• 2022 Volume 44 Issue 6
    Published: 25 December 2022

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  • Man-li ZHAO, Zhi-gang DAI, Chi-ming GU, Wen-shi HU, Yin-shui LI, Lu QIN, Ming-xing LU, Xing LIAO
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    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop which has the largest planting area in China. In recent years however, several factors, such as labour shortage, low planting benefit and motivation of farmers, lead to expansion of winter fallow field year by year. This present paper studied its greater advantages of rapeseed on land use and conservation, mainly including its ability of optimizing soil structure, increasing soil nutrients (as green manure), and improving soil fertility. Meanwhile, due to its superior adaptability to environment, oilseed rape could apply as pioneer crop to amending the obstacle soil, and thus the natural resources (light, heat, water, and soil) in winter could be efficiently utilized. Winter oilseed rape does not compete with grain for land use and has the greatest potential to exploit winter fallow field for both benefiting the subsequent crops and taking full of its advantage in land conservation. It is of great significance to promote high yield of grain and oil, in order to ensure both security of edible oil supply and sustainable agricultural development in China.

  • Fei DAI, Wu-yun ZHAO, Rui-jie SHI, Yi-ming ZHAO, Feng-wei ZHANG, Xiao-long LIU, Shi-lin ZHANG
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    Flax is one of the important oil crops in Northwest and North China. For its resistance to barren, wide use and high value, it has been planted and applied in more than 50 countries in the world. Flax mechanized efficient harvesting technology and supporting equipment is important to realize the whole mechanized production of flax. Based on the analysis of domestic and foreign flax research institutions and different mechanized harvesting patterns, research progress on key technology and equipment for mechanized flax harvesting was emphatically expounded. Operation characteristics of various harvesting techniques and supporting equipment of flax were analyzed in detail. And the operation characteristics of different flax harvesting equipment at home and abroad were compared. Combined with the actual production and application of the existing problems and needs, the research emphases and development direction of mechanized flax harvesting in the future were discussed, in order to provide reference for the construction of flax mechanized production technology and equipment system.

  • Jia-li GONG, Dong-lei SUN, Neng-fei BIAN, Xing WANG, Xiao-jun WANG
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    Peanut bacterial wilt is a worldwide disease, which occurs in more than 20 countries around the world and seriously affects the yield and quality of peanut. This article refers to related literature, summarizes the research reports on peanut bacterial wilt in China, describes the occurrence and distribution of peanut bacterial wilt, pathogenic bacteria and its harmful symptoms, and the law of transmission and epidemics. The research progress of peanut bacterial wilt control methods and resistance breeding are also reviewed, the research direction of peanut bacterial wilt is prospected. It aims to provide a reference for the comprehensive control of peanut bacterial wilt in China.

  • Zhe-bin LI
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    Torreya grandis kernel oil has abundant unsaturated fatty acid and is rich in tocopherol, squalene, β-sitosterol and other active substances. Furthermore, T. grandis kernel oil has antioxidative, hypolipidemic, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-parasitic and other bioactivities. It is considered to be a kind of woody edible oil with high nutritional value. From these aspects of nutrient compositions, physicochemical properties and bioactivities of T. grandis kernel oil, the research on T. grandis kernel oil at home and abroad for the past few years were reviewed. It aims to provide theoretical reference for the further research of T. grandis kernel oil and its comprehensive utilization, and its future research priorities were prospected.

  • Jing-xiu YE, Hai-dong LIU, Xiao-rong XING, Jun LI, De-zhi DU
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    In the early stage of this study, a DH population containing 282 lines was constructed by microspore culture with Zhongshuang 11 (ZS11) as female parent and QU as male parent. Through the investigation of two environmental phenotypes and DH genotyping, the chlorophyll content (SPAD value) of Brassica napus leaves was analyzed and located, and a main QTL was obtained in the range of A2 chromosome 21.87-22.91 Mb. In order to further clarify the relationship between chlorophyll content and yield of Brassica napus, the near isogenic line population constructed by chlorophyll major QTL with ZS11 as recurrent parent were used to determine SPAD value of leaves at seedling stage, and then the correlation between SPAD value of chlorophyll and yield per plant was analyzed. The results showed that:(1) the SPAD values of DH population were normally distributed in Xining and Huzhu, the parents' SPAD values were significantly different (P<0.01), and the higher SPAD values of F1 showed that the trait was partially dominant, and the chlorophyll content of the same population was different under different environmental conditions. Under the condition of high altitude and low temperature, chlorophyll content increased. (2) In a certain range, the increase of chlorophyll content was helpful to improve the yield of single plant, chlorophyll SPAD value was positively correlated with plant yield, and the correlation coefficient increased with the decrease of sample size. (3) There was significant difference in yield per plant between two groups of near isogenic lines with different genotypes (P<0.01). (4) According to the confidence interval of genetic linkage map, two co-dominant InDel markers with good polymorphism and six SNP markers with good typing based on KASP technology were developed as candidate markers for molecular mark assisted breeding.

  • Mei XIONG, Guang-sheng YANG, Deng-feng HONG, Zhao-yang WANG
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    To improve rapeseed resistance to clubroot, Huashuang 5R (carrying PbBa8.1 locus) and Huayouza 62R (carrying CRb locus) were used as donor parents for transferring resistant genes into Y522R. The strategy was combined with successive backcross and marker-assisted selection. By the process, 3 near isogenic lines Y522R PbBa8.1, Y522R CRb and Y522R PbBa8.1+CRb (containing PBba8.1, CRb, and PbBa8.1+CRb respectively) were obtained, with more than 90% genetic background recover rate. Subsequently, 3 clubroot resistant new hybrids Shengguang 168CR PbBa8.1, Shengguang 168CR CRb and Shengguang 168CR PbBa8.1+CRb were derived from these near isogenic lines and RG430A (female parent of Shengguang 168). The clubroot resistance of the above lines (as Y522R PbBa8.1, Y522R CRb, Y522R PbBa8.1+CRb,Shengguang 168CR PbBa8.1, Shengguang 168CR CRb and Shengguang 168CR PbBa8.1+CRb ) was identified by using Race 4 (the dominant physiological race in China). Results showed that Y522R CRb, Y522R PbBa8.1+CRb and their hybrids (Shengguang 168CR CRb and Shengguang 168CR PbBa8.1+CRb ) had immunity to Race 4. Although Y522R PbBa8.1 and hybrid Shengguang 168CR PbBa8.1 were susceptible to Race 4, their levels of the resistance were still significantly higher than those of the control (Y522R and Shengguang 168). Evaluation of agronomic traits showed that no significant differences were observed between the improved lines and Y522R, neither between the improved hybrids and Shengguang 168. The traits included flowering days, plant height, effective branches, silique length, seeds per silique and thousand seeds weight. Thus laid an important foundation for cultivation of excellent rape varieties resistant to clubroot.

  • Yan-cheng WEN, Jun-ping HE, Dong-fang CAI, Shu-fen ZHANG, Jia-cheng ZHU, Jian-ping WANG, Jin-hua CAO, Kun HU, Lei ZHAO, Dong-guo WANG, Yi-zi LIU
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    Since cuticular wax in Brassica napus L. is one of the most popular factors to resist all kinds of stress in environment, so researches on them are helpful for breeding varieties with high and stable yield and improving cultivating techniques. The glossy mutant DL22B077-1 and its wild type line DL22B077-2 used in this study were all bred in our laboratory. We studied the genetic law of glossy trait by crossing between the glossy mutant and its wild type line, F1 self-pollinating and backcrossing. Results indicated that glossy trait was controlled by one dominant gene. Then gas chromatography was used to analyze the cuticular wax content and composition in the leaves and stems of glossy mutant and its wild type. Results showed that the cuticular waxes in the leaves and stems of wild type reached to 47.40 μg/cm2 and 76.93 μg/cm2, respectively. Meanwhile, the cuticular waxes in the leaves and stems of glossy mutant reached to 40.40 μg/cm2 and 61.01 μg/cm2, respectively. Compared with those in wild type, cuticular wax contents in the leaves and stems of glossy mutant decreased by 14.77% and 20.79%, respectively, and the differences reached to significant level (P=0.05). In addition, both in glossy mutant and wild type, the cuticular wax contents in leaves were less than those in stems and the differences also reached to significant level (P=0.05). The differences of cuticular wax compositions not only existed between wild type and glossy mutant,but also existed between leaves and stems in the wild type and glossy mutant. Although the cuticular wax compositions in glossy mutant and wild type were totally similar, there were four kinds of significantly different compositions between them, in which three kinds (hexatriacontane, hexadecoxy(trimethyl)silane and 15-Triacontanone)in wild type significantly were higher than those in glossy mutant. Only one kind of composition (1,40-Tetraconanediol) in glossy mutant was significantly higher than that in wild type. Next, the cold resistant differences between the glossy mutant and the wild type were tested in the field after winter. In the effect of cold resistance, wild type showed significantly higher resistance than that of glossy mutant. The cold injury of glossy mutant was serious, which cold injury rate was 100% and cold injury index reached to 0.80. In the contrast, as for the wild type, the clod injury rate was only 15% and the cold injury index also only reached to 0.25. The cold resistant differences also reflected in the cold affections on the agronomic traits development in the plants of wild type and glossy mutant. Before rejuvenation period after winter, the plants of glossy mutant grew much weaker than the wild type. The single plant height and dry material weight of glossy mutant were only 51.83% and 29.08% of wild type. Finally,the Sclerotinia resistant differences between the glossy mutant and the wild type were investigated in the field by artificial inoculation in the flowering stage. Results indicated that there were not significant differences of the disease rates and disease index between the wild type and glossy mutant.

  • Shuai DU, Li-li WAN, Zhuan-rong WANG, Yi XU, Deng-feng HONG, Guang-sheng YANG
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    A novel glyphosate-resistant gene (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS?) was cloned from bacterium of Isoptericola variabilis. In this research, I.variabilis-EPSPS* was overexpressed in Brassica napus L. cv Yu 127, under the control of constitutive CaMV35S promoter. Seeds from I.variabilis-EPSPS* transgenic plants could germinate and grow well in the presence of increasing concentrations of glyphosate(40-80 mg L-1). In contrast, wild type line had significantly reduced shoot and root length. qRT-PCR indicated that expression level of I.variabilis-EPSPS* increased after isopropylamine salt (Roundup) treatment, and while expression remained unchanged. After spraying 600× dilution of 41% glyphosate Roundup (1/3 recommended dose in field), the cumulative amount of shikimic acid in I.variabilis-EPSPS* transgenic T1 plants was lower than wild type. Additionally, agronomic performance demonstrated no significant difference in silique length, seeds per silique, and 1000-seed weight (etc.) between I.variabilis-EPSPS* E1T1 and wild type in greenhouse. Foliar glyphosate application in field showed that glyphosate at concentration of 759.8 mg L-1 had no detrimental effect on the growth of I.variabilis-EPSPS* plants. Furthermore, the glyphosate-sprayed transgenic plants were preriodically monitored until maturity, and it was observed that they exhibited normal growth and morphological characteristics similar to those of WT which was not spayed with glyphosate in the greenhouse. In summary, the I.variabilis-EPSPS* gene and its transgenic glyphosate-resistant B. napus L. line E1 could be the new materials for genetical modified rapeseed breeding resistant to glyphosate herbicide.

  • Min-jie GUO, Li DENG, Yu-rong Li, Jin WANG, Li REN
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    To guide classification of peanut germplasm resources, principal component and cluster analysis were applied on 11 Jihua varieties with high oleic acid by using 3 years phenotype and re-sequencing data. Results showed that oil content variation coefficient among 15 traits was the smallest at 1.91%. The variation of yield characteristics was greater than quality except linoleic acid content. The positive correlation coefficient between hundred-pod weight and hundred-seed weight was extremely significant, and oleic acid content had a significant negative correlation with linoleic acid content. The cumulative contribution rate of the first two principal components was 78.99%. Cultivars were classified using phenotype traits, and the results were partially consistent with pedigree relationships. After data control, 320 000 high-quality SNP sites with uniform density distribution were obtained. 4 categories were from 11 varieties via genotype data. Meanwhile, varieties derived from the same combination were divided into one category, thus the results are consistent with variety pedigree relationship. Therefore, genotype data is more accurately on reflecting genetic basis of the varieties, and could provide reference for germplasm resources classification and utilization.

  • Chao-sen ZHAO, Xian-wei ZHAO, Rui-zhen WANG
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    In order to guide the breeding and promotion of new varieties with high yield and good quality of vegetable summer soybean, the data of 13 years of national regional trials of vegetable summer soybean from 2006 to 2018 were analyzed, and the evolution laws of 14 important agronomic traits of vegetable summer soybean varieties were studied. The results showed that 8 vegetable summer soybean varieties passed the national regional test and declared for national approval. The variation coefficient of 14 agronomic traits ranged from 6.75% to 38.67%. The variation coefficient of grade A taste quality rate was the largest, while the variation coefficient of standard pod width was the smallest. The average yield of fresh pod of the tested varieties was 10 468.9 kg?hm-2, which was 1.7% lower than that of control. As the year progressed, fresh pod yield was improved, while fresh pod harvested days had a downturn, as well as plant height, nodes on main stem, effective branches per plant, effective fresh pods per plant, there has a downturn. Multiple seed pod rate and fresh pod weight per plant had rising trend. 100 fresh seeds weight, standard pod length and width, standard pod rate and grade A taste quality rate were improved gradually. Correlation analysis showed that fresh pod yield was significantly positively correlated with multiple seed pod rate, fresh pod weight per plant, 100 fresh seeds weight, standard pod length and width, standard pod rate. Grade A taste quality rate was significantly positively correlated with 100 fresh seeds weight, standard pod length and width. Principal component analysis showed that the main factors that affect the vegetable summer soybean traits variation are fresh pod length and width, number of pod, pod rate and plant factor. In the vegetable summer soybean breeding process should pay attention to choose the varieties which have the traits of fresh pods with more seeds and length, pod big and fresh seeds big to making cross combinations, can improve the vegetable summer soybean fresh pod yield and taste quality.

  • Bo WANG, Ying-ying DONG, Xue FU, He-yu LIU, Xiang-chao ZHANG, Ji LIU, Fei-fei SHI, Xue ZHAO, Ying-peng HAN, Wen-bin LI, Wei-li TENG
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    To accelerate molecular marker-assisted breeding for soybean, a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population (F2:10) containing 168 lines was constructed from Dongnong 42 and Dongnong 50 for constructing a high density genetic map. The two parents are significantly different on yield. QTL analysis was carried out by using the compound interval mapping (CIM) method of R/qtl software combined with phenotypic data on yield-related traits at 6 environments in 2 years. Results showed that 660 316 SNP markers obtained by sequencing could be used to construct a high-density genetic map of soybean containing 6227 bin markers distributed in 20 linkage groups. The general and average map distances were 2739.15 cM and 0.44 cM respectively. 22 QTLs related to yield traits were mapped on 12 chromosomes. QTLs for number of four-seed-pod (NFSP), number of pods per plant (NPPP), seed weight per plant (SWPP), 100-seed weight (HSW) were 5, 4, 5 and 8 respectively. There was a genomic region on each of the chromosomes 3 and 19. They were repeatedly located in 2 years, involving 6 major QTLs, namely qNFSP-19-1 (22.976%), qNFSP-19-2 (11.977%), qNFSP-19-3 (17.203%), qHSW-3-1 (11.346%), qHSW-3-2 (11.346%) and qHSW-3-3 (11.175%), all these QTLs had negative additive effects. 7 QTLs for yield-related traits were newly mapped on chromosomes 3, 7, 11, 12 and 20, among which qHSW-3-3 (14.276%) had the highest phenotypic contribution, including qHSW-3-2 and qHSW-3-3 with repetitive mapping intervals. Compared with the results of previous co-mapping, more QTLs greatly shortened the mapping interval, which showed the accuracy of the high-density genetic map constructed in this study.

  • Li-long HOU, Hong-wei JIANG, Xin XIONG, Hai-yang ZHENG, Fu-bin CAO, Ru-ru WEI, Yi-chao ZHANG, Yu-xuan ZHAO, Meng-yao GUO, Qing-shan CHEN
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    To realize the purpose of marker-assisted selection, InDel markers were developed based on QTL for three-seeded pod number of soybeans, the natural population and breeding population were used to screen the polymorphism of InDel markers and verify the application effect, respectively. Finally, the expression of candidate genes in QTL for three seed-pod number was used to verify the validity of QTL. The results showed that primers INDEL3-311497, INDEL17-440117 and INDEL17-462053 could be employed to select the progeny in the hybrid population of Canadian Danbaidou and Jiyu 4512, INDEL13-24003 could be used in the hybrid population of Qinong 7 and Xindali, INDEL3-250092, INDEL3-311497 and INDEL13-254396 could be used in the hybrid population between Dongfudou 8 and Tongxiangdou 4, INDEL3-240669 and INDEL13-246066 could be used for progeny selection in the hybrid population of Jiyu 441 and Hefeng 55. Two candidate genes, Glyma.03G029800 and Glyma.17G062600, promoted the formation and development of three-seeded pods, while two candidate genes Glyma.17G062000 and Glyma.13G063700 inhibit the formation and development of three-seeded pods. These results indicated that the four QTL loci obtained in our laboratory may be related to the formation of three soybean pods, which also confirmed the effectiveness of InDel markers on breeding population selection.

  • Wen-tian HU, Cai-jin WANG, Jing-hong DU, Yang WANG
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    Exploring the association loci and elite alleles with seed vigor traits is the basis for breeding high seed vigor varieties to increase quality of soybean. In this study, 210 pairs of polymorphic SSR markers on the 20 chromosomes of soybean were used to conduct association analysis of phenotypes. Markers on 7 seed vigor related traits identified with 174 soybean varieties were used for standard germination test in northern China for two consecutive years (2018-2019). The results showed that the phenotypic variation coefficients of the tested varieties ranged from 15.58% to 38.31%. The population was divided into two subgroups, among them 27 SSR loci associated with vigor traits were detected, 60 SSR loci (times) were associated, 24 SSR loci were detected in both years. The explanation rate of phenotypic variation ranged from 2.68% to 23.60%, and Sat-267 had the highest explaining rate of seedling length phenotypic variation (23.60%). The interpretation rate of phenotypic variation of germination potential explained by Satt250 was 23.15%. The marker Satt311, Satt250, Satt606 and Satt-267 were associated with more than two vigor traits. In this study, 108 elite alleles with positive effect and their corresponding typical carrier materials were obtained, among them, Satt250-217bp had the most significant increase on lateral root length and germination potential. Typical carrier materials Beijiang 1 and Hemong 75 carried the maximum allelic variation for more than two vigor traits.

  • Ying ZHAI, Ting-ting MA, Jia-qi HE, Jun ZHANG, Ming-yang LI, Jiong-xin CHEN, Hai-wei YU, Shan-shan LI, Tian-guo SUN
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    Dof transcription factors are involved in plant response to abiotic stresses. In this research, GmDof2.2 was cloned for salt tolerance identification. Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that GmDof2.2 could respond to abiotic stresse in soybean seedlings. Theopen reading frame of GmDof2.2 was 867 bp, which encodes a protein of 288 amino acids. The molecular weight of GmDof2.2protein was 31.4 kDa, and isoelectric point was 10.23. The GmDof2.2protein sequence contains a conserved Dof domain. The promoter region of GmDof2.2 contains three types of stress-related cis-elements (ARE, MBS and WUN-motif) and three types of hormone-related cis-elements (ABRE, P-box and TCA-element). GmDof2.2 was constructed into a plant expression vector and transformed into tobacco. Four GmDof2.2 transgenic tobacco lines (OE1-OE4) were obtained. The expression level of GmDof2.2 in OE1 was the highest, followed by OE2. After salt stress treatment, the wilting degree of transgenic tobacco was higher than that of wild tobacco, the contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugar and proline in transgenic tobacco leaves were significantly lower than that of wild tobacco, while the content of malondialdehyde was higher than that of wild tobacco. These results showed that GmDof2.2 heterologous expression increased the sensitivity to salt stress in transgenic tobacco. This study provided theoretical basis for the research and application of soybean Dof transcription factor resistance mechanism.

  • Qing-wei FANG, Yan-zheng ZHANG, Ji-qiang ZHENG, Ze-yang LI, Yue LI, Jia-liang ZHAO, Xue-song WANG, Xing-chao CHANG, Long CHEN, Ya JING, Chun-xiao SONG, Yong-guang LI
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    Lectin receptor like protein kinases belong to the receptor like protein kinases (RLKs) family, which play an important role in plant disease resistance and defense response, growth and development, intracellular signal transduction and abiotic stress response. Transcriptome sequencing was performed on soybean GmNFYB1, and the differentially expressed gene GmLecRlkGlyma.07G005700) was obtained. Its length of open reading frame was 546 bp, encoding 181 amino acids. Protein domain analysis showed that GmLecRlk contained two serine/threonine kinase domains. It belongs to a G type lectin receptor protein kinase. The results of real-time quantitative PCR showed that GmLecRlk gene was expressed in root, stem, leaf and pod of soybean, and the highest expression level was found in root. Under 200 mmol/L NaCl treatment, the mRNA abundance of GmLecRlk decreased first and then increased, and reached the maximum value at 12 h, indicating that the gene was involved in the response of soybean to salt stress. Agrobacterium tumefaciens K599 was used to obtain GmLecRlk overexpressed transgenic hair-root complex plants. Under salt stress, the survival rate of overexpressed soybean hair-root complex plants was higher than that of control plants. GmLecRlk gene was heterologous expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, and the germination rate, greening rate and root length of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana under salt stress were higher than those of wild-type Arabidopsis. In conclusion, GmLecRlk is involved in the response of soybean to salt stress, and the overexpression of GmLecRlk gene can improve the salt tolerance of soybean and Arabidopsis thaliana, providing a new approach and theoretical guidance for breeding and improving salt-resistant soybean varieties.

  • Qi-fei ZHANG, Jian-miao CHEN, Xin-xin HOU, Shu-ya LI, Jian WANG, Hang-gui LAI
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    To establish an efficient in vitro propagation system for Camellia oleifera varieties in Hainan Province, as well as to speed up the propagation procedures for rootstock grafted seedlings, axillary and apical buds of the current-year branches from C. vietnamensis cv Haidayoucha 4, were used as explants. Initial generation was used to induce germination of fixed buds for establishing a sterile system. Then, buds regeneration coefficient was improved for buds propagation. Later, the regenerative buds were further strengthened and refined, as scions for C. oleifera germinated seed grafting. Results showed that the most suitable disinfection method for explants was a combined disinfection with 2% NaClO for 15 min and 0.1% HgCl2 for 12 min, and the explants were cultured on the medium with 0.1 g/L Qingjunyi (a microbicide). This method reduced the contamination rate to below 20%. The suitable medium for primary bud induction of axillary- and apical-bud was MS + 0.1 mg/L IAA + 2 mg/L 6-BA + 0.5 mg/L GA3. The suitable medium for regeneration of aseptic tissue culture buds was WPM + 2 mg/L 6-BA + 0.05 mg/L IAA + 2 mg/L GA3. The suitable medium for tissue culture of single bud was WPM + activated carbon 500 mg/L. When the bud scions were soaked in 6-BA 50 mg/L for 2 min, the grafting seedling rate could reach more than 90%.

  • Zi-xiang ZOU, Ying LIU, Ding-gang ZHOU, Li-li LIU, Da-wei ZHANG, Jin-feng WU, Mei LI, Ming-li YAN
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    In order to explore the effect of Brassica napus straw on rice in the oil-rice cropping system, Fengyou 737, Xiangzayou 553 and Zhongshuang11, three rape cultivars were selected to prepare the straw aqueous extract with different concentrations ( 0, 25%, 50% and 75%), the germination and growth of two rice seeds(Wuyou 308 and C Liangyou 343)were investigated, and the results suggested that rape straw aqueous extract increased the rice seedling height and fresh weight generally. Meanwhile, rape straw aqueous extract affected the germination ratio, seedling root length of rice in a concentration-dependent way. The germination ratio, germination index of rice seeds and seedling root length were increased at low-concentration of 25%, but decreased at the higher-concentrations of 50% and 75%. As the concentration increased, the aqueous extract of Xiangzayou 553 increased the soluble protein content and significantly reduced the activity of superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and peroxidase (POD) of Wuyou308 seedlings. In C Liangyou 343 seedlings, the T-SOD and POD activity significantly increased while the protein content greatly decreased; at 25% concentration, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content also noticeably decreased. The aqueous extract of Zhongshuang 11 at 75% concentration increased the MDA content and decreased the POD activity of Wuyou 308 seedlings. Fengyou 737 at 25% concentration greatly decreased the soluble protein content of C Liangyou343 seedlings but increased the activity of T-SOD and POD. In conclusion, the higher the concentration of the rape straw aqueous extract, the stronger its allelopathic effects on rice germination and seedling growth. However, allelopathic effects of extracts from different rape varieties on different rice varieties were different. Our study suggested that the combination of Fengyou 737 and Wuyou 308 is more suited for an oil-rice system.

  • Qi-qi DONG, Yang YUAN, Qi DU, Zhen-hua LIU, Xiao-long SHI, Ke-zhao ZHANG, Dong-ying ZHOU, Xu YANG, Xiao-guang WANG, Chun-ji JIANG, Xi-bo LIU, Feng GUO, Xin-hua ZHAO, Hai-qiu YU
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    In order to explore the nitrogen uptake and utilization and the characteristics of soil microbial community under the intercropping of maize and peanut, three treatments were set up for sole maize (SM), sole peanut (SP) and intercropping of maize and peanut (IMP). The nitrogen absorption and utilization under different planting modes were systematically analyzed, and 16S/ITS sequencing technology were used to clarify the changes in soil bacterial/fungal community structure under the intercropping of maize and peanut. The results showed that side-row maize of intercropping had a marginal advantage, the dry matter weight and nitrogen accumulation was higher than the middle of intercropping maize and sole maize. The diversity and richness of bacterial and fungal in intercropped maize and the shared soil of intercropping maize and peanut was decreased, while the diversity and richness of fungal in intercropped peanut was increased, and the most enrichment of beneficial bacterial were increased, such as Proteobacteria, Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. There was complex correlation between bacteria and fungi. The Proteobacteria was positively correlated with Ascomycetes. The intercropping enriched the functional diversity of bacterial, and the enrichment of bacterial and saprophytic fungal involved in the amino acid transport and metabolism and carbohydrate transport and metabolism improved the nutrient uptake and promoted the growth and development of plants. In conclusion, intercropping of maize and peanut optimized the soil microbial community structure, promoted plant nutrient absorption and dry matter accumulation, which provided a scientific basis for the mutual promotion of nitrogen absorption of the maize and peanut intercropping.

  • Rui-qing WANG, Zhi-hua ZHANG, Feng-juan LYU, Hong-xin LIN, Lin-gen WEI, Yun-ping XIAO
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    The variety Jinhuangma was used as the test material, and different nitrogen reduction (RSN4, at 0% less on the basis of 105 kg·hm-2; RSN3, RSN2, RSN1, RSN0 represent 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% reduction of nitrogen fertilizer, respectively) were set to study the effect on the yield of continuous cropping sesame and the bacterial community structure in rhizosphere soil under healthy or bacterial wilt conditions by using high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that the yield of sesame with 25% reduction of nitrogen fertilizer (RSN3) did not decrease significantly compared with RSN4 treatment. The α-diversity indexes of Obs, Shannon, Chao1 in RSN2 (e.g. 50% N reduction), were significantly higher by 11.53%, 3.39%, and 12.71% than those in RSN4, respectively, and Shannon index from healthy plants was significantly higher by 1.61% than that from diseased plants, and the interaction of nitrogen reduction and growth state treatment (e.g. healthy and diseased) had a significant effect on Shannon index. Compared with RSN3, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria with RSN1 (75% N reduction) significantly increased by 39.70%, but Firmicutes decreased by 30.60%, respectively. Rrelative abundance of Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Nitrospirae of rhizosphere soil from healthy plants were significantly higher by 32.42%, 155.26% and 38.54% than those from diseased plants respectively, while Firmicutes decreased significantly by 47.47% compared with diseased plants. Relative abundance of Bacillus and Massilia in RSN3 increased by 119.10% and 87.18% compared with RSN2, respectively, and that of Paenibacillus in RSN3 increased by 59.29%-193.42% compared with RSN0, RSN1 and RSN2. Relative abundance of Candidatus_Solibacter and unidentified_Nostocales from rhizosphere soil bacteria of healthy plants were 43.68% and 235.90% higher than those of diseased plants (P < 0.05), while the four genera of bacteria from rhizosphere soil of diseased plants (Bacillus, Massilia, Ramlibcter, and Paenibacillus) increased by 64.63%-106.67% than those of healthy plants (P < 0.05). Relative abundance of Carbohydrate_metabolism from rhizosphere soil of healthy plants increased by 0.94% compared with the diseased plants (P < 0.05), while the relative abundance of membrane_transport from rhizosphere soil of healthy plants was 2.37% lower than that of diseased plants (P < 0.05). Compared with RSN0 treatment, the relative abundance of metabolism_of_cofactors_ and_vitamins and nucleoside_metabolism of RSN3 increased by 1.78% and 3.63% (P < 0.05), while the relative abundance of translation, lipid_metabolism, and folding_sorting_and_degradation decreased significantly by 4.58%, 4.52% and 7.74%, respectively (P < 0.05). The contributions of three main environmental factors (pH, available potassium and available zinc) of the bacterial community change were 3.91%, 5.93% and 6.94%, respectively. In conclusion, appropriately reducing the amount of nitrogen fertilizer by 25% affects little on sesame yield, and improves the structure and function of rhizosphere soil bacterial community, which is conducive to the healthy growth of continuous cropping sesame in red soil.

  • Zhong-sheng CAO, Yan-da LI, Jun-bao HUANG, Bin-feng SUN, Chun YE, Shi-fu SHU, Luo-fa WU, Yong-chao TIAN
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    To promote the application of spectral remote sensing on rapid nondestructive spectral monitoring for peanut production, sensitive vegetation indices and their optimal bandwidths for estimating peanut leaf area index (LAI) and aboveground biomass (AGB) were investigated. Peanut LAI, AGB and hyperspectral reflectance data, were collected from 2 field experiments encompass variations in 2 years, with 2 cultivars and 4 nitrogen application rates. Sensitive vegetation indices for LAI and AGB were identified and effect of optimal bandwidths on sensitive vegetation indices were analyzed using the in-site dataset. Results showed that the normalized difference red edge (NDRE(λ790, λ720)) was the most sensitive vegetation index for both LAI and AGB. Nevertheless, in the exploration of bandwidth based on data from an independent experiment, the normalized difference red edge (NDRE(λ790-b33,λ720-b53)), which contains the 790 nm central band (λ790) with 33 nm bandwidth (b33) and 720 nm central band (λ720) with 53 nm bandwidth (b53), exhibited greater practicability in LAI estimation with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.7482 and a relative root mean square error (RRMSE) of 13.88%. The normalized difference red edge (NDRE(λ790-b89, λ720-b89)), which contains the 790 nm central band (λ790) with 89 nm bandwidth (b89) and 720 nm central band (λ720) with 89 nm bandwidth (b89), performed best for monitoring AGB (R2= 0.7103, RRMSE=20.42%). Considering the accuracy and convenience in application, it was demonstrated that NDRE(λ790-b33,λ720-b53) and NDRE(λ790-b89, λ720-b89) could be used to monitor peanut LAI and AGB with estimation models of LAI=0.0296×exp(14.365×NDRE) and AGB= 0.6240×exp(20.222×NDRE), respectively.

  • Xi-guo HAN, Bo YANG, De-bin YU, Chang-hong XU, Fan-gang MENG, Qiang QIU, Jing ZHAO, Ming-hao ZHANG, Xiao-yan YAN, Wei ZHANG
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    Iron deficiency in calcareous soil is the main limiting factor of soybean yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of yield and related traits of soybean varieties with different iron efficiency to Fe-EDDHA fertilization under iron stress. Six varieties with different iron efficiency were applied with Fe-EDDHA at 5 fertilizer levels (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 kg·hm-2) in a calcareous iron-deficient soil of Taonan of Jilin Province in 2014-2015. The effects of Fe-EDDHA on leaf SPAD, agronomic characteristics and yield of soybean varieties with different iron efficiency were studied. The results showed that in calcareous soil, there were significant differences in yield and related traits of varieties with different iron efficiency in response to Fe-EDDHA fertilization. In order to ensure the normal yield of soybean varieties with different iron efficiency, the demand for iron fertilizer increased gradually from iron efficient varieties to iron inefficient varieties, and Fe fertilizer was 0-3 kg·hm-2 for iron-efficient varieties and 3-6 kg·hm-2 for medium iron-effective varieties. Fe-EDDHA (6-9 kg·hm-2) was applied to iron-ineffective varieties, and the increase of iron application rate had no significant effect on the yield of varieties with different iron efficiency. Iron-efficient and iron-inefficient varieties responded to iron fertilizer mainly in the late reproductive stage, while medium iron-effective varieties responded to iron fertilizer mainly through the change of chlorophyll content at vegetative period. The response of different varieties to iron fertilizer had a year effect, and more iron fertilizer should be applied in 2015 to achieve normal yield. In conclusion, the application of Fe efficient varieties in the Fe deficiency area of calcareous soil is the most economical and effective measure for iron deficiency correction, and a small amount of Fe-EDDHA fertilizer can be applied in the Fe deficiency area or in year of severe iron shortage to guarantee the yield.

  • SACHURULA, BADUMUCAICIKE, Rui-lin TIAN, Zhan-ming HOU, Zhen-xing WANG
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    Dolycoris baccarum (L.) is a major pest of many crops at seedlings. In order to explore the in-laboratory artificial feeding technology, peanut, soybean and carrot were used as feed to study the effects of different feeds on development duration and adult survival rate. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the development duration between peanut and soybean fed insects, and they all developed into adults, with the adult survival rates being 80.53±3.16% and 75.03±2.89% respectively. When fed with carrot, D. baccarum could not develop into adult, and the survival rate was 0. There was no significant difference in development duration and adult survival rate between insects fed with single peanut and those with combined soybean, nor combined carrot. Thus using peanut and soybean as feed could raise D. baccarum artificially in laboratory.

  • Shao-jian LI, Meng GAO, Na WANG, Wan-wan FAN, Su-ling SANG, Guang YANG, Hang-yu LI, Xiao-wei CUI, Zhen-yu WANG
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    Peanut web blotch, caused by Didymella arachidicola (also known as Phoma arachidicola or Peyronella arachidicola), is occurring in all major peanut-producing regions. It becomes one of the most challenging leaf diseases of peanut in China currently. To identify the strains for resistant peanut breeding, pathogens were isolated from peanuts from different regions. Results indicated that isolate YY187 showed the shortest sporulation duration. The YY187 strain produced conidia after 7 d on oatmeal agar medium under dark condition of 22°C. Moreover, isolates YY187 and NY206 produced significantly more pycnidia than others. By inoculating peanut leaves with spore suspension, all the 18 tested isolates led to leaf disease, among which LY128 and YY187 had relatively strong pathogenicity. According to comprehensive evaluation, YY187 performed higher sporulation efficiency and stronger pathogenicity which makes it an appropriate model isolate for further studies of peanut web blotch.

  • Jian-feng YANG, Rui DUAN, Wen-bing ZHANG, Mandela Elorm Addrah, Xiao-peng YUN, Jian ZHANG, Lei DU, Xiao-jun DUAN, Bao-yu LIU, Jun ZHAO
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    Sunflower seed rust is an emerging disease found in the production in recent years. The disease is characterized by irregular rust spots on sunflower husk. Its occurrence had seriously affected sunflower appearance for seeds serving, and was becoming a bottleneck for sunflower industry. Field experiments were carried out in Urad Qian County and Wuyuan County in Bayannur, Inner Mongolia, China. In these areas, sunflower seeds suffered seriously. The resistance to seed rust spots was evaluated on 44 sunflower cultivars, including 39 confectionery sunflowers and 5 oil sunflowers. Results showed that, among the confectionery sunflowers in Urad Qian County, rate of seed rust spots of Sairui 1 was the lowest (< 25%). 6 varieties had lower rates between 25% and 50% (such as JK 103, LJ 188, LD 5009, etc.), the others were more than 50%. Considering the severity levels, 20 varieties were in level 1, but with the disease rate ranging from 17.30% to 88.63%. In Wuyuan County, the disease rate was 61.02% to 99.63%, significantly higher than the same varieties in Urad Qian County, but with lower level. Only 10 varieties were in level 1 such as 3638C. For oil sunflower, 4 varieties were lower than 25%, except for XKS2029. In addition, rust occurrence of the same variety at different sowing times also showed significant differences. For example, for SH361, the rate was 34.49% on the sowing date of May 27th, but 98.47% on June 20th. It indicated that different sowing dates effected the occurrence of seed rust spots.

  • Shuang QUAN, Ya-shu CHEN, Meng-jia SUN, Chen CHENG, Hong-jian CHEN, Xiao-wen LI, Qian-chun DENG
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    With the increase of the population of lactose intolerance and vegetarians, as well as the demands for functional foods, plant-based milk beverage was remarkably developed. Based on the unique nutritional characteristics of flaxseeds and hemp seeds rich in omega-3, experiments were carried on to explore the influences of shear and grinding time (1-9 min) and proportion of hemp seed added (1/2-1/6) on stability of flaxseed–hemp plant-based milk (FHPM). And their influence on dissolution of nutrients from the milk was analyzed. Thus the final optimization group (shear and grinding 3 min, hemp seed : flaxseed = 1:5) was found and fully characterized on its nutrients and flavor components. Results showed that as the shear and grinding time increased, the stability of the plant-based milk decreased. When greater than 3 min, a relatively obvious stratification and flocculation phenomenon appeared. During 1-3 minutes, the shear and grinding time significantly influenced of the dissolution of protein, fat, dietary fiber, total phenol and lignans. With the increase of the proportion of hemp seed in the milk, contents of protein and oil increased significantly, but the self-stability of plant-based milk decreased significantly, which was related to the viscosity, particle size, zeta-potential, particle composition and other physical and chemical properties of plant-based milk system. For the final optimization group, milk characteristics included particle size (4.53 μm), potential (-32.15 mV), solid content (5.17 g/100 mL), protein (1.32 g/100 g), fat content (3.45 g/100 g), dietary fiber content (0.47 g/100 g) and carbohydrate content (0.57 g/100 g). Plant-based milk possessed appropriate viscosity and could be stably stored at 4℃ for 21 days without external stabilizer. Flavor and composition showed that the milk contained small molecule ketones, aldehydes, alcohols and so on, showing good flavor of fruit and flower, and had reasonable composition of amino acids and fatty acids.

  • Yong-fang ZHANG, Ming-ming WANG, Li-hua ZHAO, Dong-xu ZHANG, Yong-fang JIA, Jian-min WANG, Ke-ying LI, Ling-xin CHEN
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    Soybean is known as "golden food". The anti-nutritional factors and smell of sprouting soybean are improved, and the nutritional value is high, which is deeply loved by consumers. In this experiment, 10 soybean varieties from different sources were selected as experimental materials and soaked in 25 ℃ distilled water to germinate. The contents of protein, reducing sugar and crude fiber of germinating soybean in different periods were measured, and then the rules of nutrient changes in the process of germination were found out, which provided experimental basis for further food production and production of germinating soybean. The results showed that the nutrient contents of different soybean varieties were different. The protein content of soybean decreased on the first day of germination, and then increased with the extension of germination time. The contents of reducing sugar and crude fiber increased steadily during germination. In conclusion, compared with non-sprouting soybean, the protein, reducing sugar and crude fiber content of 7-day sprouting soybean were the highest, and the difference reached a significant level. Cuishan soybean with high protein content and Lyu75 with high reducing sugar and crude fiber content were commended for further production, processing and utilization on the 7th day of germination.