstract ( 67 )   PDF (3012KB) ( 127 )  
    To optimize sowing date for high yield and quality forage rape in North China Plain, 4 Brassica napus varieties and 4 sowing dates were used to study the temperature effects. Results showed that by delayed sowing date, both average temperature and effective accumulative temperature were increased during forage rape growth, and the initial flowering days became earlier with prolonged blooming periods and shortened growth periods (by 2-7 d). The forage yield was more than 35 t/hm2 under early sowing date (before March 28), and was decreased by delayed sowing. Forage yields were significant different between varieties, and Huayouza 62 was the highest (p<0.01). Significantly negative correlation was found between forage yield, forage quality and fiber content. The effective accumulative temperature during seeding period played significantly negative role on neutral detergent fiber. Vegetative and post-flowering growth periods played significantly positive roles on neutral detergnnt fiber. Therefore, high yield and high quality rape production in North China Plain should be obtained by using Huayouza 62 and sowing between March 8 to 18. The forage yield could reach 50 t/hm2 with high crude protein, starch, carbohydrate and total digestible nutrient.
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    Impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on carbohydrate accumulation in different organs of soybean plant
    XU Ying, YU Zhen-hua, LI Yan-sheng, JIN Jian, WANG Guang-hua, LIU Xiao-bing
    2021, 43 (5):  859.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020192
    Abstract ( 63 )   PDF (3387KB) ( 143 )  
    Understanding the effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on the accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates can fill the gaps for climate change biology of soybeans, and provide theoretical support for breeding soybean varieties that adapt to future climate conditions and high-yield cultivation strategies. In this study, four soybean cultivars, i.e., Zihua 4 (ZH4), Xiaohuangjin (XHJ), Fengshou 10 (FS10), and Nengfeng 1 (NF1) were cultivated under the ambient atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (aCO2) and eCO2 (550 μmol·mol-1) conditions simulated by open top chamber (OTC) system. The results indicated that the effect of eCO2 on C concentration of different organs varied among cultivars. Except for the significant decrease in leaves C concentration at R5 stage for cultivar XHJ and root C concentration at R8 stage for cultivar NF1, the C concentration of different organs showed an increased tendency. Moreover, the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration significantly enhanced the soluble sugar concentration of soybean leaves at the R5 stage by 33.4%-90.0%, while the responses of sucrose and starch concentrations in plant organs to eCO2 varied among cultivars. The sucrose concentration in the XHJ leaves and the starch concentration in the FS10 leaves decreased by 9.7% and 13%, respectively, while the sucrose and starch concentrations of the leaves in other cultivars increased significantly. At the R8 stage, the concentration of soluble sugar, sucrose and starch in soybean seeds all showed an increasing trend to eCO2, and the soluble sugar concentration in seeds increased by 22% on average. Compared to R5, the carbohydrate concentration in vegetative organs decreased significantly under eCO2, implying the utilization efficiency of the carbohydrate in the vegetative organs during the reproductive period plays a key role in soybean yield formation. The yield in cultivars ZH4, XHJ and FS10 increased by 32.7% on average, while the yield of cultivar NF1 did not increase significantly. According to the results of four soybean cultivars, the C assimilation ability was increased by eCO2, whereas considerable variations of C assimilation ability in response to eCO2 among different cultivars need to be appreciated. The cultivars, which have strong sucrose converting ability in leaf (source), high efficiency in sugars loading and unloading in stem (flow), and high sink capacity, are worthy of further attention in future soybean breeding program and production.
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    Effects of exogenous melatonin on nitrogen metabolism and growth of soybean under high nitrogen
    WANG Hua-mei, REN Chun-yuan, JIN Xi-jun, WANG Xue-meng, CAO Liang, ZHANG Ming-cong, ZHAO Qiang, YU Gao-bo, ZHANG Yu-xian
    2021, 43 (5):  872.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020246
    Abstract ( 60 )   PDF (8360KB) ( 75 )  
    Excessive nitrogen supply has a series of adverse effects on soybean nitrogen metabolism and growth. Thus, it is of major scientific and practical significance to explore the corresponding remedial measures. Therefore, the regulation of exogenous melatonin of soybean nitrogen metabolism and development under high nitrogen level was conducted in this study. Ammonium nitrogen of 7.5 mmol·L-1 (control group) and 15 mmol·L-1 (high nitrogen group) was used as the only nitrogen source, and 100 μmol·L-1 melatonin was sprayed at V3 stage of soybean. The results showed that exogenous melatonin was beneficial to the development of soybean roots and nodules under high nitrogen condition, and increased the level of nitrogen metabolism by enhancing the activities of key enzymes such as glutamine synthetase in the process of nitrogen assimilation. In addition, melatonin also stimulated a further increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in mesophyll cells, reduced the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation, and then alleviated the inhibitions of photosynthesis and other carbon metabolism level. To sum up, the application of melatonin was beneficial to the recovery of carbon and nitrogen metabolism balance of soybean under high nitrogen, and then promoted the accumulation of dry matter in various tissues, and alleviated the adverse effects of high nitrogen on the plant growth.
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    Effect of different potassium levels on the photosynthetic characteristics and yield of peanut
    LIU Na, XIE Chang, GAO Shi-jie, YAO Rui, SONG Hai-ling, YU Hai-qiu, WANG Jing, JIANG Chun-ji, ZHAO Xin-hua, WANG Xiao-guang
    2021, 43 (5):  883.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020173
    Abstract ( 79 )   PDF (2345KB) ( 126 )  
    This study was aimed to demonstrate effects of different level of potassium (K) on the photosynthetic characteristics and yield of peanut under the same level of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) , in which Nonghua 9 was used as the test materials and field randomized block trial was conducted. There were four different levels of K: 0 kg·hm-2 (CK), 112.5 kg·hm-2 (T1), 225.0 kg·hm-2 (T2) and 337.5 kg·hm-2 (T3). Two-year results showed that increased K had improved leaf area index (LAI), as well as, improved net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) at pegging stage and pod-setting stage observably, while the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was decreased. Also, the extra K had increased the maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmax), light saturation point (Isat), but had reduced the light compensation point (Lcp) and dark respiration rate (Rd) of the peanut. Rich K was beneficial to increase Pods per plant, Pod weight per plant, 100-pod weight, 100-kernel weight and yield of peanut finally. Between two years yield trials, T2 treatment was increased by 7.37% and 12.54% than CK and therefore outstanding from other treatments. Therefore, the best recommended amount of potassium application was 225.0 kg·hm-2 K2SO4 for peanut field production in this area.
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    Effects of fertilizer topdressing on growth and yield of peanut with drip irrigation under film
    QIN Wen-jie, GUO Run-ze, ZOU Xiao-xia, ZHANG Xiao-jun, YU Xiao-na, WANG Yue-fu, SI Tong
    2021, 43 (5):  891.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020133
    Abstract ( 75 )   PDF (390KB) ( 90 )  
    To clarify the effect of topdressing with different fertilizers on peanut yield combined with drip irrigation under film, field experiments were carried out in Jiaozhou, Shandong Province. Mono-application of nitrogen (N) , calcium (Ca), and boron (B) fertilizers, combined application of NCa, NB, BCa, and NBCa were set at the flowering stage, treatment of no irrigation and no topdressing was set as CK1, only irrigation wihtout topdressing as CK2. Yield and related agronomic traits were analyzed under different topdressing treatments.The results showed that, compared with mono-topdressing, combined topdressing of N, B and Ca increased the pins per plant, fruits per plant and dry weight of pods by 18.61%-24.0%, 12.5%-23.0%, and 12.13%-21.60% respectively, thus increased the yield. Meanwhile combined application of three fertilizer increased the shoot dry weight, main stem height and branch number of peanuts, which could help to a better accumulation of the dry matter accumulation of each organ. In conclusion, the combined application of NBCa or NCa fertilizer at the pod-pin stage could effectively promote the growth of peanut and increase the yield. This study will contribute to determine the appropriate topdressing fertilizer types with drip irrigation under film.
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    Effects of sowing dates on agronomic traits, yield, and quality of peanut
    JIN Xin-xin, SONG Ya-hui, WANG Jin, CHENG Zeng-shu, LI Yu-rong, CHEN Si-long
    2021, 43 (5):  898.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020180
    Abstract ( 98 )   PDF (770KB) ( 140 )  
    In order to study the effects of sowing date and cultivars on agronomic traits, yield and quality of peanut, a field experiment was conducted with six peanut cultivars, containing three common cultivars Jihua9, Jihua10, and Jihua12, three high oleic acid cultivars Jihua11, Jihua13, and Jihua16. Seven sowing dates were set up: 4/25, 5/6, 5/16, 5/26, 6/6, 6/15 and 6/26. The results showed that Jihua10, Jihua12, Jihua13 and Jihua16 had higher main stem height, longer lateral branch and more branches, while Jihua9 and Jihua11 showed lower main stem height, shorter lateral branch length and fewer branches. The average pod yield and seed yield of 6 peanut varieties were 4716.22 kg/hm2, and 3469.52 kg/hm2, respectively. Jihua12 had the highest seeds yield of 3541.99 kg/hm2. Compared with Jihua12, the seeds yield of Jihua9 and Jihua10 decreased by 0.35%-1.91%, and Jihua11, Jihua13 and Jihua16 decreased by 2.11%-5.54%. As the sowing date was delayed, the agronomic traits and yield of peanuts basically followed by the change trend of 5/6 to 5/16 > 4/25 > 5/26 to 6/26. The pods yield and seeds yield for sowing data of 5/6-5/16 were 5547.16 kg/hm2 and 4204.24 kg/hm2, respectively, with the average oleic acid/linoleic acid ratio (O/L) of 12.90. The pod yield and seed yield for the sowing date of 4/25 sowing decreased by 5.16% with high O/L of 14.61. The pod and seed yield on 5/26 sowing decreased by 9.05% with O/L reduction of 35.56%. Later than sowing 5/26, main stem height decreased by 7.40%-22.89%, lateral branch length shortened by 7.07%-24.89%, branch number decreased by 3.74%-9.70%, pods per plant decreased by 4.59%-21.78%, 100-pod weight decreased by 6.59%-27.94%, 100-seed weight decreased by 10.35%-32.33%, pod yield decreased by 17.97%-45.78%, seeds yield decreased by 21.80%-52.50%, O/L decreased by 50.57%-73.30%. Taking agronomic traits, yield indicators and quality into consideration, the optimum sowing date of peanuts for regular cultivation style of open field should be between 5/6 and 5/16 in the central and southern Hebei Province.
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    Effects of high temperature and drought combined stress on physiological indexes of seedlings of different peanut varieties
    LI Cong-cong, LI Nai-guang, WU Zheng-feng
    2021, 43 (5):  906.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020199
    Abstract ( 95 )   PDF (550KB) ( 104 )  
    To explore the response mechanism of peanut seedlings to combined stress of high temperature and drought, the peanut varieties Yuhua 9719 and Yuhua 9326, with different stress resistance, were used as materials, and the seedlings were subjected to combined stress with temperature of 45℃/25℃ (day/night), and 35%-40% of water content in soil. Their seedling growth and physiological characteristics indexes under compound stress were investigated. The results showed that: (1) Compared with the control group, the plant height and dry weight of Yuhua 9719 decreased by 44.3% and 30.2% under combined stress, respectively, and the difference was extremely significant.The contents of water content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid and anthocyanin were all lower than those of the control group. Among them, the reduction of chlorophyll a content and anthocyanin content reached significant and highly significant level respectively. The values of PRI, PI, GS and Pn were 12%, 50.31%, 75.2% and 72.3% lower than those in the control group, respectively, and the differences were extremely significant. MDA content and relative conductivity were 93.1% and 29.93% higher than those in the control group respectively, and the differences were significant. The contents of soluble protein and flavonoids were 104.5% and 41.00% higher than those in the control group respectively, and the differences were significant. SOD and CAT activities were 0.91% and 3.29% lower than those in the control group respectively, and the difference was not significant. (2)The plant height of Yuhua 9326 in the treatment group was 33.6% lower than that of control, the difference reached a very significant level, and the dry weight decrease was not significant; the contents of water content, carotenoid and anthocyanin were all lower than those of control group, but the difference was not significant; the contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were 19.44% and 3.4% higher than that of control group, respectively. The difference of chlorophyll a reached a significant level in 39%, the PRI, PI, Gs and Pn value was lower than the control, the difference was not significant. The MDA content and relative conductivity were higher than the control group, but the difference was not significant, and the content of soluble protein and flavonoid was 271.33% and 48.96% higher than the control group, respectively, the difference reached extremely significant level. The activities of SOD and CAT were 70.11% and 68.8% higher than the control group respectively, the increase reached significant level. It was concluded that, compared the statistics of experiment, Yuhua 9326 shows the better growth of seedling than Yuhua 9719 under heat and drought stress, because it is mainly related to the stronger antioxidant defence system and photosynthetic system of Yuhua 9326.
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    Effects of microwave pretreatment on fatty acid content of rapeseed and cold-pressed rapeseed oil
    HU Ai-peng, WEI Fang, HUANG Feng-hong, ZHENG Chang, LYU Xin, CHEN Hong
    2021, 43 (5):  923.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020154
    Abstract ( 78 )   PDF (626KB) ( 194 )  
    To investigate the effect of microwave pretreatment on fatty acid, and evaluate to the risk of trans- fatty acids in rapeseed and cold-pressed rapeseed oil, 57 rapeseed samples from 14 producing areas in 8 provinces of China were used for microwave pretreatment test. The rapeseeds (both before and after microwave treatments) were pressed to obtain cold-pressed oil. Fatty acids were quickly determined by using optimized gas chromatography method which reduced the analysis time by more than 50%. Results showed that variety was the main factor (p<0.01) affecting the fatty acid composition and contents, while origin had no statistically significant effect. The average content of eicosenoic acid and erucic acid in low erucic acid rapeseed were 6.89 and 64.50 times higher than that in high erucic acid rapeseed, respectively. The average oleic acid content of high erucic acid rapeseed was only 71.48% of the high erucic acid rapeseed. Thus microwave pretreatment might not significantly affect the composition and content of fatty acids in rapeseed and rapeseed oil. It neither brought risk of trans-fatty acids.
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    Extraction and purification of flavonoids from peanut shell
    BI Jie, YU Li-na, WANG Ming-qing, SONG Yu, YANG Wei-qiang, JIANG Chen, SHI Cheng-ren, SUN Jie
    2021, 43 (5):  933.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020194
    Abstract ( 74 )   PDF (7693KB) ( 60 )  
    In this study, the yield of total flavonoids from peanut shell was furthest increased by enzymatic pretreatment combined with ultrasonic assisted extraction, and the purity of active components was also improved by optimizing the purification process of macroporous resin. The optimal extraction process of flavonoids is as follows: the peanut shell powder was mixed with water, the dosage of hemicellulase combined with xylanase at 1:1 (m/m) was 0.25‰, the mixture was hydrolysed for 30 min at 50℃. After that, ethanol was added at the solid-liquid ratio of 1:20 (m/V) to a final concentration of 60%, then ultrasonic assisted extraction was performed at 1000 W and 55℃ for 60 min. The extraction ratio of total flavonoids under this extraction condition was about 2.5%. D101 macroporous resin was selected. The loading buffer was 60% ethanol solution with pH 5.0, and the eluent was 70% ethanol solution with pH 10.0. The flow rate of loading and elution was 0.75 BV/h and 1.5 BV/h. The purity of total flavone and luteolin from peanut shell were 10.54% and 5.85%, respectively, which were increased by 90% and 120%.
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    Identification and evaluation of resveratrol content in different peanut varieties
    CHEN Hai-wen, XU Si-liang, GUO Jian-bin, CHEN Wei-gang, LUO Huai-yong, LIU Nian, HUANG Li, ZHOU Xiao-jing, WU Bei, JIANG Cheng-hong, REN Xiao-ping, JIANG Hui-fang
    2021, 43 (5):  942.  doi: 10.19802/j.issn.1007-9084.2020237
    Abstract ( 112 )   PDF (372KB) ( 132 )  
    Fifty-nine peanut varieties were selected and planted in Wuhan, Shijiazhuang, Puyang and Zhoukou in 2016-2017. The content of resveratrol in peanut seeds was detected by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC) after harvest. The results showed that the content of resveratrol in peanut varieties was significantly different between varieties and environment. The average content of resveratrol in Wuhan was relatively higher than that of other sites. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the detection results of planting in 4 areas in 2 years, two materials with high and stable resveratrol content under multiple environments were selected ( Jihua 2 and Jihua 13). The correlation analysis of oil content and fatty acid test results of these varieties showed that there was no significant correlation between resveratrol content of peanut seed and oil content or 8 main fatty acids. The results provided a theoretical basis for cultivating peanut varieties with high resveratrol, high oil and excellent fatty acid composition.
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